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NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 8 Devotional Paths To The Divine
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 7 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 8 Devotional Paths To The Divine and After, NCERT Class 7 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – II: History, Social and Political Life – II: Civics, Our Environment: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Devotional Paths To The Divine
Our Pasts – II (HISTORY)
QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
1. Let’s Recall
Q.1. Match the following:
|Shankardeva||Worship of Vishnu|
|Nizamuddin Aulia||Questioned social differences|
|Alvars||Worship of Shiva.|
|(i) The Buddha||Questioned social differences|
|(iii) Nizamuddin Aulia||Sufi saint|
|(iv) Nayanars||Worship of Shiva|
|(v) Alvars||Worship of Vishnu.|
Q.2. Fill in the blanks
(a) Shankara was an advocate of _______.
(b) Ramanuja was influenced by the ________.
(c) _______, ________ and ________ were advocates of Virashaivism.
Ans: Basavanna, Allama Prabhu, Akkama-hadevi.
(d) _______ was an important centre of the Bhakti tradition in Maharashtra.
Q.3. Describe the beliefs and practices of the Nathpanthis, Siddhas and Yogis.
Ans: The beliefs and practices of the Nathpanthi Siddh and Yogis were as under:
(i) They criticised the ritual and other aspects of conventional religion and the social order.
(ii) They advocated renunciation of the world.
(iii) According to them salvation could be attained by meditation on the formless ultimate reality and realisation of oneness with it.
(iv) To achieve salvation, they advocated intense training of the mind and body through practices like Yoga Asanas, breathing exercises and meditation.
Q.4. What were the major ideas expressed by Kabir? How did he express these?
Ans: The major ideas of Kabir were as follows:
(i) He believed in a formless Supreme God and preached that the only path to salvation was through bhakti or devotion.
(ii) His teachings were based on a complete indeed vehement, rejection of the major religious tradition.
(iii) He openly ridiculed all forms of external worship of both Brahmanical Hinduism and Islam.
(iv) He also ridiculed the pre-eminence of the priestly classes and the caste system.
(v) To express his ideas, he used a form of spoken Hindi.
2. Let’s Understand:
Q.5. What were the major beliefs and practices of sufis?
Ans: (i) The sufis often rejected the elaborate rituals and codes of behaviour demanded by Muslim religions scholars.
(ii) They sought union with God much as a lover seeks his beloved with a disregard for the world.
(iii) Like the saint poets, the Sufis too compared poems expression their feelings and a rich literature. In prose, including anecdotes and fables, developed around them.
(iv) The sufis too believed that the heart can be trained to look at the world in a different way. They developed elaborate methods of training using Zikr (chanting of a name or sacred formula), contemplation, sama (singing), rags (dancing), discussion of parables, breath control, etc. under the guidance of a master or pir.
(v) Thus emerged the silsilas, a genealogy of sufi teachers each following a slightly different method (tariqa) of instruction of ritual practice.
Q.6. Why do you think many teachers rejected prevalent religious beliefs and practices?
Ans: Many teachers rejected prevalent religious beliefs and practices because these were based on social differences, excess ritualism and outward display piety.
Q.7. What were the major teachings of Guru Nanak?
Ans: (i) Guru Nanak emphasised on the importance of the worship of one God.
(ii) He insisted that caste, creed or gender was irrelevant for attaining liberation. His idea of liberation was based on the pursuit of active life with a strong sense of social commitment.
(iii) He used the terms nam, dan and isnan for the essence of his teaching, which actually meant right worship, welfare of others and purity of conduct.
(iv) He gave importance to right-belief and worship, honest living and helping others.
(v) Guru Nanak, thus, promoted the idea of equality.
3. Let’s Discuss
Q.8. For either the Virashaivas or the saints of Maharashtra discuss their attitude towards caste.
Ans: The attitude of Virashaivas or the saints of Maharashtra towards caste was as follows:
(a) They had a humanistic attitude.
(b) They believed in the equality of all human beings.
(c) They were against Brahmanical ideas about caste and the treatment of women.
(d) They believed that Bhakti means sharing others pains.
(e) They wished society where people could live in harmony without any feelings of high and low, rich and poor.
Q.9. Why do you think ordinary people preserved the memory of Mirabai?
Ans: Due to the following reasons, the ordinary people preserved the memory of Mirabai:
(i) She was a queen and devotee of Krishna.
(ii) She composed innumerable bhajans expressing her intense devotion to his beloved Lord.
(iii) She left her husband’s palace in order to follow the path of devotion.
(iv) She even drank poison, sent by her husband, but she did not die. This popularised her as being saved by Lord. Thus, her authenticity as a true devotee was proved.
(v) Her songs openly challenged the norms of the upper castes and became popular with the masses in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
4. Let’s Do
Q.10. Find out whether in your neighbour-hood there are any dargahs, gurud-waras or temples associated with saints of the bhakti tradition in your neighbourhood. Visit any one of these and describe what you see and hear.
Ans: There are many dargahs, gurudwaras and temples associated with saints of bhakti tradition in our neighbourhood.
I have visited all these religious places from time to time along with my mother or father or elder brother.
I have seen that people go there with devotion and they often prayer and hear preaching of religious people with great devotion.
Q.11. For any of the saint-poets whose compositions have been included in this chapter, find out more about their works, nothing down other poems. Find out whether these are sung, how they are sung, and what the poet wrote about?
Ans: We have read about many bhakti saints and sufi saints in this chapter. I have heard about Kabir, Baba Guru Nanak, Mirabai, Goswami Tulsidas and Surdas. Their religious works-poems, bhajans are read out and sung at religious place and by bhakt singers and poets. I have heard devotional song on radio and television. I have also read certain books related with above referred saint poets.
Q.12. There are several saint poets whose names have been mentioned but their works have not been included in the chapter. Find out more about the language in which they were composed, whether their compositions were sung and what their compositions were about.
Ans: (i) All Marathi saints such as Janeshwar, Namdev, Eknath and Tukaram had sung in Marathi.
(ii) Narsi Mehta had written and sing in Gujarati.
(iii) Tulsidas-Awadhi (Hindi).
(iv) Surdas-Brij Bhasha (Hindi).
(v) Kabir-Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, Other languages.
(vi) Guru Nanak-Hindi, Punjabi.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What was the idea advocated in the Bhagavad Gita?
Ans: The idea that was advocated in Bhagavad Gita was that of a Supreme God who could deliver humans from such bondage if approached with devotion.
Q.2. What was Sangam literature?
Ans: Sangam literature the earliest was example of Tamil literature, composed during the early centuries of the Common Era.
Q.3. What is Advaita?
Ans: Advaita is the doctrine of the oneness of the individual soul and the supreme God which is the Ultimate Reality.
Q.4. What was the doctrine of Vishishtadvaita as propounded by Ramanuja?
Ans: The doctrine of Vishishtadvaita was that the soul even when united with the supreme God remained distinct.
Q.5. Who initiated Virashaiva movement?
Ans: Virashaiva movement was initiated by Basavanna and his companion like Allama Prabhu and Akkamahadevi.
Q.6. Who were Chokhamela?
Ans: Chokhamela was the family who belonged to the ‘untouchable’ Mahar caste.
Q.7. What is Monotheism?
Ans: Monotheism refers to submission to one God.
Q.8. What is ‘Shariat’?
Ans: ‘Shariat’ was a holy law developed by Muslim scholars.
Q.9. What were the ideas of Sufis?
Ans: 1. Sufis rejected outward religiosity.
2. They emphasised love and devotion to God and compassion towards all fellow human beings.
Q.10. What was the similarity between the saint poets and the sufis?
Ans: Both of them composed poems expressing their feelings, and a rich literature in prose, including anecdotes and fables developed around them.
Q.11. What were the elaborate methods of training developed by sufis?
Ans: The elaborate methods of training developed by sufis were:
(a) Zikr (Chanting of a name or sacred formula).
(c) Sama (singing).
(d) Raqs (dancing).
(e) Discussion of parables.
(f) Breath control.
Q.12. What were silsilas? Name two Sufi silsilas which became very popular.
Ans: Silsilas were a genealogy of sufi teachers, each following a slightly different method of instruction and religious practice. Two sufi silsilas which became very popular were-Suhrawardi Silsila. Chishti Silsila,
Q.13. What were the two religious trends that became very popular during medieval period?
Ans: The two religious trends that became very popular during medieval period were:
(a) Bhakti movement.
(b) Sufi movement.
Q.14. Why is Medina sacred to Muslims?
Ans: Medina is sacred to Muslims because Prophet Muhammad was buried there.
Q.15. What did Guru Nanak mean by ‘Liberation’?
Ans: Guru Nanak took liberation as not that of a state of inert bliss but rather the pursuit of life with a strong sense of social commitment.
Q.16. How do modern historians refer to the early seventeenth century Sikh community?
Ans: Modern historians refer to the early seventeenth century Sikh community as a state within the state.
Q.17. How did Surdas express his devotion to Krishna?
Ans: Surdas expressed his devotion to Krishna in his compositions like Sursagara, Saraswati and Sahitya Lehri.
Q.18. Who was Mirabai?
Ans: Mirabai was a Rajput princess married into the royal family of Mewar in the sixteenth century.
Q.19. In which language did Shankaracharya wrote his plays?
Ans: Shankaracharya wrote plays in Assamese.
Q.20. Name some of the Bhakti saints of Maharashtra.
Ans: Bhakti saints of Maharashtra are:
Q.21. Name the most famous work of Tulsidas.
Q.22. Who were alvars and nayanars?
Ans: The seventh and ninth centuries saw the emergence of new religious movements, led by two groups i.e., Alvars and Nayanars. Alvars were the saints devoted to Lord Vishnu and Nayana were the saints devoted to Lord Shiva.
Q.23. Name four sufi saints.
Ans: Four sufi saints are:
(a) Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti of Ajmer.
(b) Qutubuddin Bakhti or Kaki of Delhi.
(c) Baba Farid of Punjab.
(d) Khawaja Nizamuddin Auliya of Delh.
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What were the ideas of Nayanars and Alvars for a new kind of Bhakti?
Ans: The Nayanars andAlvars had the following ideas of Bhakti:
(a) They were sharply critical of the Buddhists and Jainas and preached love of Shiva or Vishnu.
(b) They drew upon the ideals of love and heroism as found in the Sangam literature and blended them with the values of bhakti.
(c) They went from place to place, composing exquisite poems in praise of the deities enshrined in the villages they visited, and set them to music.
Q.2. What were the developments in Bhakti movement between the tenth and twelfth centuries?
How were the links between Bhakti tradition and temple worship strengthened?
Ans: (a) The Chola and Pandya kings built elaborate temples around many of the shrines visited by the saints-poets, thus strengthening the links between the bhakti tradition and temple worship.
(b) Their poems were compiled during this time.
(c) Religious biographies of the Alvars and Nayanars were composed.
Q.3. Who was Shankara? Write down his main teachings and ideas.
Ans: Shankara was one of the most influential philosophers of India. He was born in Kerala in the 8th century. His teachings and ideas were:
(a) He was an advocate of Advaita.
(b) He taught that Brahma, the only or Ultimate Reality, was formless and without any attributes.
(c) He considered world around us to be an illusion or maya.
(d) He preached renunciation of the world and adoption of path of the knowledge to understand the true nature of Brahman and attain salvation.
Q.4. Describe the beliefs and ideas of the saints of Maharashtra.
Ans: The beliefs and ideas of the saints of Maharashtra were as follows:
1. They rejected all forms of ritualism, outward display of piety and social difference based on birth.
2. They rejected the idea of renunciation.
3. They preferred to live with their families, earn their livelihood and humbly serving fellow human beings in need.
4. They believed that bhakti lay in sharing other’s pain.
Q.5. What were the new developments about bhakti that happened in North India?
Ans: (a) In the period from the beginning of 14th century onwards a new wave of the bhakti movement started in North India.
(b) In this period Islam, Brahmanical Hinduism, Sufism, various strands of Bhakti and the Nathpanthis Siddhas and Yogis influenced one another.
(c) New towns and kingdoms emerged during this period.
(d) People took up new professions and found new roles for themselves.
(e) Those people especially craft-persons, peasants, traders and labourers thronged to listen to these new saints and spread their ideas.
Q.6. How was Guru Granth Sahib formed?
Ans: (a) Guru Angad compiled the composi-tions of Guru Nanak, to which he added his own compositions.
(b) The three successors of Guru Angad also wrote under the name of “Nanak”. Guru Arjun compiled these compositions in 1604.
(c) The writings of other figures like Shaikh Farid, Sant Kabir, Bhagat Namdev and Guru Tegh Bahadur were also added to this.
(d) In 1706, Guru Govind Singh authenticated this compilation and it was known as Guru Granth Sahib.
Q.7. Give a brief account of Chishti Silsilah.
Ans: Chishti Silsilah is the oldest of all sufi orders in India. It was forwarded by Khwaja Muin-ud-din Chishti. Both Hindus and Muslims became their followers. Baba Farid, Nizam-ud-din Aulia and Sheikh Salim Chishti were the great sufis of this period.
Nizam-ud-din Aulia, who was also known as ‘Mehboob-i-Ilahi’ (blessed of God) was the greatest sufi-saint. His dargah is visited by many Hindus and Muslims everyday.
Q.8. Write a note on the two Muslim sects Shia and Sunni.
Ans: Shias: The Shias believe in the teachings of Ali, who they believe as Muhammad’s rightful successor.
Sunnis: Sunnis are those who believe in Sunnati. They respect the deeds of Muhammad and also involved respect for the life of succession taken place following Muhammad’s death.
Q.9. What do you mean by Kabir Panthis?
Ans: The followers of Kabir which included both Hindus and Muslims came to be known as Kabir Panthis.
Q.10. Name the sacred book of the sikhs and write down the script in which it was written.
Ans: Sacred book of the Sikhs is Guru Granth Sahib. It is written in Gurmukhi.
Q.11. Define sakhis and pads.
Ans: Sakhis and pads are a vast collection of verses of popular Bhakti saint Kabir.
Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Describe briefly about some of the important Bhakti saints of India.
Ans: Some of the important Bhakti saints of India were the following:
(a) Janeshwara: He belonged to Maharashtra. He rewrote the Gita in Marathi for the ordinary people who could not read in Sanskrit.
(b) Namdev: He was a bhakti saint who belonged to Maharashtra. He preached the idea of devotion to God through love.
(c) Tukaram: Tukaram also belonged to Maharashtra. Like Namdev, he too preached the idea of devotion to God through love.
(d) Kabir: Kabir was a bhakti saint who belonged to Banaras. He is known for his dohas. He tried to make a bridge between Hinduism and Islam.
(e) Nanak: He was the first Guru and the founder of Sikhism. He taught that the only way to be close to God is to love God. He was against caste system. He preached brotherhood and equality. He started a common kitchen-the langer system.
(f) Chaitanya: He was a Vaishnava saint who preached in Bengali. He was devotee of Lord Krishna.
(g) Mirabai: She was a princess from Rajasthan. She became a devotee of Krishna and gave up the luxury of her life.
Q.2. What were the impacts of Sufism and Bhakti movements on the common people?
Ans: Besides preaching religion, the bhakti and sufi movements exerted a great influence on social ideas.
The early bhakti teachers such as Tamil saints and Chaitanya were largely concerned with religions. But Kabir and Guru Nanak leads the social leaders and reformers. Both of them objected to the division of society into castes. They championed the causes of the women. They encouraged women to join their manfolk in various activities. They included women in their gatherings.
Q.3. What influenced the development of the Sikh movement in the 16th and 17th centuries and how?
Ans: The changing historical situation during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries influenced the development of the Sikh movement.
(a) The ideas of Guru Nanak had a huge impact on the Sikh movement.
(b) He emphasized the importance of the worship of one God.
(c) He insisted that caste, creed or gender was irrelevant for attaining liberation.
(d) His idea of liberation was not that of a state of insert bless but rather the pursuit of active life with a strong sense of social commitment.
(e) He himself used the terms nam, dan, isnan for the essence of his teaching. It means right worship, welfare of others and purity of conduct.
(f) His teachings are now remembered as nam-japna, kirt-karna and vand-chhakna, which also underline the importance of right belief and worship, honest living and helping others.
Q.4. What were the three principles that according to Guru Nanak formed the essence of life?
Ans: Three principles that according to Guru Nanak formed the essence of life are:
(a) Nam Japna: Think about God. Listening to the names gives truth, holy wisdom. By listening to God’s name, sorrow and sin are destroyed.
(b) Kirat karna: Live a normal life. Earn a living through honest means and hard work.
(c) Vand Chakhna: Share with the needy whatever you can.
Q.5. Who was Basavanna? Name the movement started by him. Also explain the main features of this movement.
Ans: Basavanna was a Bhakti saint from Karnataka. The movement started by him came to be known as the Virashaivism. Main features of this movement were:
(a) This movement was started in the mid 12th century in Karnataka.
(b) The Virashaivas argued strongly for the equality of all human beings.
(c) This movement was againt Brahmanical ideas about caste and treatment of women.
(d) They were against all forms of rituals and idol worship.
Higher Order Thinking Skill
Q.1. What are the similarities between Bhakti Movement and Sufism?
Ans: Similarities between Bhakti movement and Sufism are as follows:
(a) They believed in spiritual development.
(b) Both believed in the parampara of Guru-Shishya.
(c) Both believed in the service of one God.
Q.2. Why were most of the followers of Guru Nanak traders, agriculturists, artisans and craftsmen?
Ans: Most of the followers of Guru Nanak were traders, agriculturists, artisans and craftsmen because Guru Nanak insisted that his followers must be householders and should adopt productive and useful occupations.
Q.3. Write a note on the Bhakti saints of Maharashtra.
Ans: Most important Bhakti saints of Maharashtra were Eknath, Tukaram, Namdev, Janeshwar as well as women like Sakkubai. Main teachings of these saints were:
(a) They rejected all forms of ritualism, out ward display of piety and social differences based on birth.
(b) They rejected the idea of renunciation and preferred to live with their families, earning their livelihood like any other person.
Q.4. Define Khanqahs. Write down its importance.
Ans: Khanqahs were houses of rest for travellers, especially one kept by a religious order. It was here that the sufi master held their assemblies. It had the following features:
(a) Devotees of all descriptions including the members of the royalty and nobility and ordinary people flocked to these Khanqahs.
(b) They discussed spritual matters, sought the blessing of the saints in solving their worldly problems or simply attended the music and dance sessions.
Value Based Questions
Q.1. How did the songs of the saints become popular?
Ans: The songs of the saints became popular because:
(a) They were composed in religious languages and could be sung.
(b) They became immensely popular and were handed down orally from generation to generation.
(c) Usually the poorest, most deprived communities and women transmitted these songs often adding their own experiences.
(d) They became a part of our living culture.
Q.2. Who was Ramanuja? Write down his main teachings.
Ans: Ramanuja was a Bhakti saint from Tamil Nadu. He was deeply influenced by Alvars. His main teachings were:
(a) According to him the best means of attaining salvation was through intense devotion to Lord Vishnu.
(b) He propounded the doctrine of Vishish tadvaita or qualified oneness in that the soul even when united with the supreme God remained distinct.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Multiple Choice Questions:
Choose the correct one:
1. What did the Puranic stories consist of?
(a) local myths.
(c) Both ‘a’ and ‘b’.
(d) None of these.
Ans: (c) Both ‘a’ and ‘b’.
2. How many Alvars were there?
Ans: (b) 14.
3. How many Nayanars were there?
Ans: (b) 63.
4. Nayanars and Alvars developed new kind of Bhakti in ________.
(a) South India.
(b) North India.
(c) West India.
(d) East India.
Ans: (a) South India.
5. Where was Shankara born?
Ans: (d) Kerala.
6. Where did the Virashaiva movement begin?
Ans: (c) Karnataka.
7. Who were the saint-poets that belonged to Maharashtra?
(d) All of these.
Ans: (d) All of these.
8. “They are Vaishanavas who understand the pain of others”. Who said this about the saints of Maharashtra?
(a) Narsi Mehta.
Ans: (a) Narsi Mehta.
9. What were the practices recommended by Nathpunthis, Siddhas and Yogis?
(a) Yoga Asanas.
(b) Breathing exercise.
(d) All of these.
Ans: (d) All of these.
10. Sufis were ________ mystics.
Ans: (a) Muslim.
11. Who were the teachers of Chishti Silsilah?
(a) Khwaia Muinuddin Chishti.
(b) Qutubuddin Bakhtiar Kaki.
(c) Baba Farid.
(d) All of these.
Ans: (d) All of these.
12. Vitthala is form of
Ans: (b) Vishnu.
13. Adi-Granth is the other name of
(c) Ram Charitmanas.
(d) Guru Granth Sahib.
Ans: (d) Guru Granth Sahib.
14. Who rewrote the Gita in Marathi?
(b) Saint Janeshwara.
Ans: (b) Saint Janeshwara.
15. Mirabai became a disciple of ……………
(b) Dadu Dayal.
(c) Sir Krishna.
(d) None of these.
Ans: (a) Ravidas.
16. Where were Kabir’s bhajans preserved
(a) Guru Granth Sahib.
(b) Panch Vani.
(d) All of these.
Ans: (d) All of these.
17. Who was Ghazzali?
(a) A great sufi of South Asia.
(b) A great sufi of Central Asia.
(c) A great sufi of Northern India.
(d) A great mathematician of Central Asia.
Ans: (a) A great sufi of South Asia.
18. When did Guru Nanak die?
Ans: (b) 1539.
II. True or False
Write ‘T’ for true and ‘F’ for false ones.
1. Nayanars were saints devoted to Vishnu.
2. Shankara was born in the eleventh century.
3. Ramanuja was born in Tamil Nadu.
4. Virashaivas Brahmanical ideas about caste and the treatment of women.
5. Islam promoted idol worship.
6. Kabir was brought up in family of farmers.
7. Kabir sometimes followed cryptic language.
III. Matching Skills:
Match the Items given in Column I with those in Column II.
|Column I||Column II|
|(a) Palaiyars and Panars||(vii) Untouchables|
|(b) Tevaram and Tiruvacakam||(iv) Sets of compilation of Nayanar’s songs|
|(c) Divya Prabandhan||(v) Set of compilation of Alvar’s songs|
|(d) Nambhars||(i) Houses of recitation and prayer|
|(e) Guru Angad||(vi) Successor of Guru Nanak|
|(f) Ramananda||(ii) Founder of Bhakti|
|(g) Akal Takgt||(iii) Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji|