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NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 9 The Making Of Regional Cultures
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 7 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 9 The Making Of Regional Cultures and After, NCERT Class 7 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – II: History, Social and Political Life – II: Civics, Our Environment: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
The Making Of Regional Cultures
Our Pasts – II (HISTORY)
QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
1. Let’s Recall
Q.1. Match the following:
Q.2. What is Manipravalam? Name a book written in this language.
Ans: Manipravalam literally means diamonds and corals. It is a language. The name of a book written is Lilatilakam.
Q.3. Who were the major patrons of Kathak?
Ans: The Mughals were the major patrons of Kathak.
Q.4. What were the important architectural features of the temples of Bengal?
Ans: The important architectural features of the temples of Bengal were as follows:
(a) When local deities, once worshipped in thatched huts in village gained the recognition of the Brahmans, their images began to be housed in temples.
(b) The temples began to copy the double footed or four roofed structure of the thatched huts.
(c) In the comparatively more complex four-roofed structure, four triangular roofs placed on the four walls move up to coverage on a curved line or a point.
(d) Temples were usually built on a square platform.
(e) The interior was relatively plain but the outer walls of many temples were decorated with paintings, ornamental tiles or terracotta tablets.
2. Let’s Discuss
Q.5. Why did minstrels proclaim the achievements of heroes?
Ans: Minstrels used to recite poems and songs which depicted the stories of the Rajput’s heroic deeds. By reciting such poems and songs these minstrels inspired others to follow the examples of Rajputs. Ordinary people were also attracted by these stories.
Q.6. Why do we know much more about the cultural practices of rulers than about those of ordinary people?
Ans: The cultural practices of rulers were carefully preserved in palaces for centuries. Hence we know much more about them. Ordinary men and women also painted on pots, walls, floors, cloth. But they did not survive for long.
Q.7. Why did conquerors try to control the temple of Jagannatha at Puri?
Ans: The temple of Jagannatha at Puri gained importance as a centre of pilgrimage. Its authority in social and political matters also increased. Hence, conquerors tried to establish control over the temple. They felt that this would make his rule acceptable to the local people.
Q.8. Why were temples built in Bengal?
Ans: The temple builders of Bengal wanted to demonstrate their power and proclaim their piety. Therefore, they built teraples.
3. Let’s Do
Q.9. Escribe the most important features of the culture of your region focussing on buildings, performing arts and paintings.
Ans: I live in Delhi. Right from the beginning it has been a land of mixed cultures. In old days, it was invaded by a number of foreign rulers. Some of them stayed here for some time and some settle down permanently. They all affected its culture, language, religion, society, architecture, art and painting. Still we have buildings and monuments built by Mughal emperors, Slave emperors, Rajput rulers and many more. We have temples, mosques and many other such places constructed by different rulers. Differences of cultures can still be seen in the areas of Old Delhi and New Delhi.
Q.10. Do you use different languages for
Find out about one major composition in language that you use and discuss why you find it interesting.
Ans: (a) For speaking, I use Hindi and Punjabi.
(b) For reading, I use Hindi and English.
(c) For writing, I use Hindi and English.
Thus, I use different languages for speaking, reading and writing.
Q.11. Choose one state each from north, west, south, east and central India. For each of these prepare a list of foods that are commonly consumed, highlighting any differences and similarities that you notice.
Q.12. Choose another set of five states from each of these regions and prepare a list of clothes that are generally worn by women and men in each. Discuss your findings.
Ans: Clothes of men of five states:
(i) Pants, jeans.
(vi) Pyjama kurta.
List of clothes worn by women
(vii) Shawls, Sweater.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Write one of the commonest way of describing people.
Ans: One of the commonest way is the language they speak.
Q.2. What languages are spoken in Tamil Nadu, Orissa?
Ans: The language spoken in Tamil Nadu is Tamil and the language spoken in Orissa is Oriya.
Q.3. What are the different things with which we tend to associate each region with?
Ans: We tend to associate each region with distinctive kinds of food, clothes, pottery, dance, music and painting.
Q.4. Give an example of the use of a regional language in official records in the subcontinent.
Ans. The Malayalam was spoken in the south-western part of the peninsula. The rulers of the Chera kingdom also introduced the Malayalam language and script in their inscriptions.
Q.5. When and where Anatavarman decided to erect a temple for Purushottama Jagannatha?
Ans: Anantavarman decided to erect a temple for Purushottama Jagannatha at Puri in the twelfth century.
Q.6. What did King Anangabhima III proclaim himself as in 1230?
Ans: King Anangabhima III proclaimed himself as the “deputy” of the god in 1230.
Q.7. Who were Kathaks?
Ans: The Kathaks were originally a caste of story-tellers in temples of north India, who embellished their performances with gestures and songs.
Q.8. Who was the last Nawab of Awadh?
Ans: Wajid Ali Shah.
Q.9. What position was given to ‘Kathak after Independence’?
Ans: Kathak was recognised as one of six classical forms of dance in the country after independence.
Q.10. What are miniatures?
Ans: ‘Miniatures’ are small-size paintings generally done in water colour on a cloth or paper.
Q.11. Who were Pirs?
Ans: Pir is a Persian word meaning, a spiritual guide.
Q.12. How many states have been created in the last 10 years? Is each of these states a region?
Ans: Three states have been created in the last 10 years. They are:
(i) Uttaranchal (Now Uttarakhand)
(iii) Jharkhand Yes, each of these states is a region.
Q.13. Who were Kolu and Kansari?
Ans: The Kolu were oil pressers and the Kansari were bell metal workers in Bengal.
Q.14. Who ruled over Rajasthan after 8th century?
Ans: After 8th century, most of the present day state of Rajasthan was ruled over by different Rajput families.
Q.15.What were the traits that distinguished Kangra painting?
Ans: Soft colours including cool blues and greens, and a lyrical treatment of themes distinguished Kangra painting.
Q.16. From where did Malayalam language originate in India and who introduced this language?
Ans: Malayalam language originated from Kerala. The rulers of the Chera dynasty introduced this language.
Q.17. Name two Gharanas of Kathak.
Ans: The two gharanas of Kathak are:
(a) One in the courts of Rajasthan,
(b) Other in the court of Lucknow.
Q.18. Name the King who dedicated his kingdom to the Jagannatha deity and proclaimed himself as the “deputy of the god”.
Ans: King Anangabhima III, who built the Purushottama Jagannatha temple at Puri.
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. How did regional cultures evolve?
Ans: (a) Regional cultures today are often the product of complex processes of inter-mingling of local traditions with ideas from other parts of the sub-continent. Some traditions appear specific to some regions other seem to be similar across religions and yet others derive from older practices in a particular area, but take a new form in other regions.
Q.2. What place did women find in the stories about Rajput heroes?
Ans: The women found a place in the stories about Rajput heroes as:
(a) They figure as the cause for conflicts, as men fought with one another to either win or ‘protect’ women.
(b) Women are also depicted as following their heroic husbands in both life and death.
(c) There are stories about the practice of sati or the immolation of widows as the funeral pyre of their husbands.
Q.3. What did ‘pirs’ include?
Ans: The term ‘pirs’ included saints or sufis and other religions personalities, daring colonisers and defied soldiers, various Hindu and Buddhist deities and even animistic spirits. The cult of pirs became very popular and their shrines can be found everywhere in Bengal.
Q.4. How did miniature painting develop under the Mughal patronage?
Ans: Miniatures are small-sized paintings generally done in water colour on cloth or paper. The earliest miniatures were on palm leaves or wood. The Mughal emperors especially Akbar, Jahangir and Shahjahan patronised highly skilled painters. These painters primarily illustrated manuscripts containing historical accounts and poetry. These were generally painted in brilliant colours and portrayed court scenes, scenes of battle or hunting and other aspects of social life. They were often exchanged as gifts and were viewed only by the emperor and his close associates.
Q.5. What importance is given to fish in Bengal?
Ans: The following points explain the importance of fish in Bengal:
(i) Fishing has always been an important occupation and Bengali literature contains several references to fish.
(ii) The terracotta plaques on the walls of temples, viharas depict scenes of fish being dressed and taken to the market in baskets.
Q.6. What are the main themes of miniature paintings?
Ans: The miniature paintings depicted court scenes, scenes of battle or hunting and other aspects of social life.
Q.7. Where is the Jagannatha Temple located? How the icon of the Jagannatha is built?
Ans: Anantavarman, one of the most important rulers of the Ganga dynasty built the Purushotamma Jagannatha temple at Puri.
Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. How did Kathak develop and enrich as a dance form?
Ans: (i) Kathak developed into a form of dance with a distinctive style in the courts of Mughal emperors and nobles.
(ii) It developed in two traditions: One in the courts of Rajasthan (Jaipur) and the other in Lucknow.
(iii) Kathak grew into a major art form under the patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh.
(iv) By the third quarter of the nineteenth century it developed firmly as a dance form in areas other than Rajasthan and Lucknow such as present day Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.
(v) Emphasis was laid on intricate and rapid footwork, elaborate costumes, as well as on the enactment of stories.
Q.2. What are two categories in which early Bengali literature can be divided into? Differentiate between these two categories.
Ans: The two categories in which early Bengali literature was divided into as follows:
Q.3. How did the rulers of Chera kingdom connect language and region?
Ans: The following examples illustrate the connection between language and region established by the Chera kingdom.
(a) Malayalam, language was spoken in the south western part of the peninsula where the Chera kingdom of Mahodayapuram was established. The rulers introduced the Malayalam language and script in their language. Malayalam is one of the earliest examples of the use of a regional language.
(b) The Cheras also drew upon Sanskritic traditions. The temple theatre of Kerala, borrowed stories from the Sanskrit epics.
Q.4. Describe the development of temples in Bengal.
Ans: The following points explain the development of temples in Bengal.
(i) The temples and other religious structures were often built by individuals or groups who were becoming powerful to both demonstrate their power and proclaim their piety.
(ii) Many of the modest brick and terracotta temples in Bengal were built with the support of several “low” social groups, such as the Kolu (oil pressers) and the Kausari (bell metal workers).
(iii) When local deities once worshipped in thatched huts in villages gained the recognition of the Brahmanas, their images began to be housed in temples.
(iv) The temples began to copy the double-roofed or four roofed thatched huts.
(v) Temples were usually built on square platforms.
(vi) The interior of the temples was relatively plain, but the outer walls of many temples were decorated with paintings, ornamental tiles or terracotta tablets.
(vii) In some temples, particularly in Vishnupur in the Bankura district of West Bengal, such decorations reached a high degree of excellence.
Higher Order Thinking Skill
Q.1. How did Mughal artistic tastes influence the regional courts of the Deccan and the Rajput courts of Rajasthan?
Ans: Mughal artistic tastes influenced the regional courts of the Deccan and the Rajput courts because with the decline of the Mughal Empire, many painters moved to the courts of the emerging regional states.
Q.2. What permitted the local Brahmanas of Bengal to eat certain varieties of fish?
Ans: The Brihad Dharma Purana, a thirteenth-century Sanskrit text from Bengal permitted the local Brahmanas to eat certain varieties of fish.
Q.3. Describe the development of the Miniature paintings in the Himalayan foothills around the modern day state of Himachal Pradesh.
Ans: The following developments took place in the Himalayan foothills around the modern-day state of Himachal Pradesh:
(a) By the late seventeenth century this region had developed a bold and intense style of miniature painting called Basohli. The most popular text to be painted here was Bhamdatta’s Rasamanjori.
(b) By the mid-eighteenth century the Kangra artists developed a style which breathed a new spirit into miniature painting. They took inspiration from Vaishnavite traditions.
Value Based Questions
Q.1. How did the painters and the artists retained their distinctive characteristics even with the decline of the Mughal Empire?
Ans: (i) Portraits of rulers and court scenes came to be painted, following the Mughal example.
(ii) Besides themes from mythology and poetry were depicted at centres such as Mewar, Jodhpur, Bundhi, Kota and Kishangarh.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Multiple Choice Questions:
1. The first literary works in Malayalam are directly indebted to _______ language.
Ans: (a) Sanskrit.
2. ‘Jagannatha’ literally means ______.
(a) Lord of the world.
(b) Lord of the empire.
(c) The empire of the east.
(d) None of these.
Ans: (a) Lord of the world.
3. Which temple is shown in the picture?
(a) Golden Temple, Amritsar.
(b) Jagannath Temple, Puri.
(c) Lakshamana Temple, Khajuraho.
(d) None of these.
Ans: (b) Jagannath Temple, puri.
4. Who is shown in the picture?
(c) King Anangabhima III.
(d) Prince Raj Singh.
Ans: (c) King Anangabhima III.
5. In which of these areas, Kathak entrenched as a dance form?
(a) Present day Punjab.
(c) Rajasthan and U.P.
(d) All of these.
Ans: (d) All of these.
6. Kathak is associated with several parts of ______ India.
Ans: (d) North.
7. What is shown in this miniature.
(a) Akbar resting during a hunt.
(b) Maharana Ram Singh II playing holi.
(c) Krishna with his followers.
(d) None of these.
Ans: (a) Akbar resting during a hunt.
8. The major patrons of Kathak were:
Ans: (c) Mughals.
9. The conquerors tried to control the temple of Jagannatha at Puri because
(a) They were very devoted to God Jagannatha.
(b) The temple was very beautiful.
(c) The temple had huge wealth.
(d) None of the above.
Ans: (c) The temple had huge wealth.
10. Who proclaimed himself as deputy of God?
(c) King Anangabhima.
(d) Ruler of Mahodayapuram.
Ans: (c) King Anangabhima .
11. Which type of emotions were there in Rajputs?
(d) All of these.
Ans: (d) All of these.
12. What type of traveller was Xuan Zang?
Ans: (c) Chinese.
II. Rewrite the following statements correctly:
(a) The Chera kingdom of Mahodayapuram was established in ninth century in the north-eastern part of the peninsula.
Ans: The Chera kingdom of Mahodayapura was established in the ninth century in the south-western part of the peninsula.
(b) In the ninth century, the region that constitutes most of present day Rajasthan was called Rajputana by the British.
Ans: In the nineteenth century, the region that constitutes most of the present day Rajasthan was called Rajputana by the British.
(c) Prithviraj was a Maratha ruler.
Ans: Prithviraj was a Rajput ruler.
(d) The legends of Ram-Sita were enacted in folk plays called raslila.
Ans: The legends of Radha-Krishna, were enacted in the folk plays called raslila.
(e) Kathak was viewed with favour by most British administrators in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Ans: Kathak was viewed with disfavour by most British administrators in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
III. Matching Skills:
Match the dance forms in Column I to the states in Column II.
|(a) Bharatnatyam||(v) Tamil Nadu|
|(b) Kathakali||(iii) Kerala|
|(c) Odissi||(i) Orissa|
|(d) Kuchipudi||(iv) Andhra Pradesh|
|(e) Manipuri||(ii) Manipur|