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NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 7 Tribes, Nomads And Settled Communities
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 7 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 7 Tribes, Nomads And Settled Communities and After, NCERT Class 7 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – II: History, Social and Political Life – II: Civics, Our Environment: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Tribes, Nomads And Settled Communities
Our Pasts – II (HISTORY)
QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
You are a member of a nomadic community that shifts residence every three months. How would this change your life?
Ans: Shifting residence every three months would change our style of living frequently.
(i) We would have to shift our belongings eery now then and we would not have any settled life.
(ii) We would not be able to practise any settled occupation.
2. Let’s Recall
Q. 1. Match the following:
|Sib Singh||Ahom State|
Q.2. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The new castes emerging within varnas were called _______.
(b) _______ were historical works written by the Ahom.
(c) The ______ mentions that Garha Katanga had 70,000 villages.
(d) As tribal states became bigger and stronger, they gave land grants to _______ and ______.
Ans: temples, Brahmanas.
Q.3. State whether true or false:
(a) Tribal societies had rich oral traditions.
(b) There were no tribal communities in the north-western part of the subcontinent.
(c) The Chaurasi in Gond states contained several cities.
(d) The Bhils lived in the north-eastern part of subcontinent.
3. Let’s Understand
Q.4. What kinds of exchanges took place between nomadic pastoralists and settled agriculturists?
Ans: The nomadic pastoralists exchanged wool, ghee etc. with settled agriculturists for grain, cloth, utensils and other products.
Q.5. How was the administration of Ahom state organised?
Ans: The following were the ways in which the administration of Ahom state was organised:
(a) The Ahom state depended upon forced labour. Those forced to work for the state were called Paiks.
(b) A census of the population was taken. Each village had to send number of paiks by rotation.
(c) People from heavily populated areas were shifted to less populated areas.
(d) Ahom clans were thus broken up.
(e) By the first-half of the seventeenth century. the administration became quite centralised.
(f) Almost all adult males served in the army during war.
(g) Ahom society was divided into clans or khels.
Q.6. What changes took place in Varna based society?
Ans: The following changes took place in Varna-based society:
(i) Smaller castes or jatis emerged within varnas.
(ii) On the other hand, many tribes and social groups were taken into caste- based society and given the status of jatis.
(iii) Specialised artisans such as smiths, carpenters and masons were also recognised as separate jatis by the Brahmanas.
(iv) Jatis rather than varna became the bases for organising society.
(v) Among the Kshatriyas, new Rajput clans became powerful.
(vi) Many tribes became part of the caste system. But only the leading tribal families could join the ruling class. A large majority joined the lower jatis of caste society.
(vii) Many dominant tribes of Punjab, Sind and the North-west Frontier had adopted Islam. They continued to reject the caste system.
Q.7. How did tribal societies change after being organised into a state?
Ans: The emergence of large states changed the nature of tribal society.
A. The Gond Society:
(i) The basically equal society of Gond gradually got divided into unequal social classes.
(ii) Brahmanas received land grants from the Gond rajas and became more influential.
(iii) The Gond chiefs now wished to be recognised as Rajputs.
B. The Ahom Society
(i) Ahom society became very sophis-ticated.
(ii) Poets and scholars were given land grants.
(iii) Theatre was encouraged.
(iv) Important works of Sanskrit were translated into local language.
(v) Historical works, known as banjaras were also written first in the Ahom language and then in Assamese.
4. Let’s Discuss
Q.8. Were the Banjaras important for the economy?
Ans: The banjaras were the important for the economy. They were the most important trader-nomads.
(i) Sultan Alauddin Khilji used the Banjaras to transport grain to the city markets.
(ii) Banjaras carried grain on their bullocks from different areas and sold it in towns.
(iii) Banjaras transported food grain for the Mughal towns. They transported food grain for the Mughal army during military campaigns.
Q.9. In what ways was the history of the Gonds different from that of the Ahoms? Were there any similarities?
Ans: History of Gonds was different from Ahom in the following way:
5. Let’s Do
Q.10. Plot the location of the tribes mentioned in this chapter on a map. For any two, discuss whether their mode of livelihood was suited to the geography and environment of the area where they lived.
Ans: A. The large tribe of Bhils was spread across western and central India. Many of them became settled agriculturists and some even zamindars. They remained hunter gatherers.
B. Kolis, Beards lived in Maharashtra high- lands and Karnataka.
Q.11. Find out about present day government policies towards tribal populations and organise a discussion about these.
Ans: (i) Government has reserved some seats in State Assemblies and in Lok Sabha.
(ii) Some seats have been reserved in state and central government jobs.
(iii) Some economic and educational facilities are provided to tribal population.
(iv) Economic, agricultural and industrial development is being provided them for quick growth and development.
(v) Their culture, religion, customs are not being disturbed. In short very good and progressive policies are being followed towards tribal population.
Q.12. Find out more about present day nomadic pastoral groups in the subcontinent. What animals do they keep. Which are the areas frequented by the groups?
Ans: (i) There are several nomadic pastoral groups in the subcontinent. They keep sheep, goats, cows, camels, horses etc. Many tribals obtained their livelihood from forests, agriculture, hunting and gathering also.
(ii) Most often they combined their economic activities to make full use of the natural resources of the area in which they lived.
(iii) Some tribes are still nomadic and move from one place to another.
(iv) A tribal nomadic group controlled land and pastures jointly and divide these amongst households according to its own rules.
(v) Usually they are living in different forests, hills, deserts and places difficult to reach the sub-continent.
(vi) The Nagas are living in Nagaland. The Ahoms are still living in Assam. The Cheros are living in Jharkhand. The Mundas and Santals are living in Orissa, Bengal, Bihar and Jharkhand. Kolis are living in Maharashtra highlands and Karnataka. The Banjaras are living in Rajasthan. The Gonds are living in a vast forest region still called Gondwana.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Who were tribes?
Ans: Tribes were the societies who did not follow the social rules and rituals prescribed by the Brahmanas nor were they divided into numerous equal classes.
Q.2. Where did the tribes mainly live?
Ans: The tribes mainly lived in forests, hills, deserts and places difficult to reach.
Q.3. What caused caste-based and tribal societies to change?
Ans: The relationship of conflict and depen-dence between the caste-based and tribal societies caused both societies to change.
Q.4. What do you understand by ‘Varna’?
Ans: Varma are the rules prescribed by the Brahmanas and accepted by the rulers of the large kingdom.
Q.5. What is a clan?
Ans: A clan is group of families or household claiming descent from common a ancestor.
Q.6. What did nomadic pastoralists live on?
Ans: Nomadic pastoralists lived on milk and other pastoral products. They also exchanged wool, ghee with settled agriculturists. For grains, cloth, utensils and other products.
Q.7. Where did Banjaras live?
Ans: Banjaras lived in caravan called tanda.
Q.8. Which area was the home to the Gonds?
Ans: The Gonds lived in a vast forested region called Gondwana.
Q.9. Where did Ahoms established their Kingdom?
Ans: The Ahoms established their kingdom in parts of present day Assam and ruled it for nearly 600 years.
Q.10. Who were given the status of Kshatriyas?
Ans: New rajput clans were given the status of Kshatriyas.
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. How is shifting cultivation practised?
Ans: Trees and bushes in a forest area are first cut and burnt. The crop is sown in the ashes. When this land loses its fertility another plot of land is cleared and planted in the same way.
Q.2. How can you say that Garha Katanga was a rich estate?
Ans: Garha Katanga was rich estate. It earned much wealth by trapping and exporting wild elephants to other kingdoms. When the Mughals defeated the Gonds, they captured a huge booty of precious coins and elephants. They annexed part of the kingdom and granted the rest to Chandra Shah.
Q.3. Who were paiks?
Ans: The Ahom state depended upon forced labour. Those forced to work for the state were called paiks.
Q.4. “Ahom state was very sophisticated. Explain.
Ans: Ahom society was very sophisticated. Poets and scholars were given land grants. Theatre was encouraged. Important works of Sanskrit were translated into local language.
Q.5. How was the rule under Durgawati Rani?
Ans: Rani Durgawati was very capable and started ruling on behalf of her five year old son, Bir Narain. Under her, the kingdom became even more extensive. In 1565, the Mughal forces under Asaf Khan attacked Garha Katanga. A strong resistance was put up by Durgawati. She was defeated and preferred to die rather than surrender.
Q. 6. Define Jatis.
Ans: Jati is a community engaged in a particular profession. For example, specialised artisans such as smiths, carpenters and masons were recognised as separate Jatis by the Brahmans during the early medieval period.
Q.7. Who were Ahoms? Where was their original homeland?
Ans: Ahoms were a tribal community who established a kingdom in the region of present day Assam. The original home land of Ahoms may have been China, from there they migrated to Burma (now Myanmar). In the 13th country they came to Assam which was earlier known as Kamarupa.
Q.8. List some of the tribal groups of the medieval period.
Ans: Some of the tribal groups of the Medieval period were:
(a) In Punjab, the Khokhars and the Ghakkars were the main tribes.
(b) In western parts were the-Bhils and the Kolis.
(c) In central India, the Gonds controlled large territories.
(d) Towards the east, the cheros, Mundas Santhals, Khasis, Nagas and Ahoms were the main tribal groups.
Q.9. Who were Cheros?
Ans: Chero chiefdoms had emerged in the present day Bihar and Jharkhand by the 12th century. They were attacked and defeated by Raja Man Singh, Akbar’s famous general in 1591. Though large amounts of booty was taken from them they were not fully subdued by them. But the Mughal forces under Aurangzeb captured many chero fortresses and they were ultimately subjugated.
Q.10. Write about the style of warfare of the Ahoms.
Ans: Ahoms had built a large state and for this they used firearms as early as 1530s. By the 1660s they could even make high quality gunpowder and cannons.
Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Illustrate the tribal ruler of present-day Bihar and Jharkhand.
Ans: In many areas of present-day-Bihar and Jharkhand, Chero chiefdoms. had emerged by the 12th century. Raja Man Singh, Akbar’s famous general attacked and defeated the Cheros in 1591.
The Mundas, Santals were among the other important tribes that lived in this region and also in Orissa and Bengal.
Q.2. Write a short note on Banjaras.
Ans: (a) The Banjaras were the most important trade nomads.
(b) They moved through caravans called tandas.
(c) They were used by Sultan Alauddin Khilji to transport grains to the city market.
(d) Banjaras carried grains on their bullocks from different areas and sold it in towns.
(e) They transported it for the Mughal Army during Military campaign.
Q.3. What did pastoral tribes and petty pedlars from different castes perform?
Ans: (a) Many pastoral tribes reared and sold animals such as cattle and horses, to the prosperous people.
(b) Different castes of petty pedlars also travelled from village to village. They performed various activities such as made and sold
(iii) straw matting. and
(iv) coarse snacks.
(c) mendicants acted as wandering merchants. They were castes of entertainers who performed in different towns and villages for their livelihood.
Q.4. How was caste accepted or rejected by different tribes?
Ans: The rise of Rajput clans to the position of rulers set an example for the tribal people to follow. Gradually, with the support of the Brahmins, many tribes became part of the caste system. But, only the leading tribal families could join the ruling class.
A large majority joined the lower Jatis of the caste society. On the other hand, many dominant tribes of Punjab, Sindh and the North-West Frontier had adopted Islam quite early. They continued to reject the caste system. The unequal social order, prescribed by orthodox Hinduism was not widely accepted in these areas.
Q.5. Give the administrative system of Gonds.
Ans: (a) The administrative system of kingdoms was being centralized. The kingdom was divided into garhs.
(b) Each garh was controlled by a particular Gond clan.
(c) This was further divided into units of 84 villages called Chaurasi.
(d) The Chaurasi was subdivided into bar shots made up of 12 villages each.
Q.6. Why do we know so little about the tribal societies of the Medieval Period?
Ans: We know very little about the tribal societies because of the following reasons:
(a) The tribal people did not keep written records. They preserved their customs and traditions orally.
(b) The tribal people did not easily let outsiders into their areas of habitation.
(c) The tribal people generally lived in remote areas such as dense forests, hills, mountains and deserts which are extremely difficult to reach.
Higher Order Thinking Skill
Q.1. How did religious differences occurred over years in the state of Ahoms?
Ans: (a) Originally, the Ahoms worshipped their own tribal gods.
(b) During the first half of the seven-teenth century, the influence of Brahminical priesthood increased.
(c) At this time temples and Brahmins were granted lands by the king.
(d) In the reign of Sib Singh, Hinduism became a predominant religion.
(e) Even after religious variations, the kings did not completely give up their traditional beliefs after adopting Hinduism.
Q.2. How was the foundation of the Ahom dynasty laid?
Ans: Ahom dynasty laid its foundation in the following manner:
(a) The Ahoms migrated to the Brahmaputra Valley from present-day Myanmar in the 13th century.
(b) They created a new state by suppressing the older political system of the bhuiyans (landlords).
(c) During the 16th century, they annexed the kingdoms of the Chhutiyas and of Koch-Hao and subjugated many other tribes. In this way they succeeded in creating a strong empire.
Value Based Questions
Q.1. Give an account of the life style of tribal people.
Ans: (a) Members of tribal groups were united by friendship or kinship bonds.
(b) Many tribes obtained their livelihood from agriculture, others were hunter-gatherers or herders.
(c) Most often they combined these activities to make full use of the natural resources in the area they lived.
(d) A tribal group controlled land and pastures jointly and divided these amongst household according to its own rules.
Q.2. What do you know about the Ahom society?
Ans: Following were the main features of the Ahoms society:
(a) Ahom society was divided into clans or khels.
(b) There were very few castes of artisans so artisans in the Ahom areas came from the adjoining kingdoms.
(c) A khel often controlled several villagers.
(d) The peasants was given land by his village community. Even the king could not take it away without the community’s consent.
(e) Ahom society was very sophisticated. Poets and scholars were given land grants. Theatre was encouraged. Important works of sanskrit were translated into local languages. Historical works were also written (know as buranjis).
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Multiple Choice Questions:
Tick (✔) the correct option
1. The Gond chiefs wished to be recognised as ______
(d) None of these.
Ans: (b) Rajputs.
2. The Ahoms migrated to the ______ valley.
Ans: (a) Brahmaputra.
3. Who was the son of Rani Durgawati?
(a) Aman Das.
(d) Bir Narain.
Ans: (d) Bir Narain.
4. Ahom society was divided into ______
(c) either ‘a’ or ‘b’.
(d) None of these.
Ans: (c) Either ‘a’ or ‘b’.
II. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Historical works in the Ahom state known as _______.
(b) A khel often controlled _______.
(c) Gond Kingdoms were later defeated by _______.
(d) _______ was the Gond Raja Garha Katanga.
Ans: Aman Das.
(e) Many dominant tribes of Punjab, Sindh etc. adopted _______ recently.