NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 11 On Equality Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 11 On Equality and select need one. NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 11 On Equality and After Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT SST Class 7 Solutions.
NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 11 On Equality
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 7 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 11 On Equality and After, NCERT Class 7 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – II: History, Social and Political Life – II: Civics, Our Environment: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Social And Political Life-II [Civics]
QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
Q.1. In a democracy why is universal adult franchise so important?
Ans: All adults (18 years or above) have the right to vote in the Indian democracy. This aspect is important because it is based on the basic idea of equality. It states that every adult in the country irrespective of their wealth and communities he/she belongs to has one vote.
Q.2. Re-read the box on Article 15 and state two ways in which this Article addresses inequality.
Ans: Article 15 given in the box addresses inequality in the following ways:
(i) The state shall not discriminate against any citizen on the basis of his/her religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them. Here inequality can not be a ground for discrimination.
(ii) No citizen shall be discriminated or restricted against only on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or any one of them in the respect of:
(a) Visiting shops, public restaurants, hotels and public places of entertainment.
(b) Using public places maintained by the funds of the state or meant for public like wells, ponds, bathing ghats, roads and tourist places.
Q.3. In what ways was Om Prakash Valmiki’s experience similar to that of the Ansaris?
Ans: Both of them-Om Prakash Valmiki and the Ansaris had to face inequality because of the race or caste they were born in. Both of them faced a violation of human dignity. While Valmiki had to sweep the grounds, Ansaris were no basis ignored when they sought a free apartment.
Q.4. What do you understand by the term “all persons are equal before the law”? Why do you think it is important in a democracy?
Ans: It means that every person, from the President of the country to a domestic help like Kanta has to obey the same laws. No person can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, race, caste, etc. Every person has access to all public places including playgrounds, hotels, shops and markets. All persons can use publicly available wells, roads and bathing ghats.
Equality is the soul of democracy. We know that democracy is a farm of government which gives equal importance and recognition to all. If inequalities on the basis of race, religion, caste, etc. continue to exist, democracy would never flourish. Instead, it would perish very soon.
Q.5. The Government of India passed the Disabilities Act in 1995. This law states that persons with disabilities have equal rights, and that the government should make possible their full participation in society. The government has to provide free education and integrate children with disabilities into mainstream schools. This law also states that all public places including buildings, schools etc., should be accessible and provided with ramps.
Look at the photograph and think about the boy who is being carried down the stairs. Do you think the above law is being implemented in his case? What needs to be done to make the building more accessible for him? How would his being carried down the stairs affect his dignity as well as his safety?
Ans: The boy in the photograph is disabled. As per the law this building should have been accessible for him. But we see the law is not being implemented in his case. He is being carried down by security personnels through stairs. This building does not provide ramps. The boy’s dignity is overlooked here. He may morally feel inferior. The way he is carried down the stars may prove dangerous. Law should take this case to the court.
Q.1. Do you think Kanta has enough reason to doubt whether she really is equal? List three reasons from story above that might make her feel like this.
(NCERT Textbook, Page 6)
Ans: Yes, Kanta has enough reason to doubt whether she really is equal.
Here are three reasons that might make her feel like this:
(i) Her daughter is in bed but she cannot take a leave.
(ii) She lives in a dirty slum and not in a clean area.
(iii) Kanta has to stand in a queue in an OPD for her daughter’s treatment while Jai Madam never has to do it when her children are sick.
Q.2. Circle the reference to caste in the matrimonial advertisements given below:
ALLIANCE. Invited for 32/MMS/5’4″/fair/b’ful girl
Working in IT Co. Mumbai from BE/ MBA boy working in Mumbai/Abroad from IT Industry Caste no bar. SC/ ST excuse. Send BHP (must)
PROF Qlfd B’ful tall girl 4 Gupta Boy 28/6″ CA Working MNC TXS USA $80k.
TAMIL BRAHMIN Iyengar groom 1961 born, Naithruvakashyapa Gothram, Swathi Star, 180 cms tall (fair).
Ans: ALLIANCE: invited for 32/MMS/5’4″/ fair/b’ful girl
Working in IT Co. Mumbai from BE/ MBA boy working in Mumbai/Abroad from IT Industry Caste no bar [SC/ST excuse] Send BHP (must)
PROF: Qlfd B’ful tall girl 4 [Gupta Boy] 28/6″ CA Working MNC TXS USA $ 80k.
TAMIL BRAHMIN Iyengar groom, 1981 born Naithruvakashyapa Gothram Swathi Star, 180 cms tall fair.
Q.3. Why do you think Om Prakash Valmiki was being treated unequally by his teacher and his classmates. Imagine yourself as Om Prakash Valmiki and write four lines about how you would feel if you were in the same situation as him.
Ans: Om Prakash Valmiki was treated unequally by his teacher and his classmates because he was a Dalit boy and was hence seriously discriminated against. He was considered to be of low caste and hence assigned menial task of sweeping.
If I would have been Om Prakash Valmiki, I would have felt really sad and pensive over the injust treatment given to me. I would have felt disappointed and questioned my identity. My dignity would have been violated. I would have faced extreme inequality.
Q.4. Why do you think the Ansaris were being treated unequally? What would you do if you were in the Ansaris’ position and could not find a place to have because some people did not want to live next to you because of the religion you practice?
Ans: The Ansaris were being treated unequally on the basis of differences of religion. If I were in the Ansaris’ position, I would go to live in the locality where people of my religion live in majority.
Q.5. If you were one of the Ansaris how would you have respect to the suggestion that you change your name?
Ans: If I were one of the Ansaris, I would have decided to change my name at any cost. The decision to change the name would deeply hurt self-respect.
Q.6. Can you think of an incident in your life in which your dignity was violated? How did this make you feel?
Ans: (i) Yes, My dignity was violated when I was in class VI. My Sanskrit teacher treated me unequally with my classmate, Ashok.
(ii) The teacher gave me less marks for the answer and more to Ashok.
(iii) In the annual exams, I did well but this time both were given the same marks.
I didn’t complain it to anyone, but I felt hurt.
Q.7. (i) What is the midday meal programme?
Ans: It is the programme introduced by the government in all government elementary schools to provide children with cooked lunch.
(ii) Can you list three benefits of the programme?
Ans: The three benefits of midday meal programme are:
(a) More poor children have started enrolling and attending the school.
(b) It has helped in reducing caste prejudices because both lower and upper caste children take this midday meal together in the school.
(c) It also helps reduce the hunger of poor students who often come to school and can not concentrate because their stomachs are empty.
(iii) How do you think this programme might help promote greater equality?
Ans: (i) Children from all social classes, religions, etc. have their meal together. This lessens the senses of inferiority and superiority and enhances the sense of equality.
(ii) They eat the food cooked by the same people, at the same place. They eat the same food stuff in the same type of plates. They drink water from the same source. Almost everything becomes equal, at least, during school hours.
Q.8. (i) Find out about one government scheme in your area.
Ans: The government has launched a scheme of compulsory employment for 100 days in a year for those people who are below poverty line in my area (villages).
(ii) What does this scheme do?
Ans: (i) Under this scheme identity cards are provided to those poors who are below poverty line.
(ii) At least one person of each family is given an opportunity to have at least 100 days works (employment) in a year.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Define the term ‘Dalit’.
Ans: Dalits are so called lower castes as they use to address themselves. It literally means ‘broken’.
Q.2. Name that African-American person who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man on 1 December 1955. It lead to Civil Rights Movements in USA.
Ans: Rosa Parks.
Q.3. Why is Kanta excited and happy?
Ans: She is excited for casting her vote and happy because she feels herself equal to others in this respect.
Q.4. Name the book written by Om Prakash Valmiki.
Q.5. All ______ aged 18 years or above cast vote.
Q.6. Who said these words, “…Nothing is more disgraceful for a brave man than to live devoid of self-respect”.
Ans: These words said by B.R. Ambedkar.
Q.7. Write the idea on which the universal adult franchise based.
Ans: The universal adult franchise is based on the idea of equality.
Q.8. Which was the first state to introduce Mid-day Meal Scheme?
Ans: Tamil Nadu.
Q.9. Name the Article in Indian Constitution defines equality and prohibits any kind of social discrimination.
Ans: Article 15.
Q.10. What was the deficient act by Rosa Parks known as?
Ans: Civil Rights Movement.
Q.11. Why did Ansaris refuse the suggestion of the property dealer to change their names?
Ans: The Ansaris refused the suggestion because it was going to hurt their dignity and self-respect.
Q.12. What is the caste system in India?
Ans: The caste system is another form of inequality in India. It is a predominant social evil that is used to discriminate against large number of people.
Q.13. Name the two ways through which our government has tried to implement the equality among citizens.
Ans: The two ways through which government has tried to implement equality are:
(i) Through laws. and
(ii) Through various social and economic programmes or schemes.
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. How does the government guarantee equality?
Ans: Equality is guaranteed through:
(i) Laws prescribed in the constitution.
(ii) Government programmes or schemes to the disadvantaged communities.
Q.2. Describe universal adult franchise.
Ans: Universal Adult Franchise is the essential condition for all democracies.
(a) It is based on the principle of equality, i.e., one person one vote and one vote one value.
(b) It gives all adults, the right to vote irrespective of what religion they belong to, how much educated, what caste they are from, or whether they are rich or poor.
Q.3. What was the consequence of Civil Rights Movement?
Ans: Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964. It lays down the following:
(a) It prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, religion or national origin.
(b) It also stated that schools would be open to African-American children and they would no longer have to attend separate schools specially set-up for them.
Q.4. In what ways was Om Prakash Valmiki experience similar to that of the Ansaris?
Ans: Both of them suffer unequal treatment or discriminated at individual level because they belong to different caste or religion.
(a) In both cases, the dignity of the person is not respected.
(b) Both these incidents also show that, though the law enforces equality but such inequalities still exist within our society.
Q.5. Compare the forms of inequality, i.e., casteism in different spheres.
Ans: One of the more common forms of inequality in India is casteism. If you live in rural India you know about your caste identity from the very beginning. If you live in urban India you may feel that people no longer believe in caste.
Q.6. Why do you think inequality is a world phenomenon? Explain.
Ans: Inequality is a world phenomenon because it existed not in India but in other parts of the world as well, for example in the USA. In the United States of America, African-Americans were treated extremely unequally. They were denied equality through law especially before the Civil Rights Movement. Later, the Civil Right Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, religion or national origin.
Q.7. The government initiatives to reduce inequality in our daily lives work very slowly. Give reasons.
Ans: Such initiatives help to reduce the inequality among the people, but they work very slowly because of the following reasons:
(a) The attitude of the people to think all as equal, changes very slowly.
(b) Even though people are aware of the law, they continue to treat each other unequally on the basis of their caste, religion, economic status, gender, etc.
Q.8. List a few examples of inequalities common in India.
Ans: Inequalities prevalent in India are:
(a) Caste inequalities.
(b) Inequality based on religion.
(c) Inequality based on gender.
Q.9. Why are Dalit children discriminated and treated unequally in schools?
Ans: Dalit children are discriminated and treated unequally in schools because people refuse to think of them (i.e., dalits) as equal even though the law requires it.
Q.10. What is the major factor that would help in reducing or eliminating inequality?
Ans: The change in the mindset and attitude of people where nobody considers the other person as inferior is the basic requirement for reducing or eliminating inequality.
Q.11. What are the ways by which the government implements the concept of equality?
Ans: It is through laws and through government programmes and schemes that government tries to implement the concept of equality.
Q.12. Define dignity.
Ans: Dignity refers to thinking of oneself and other persons as worthy of respect.
Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What do you understand by the term “all persons are equal before the law”? Why do you think it is important in a democracy?
Ans: The term ‘all persons are equal before the law’ means that every citizen is entitled to all the constitutional rights and freedoms without making distinction of any kind, like gender, status, race, religion or place of birth.
It is an important aspect of democracy because it ensures that government will take care about the needs of all the citizens and fulfill them. It also protects the interests of people.
Q.2. Describe the provisions of the constitution that ensure equality.
Ans: The provisions of the constitution that ensures equality are:
(a) Every person has access to all public places, including play-grounds, hotels, shops, and markets. All persons can use publicly available wells, roads, and bathing ghats.
(b) Untouchability has been abolished.
(c) Every person is equal before the law. It means that every person; President or a domestic worker has to obey the same laws.
(d) No person can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, race, caste, place of birth or whether they are male or female.
Q.3. What are the experiences of life which make Kanta unsure about equality?
Ans: Experiences of life that makes Kanta unsure about equality are as follows:
(a) Her job as a domestic help tires her out but she has to stand in a long queue in hospital for the treatment of her child.
(b) Kanta lives in a dirty area and has a drain behind her house.
(c) Her daughter is sick but she cannot take the day off from work because she needs to borrow money from her employer to take her child to the doctor.
Q.4. What are the advantages of Mid-day Meal Scheme?
Ans: This programme has many advantages like:
(a) More poor children have began enrolling and regularly attending school.
(b) This programme has helped reduce caste prejudices because all students eat together. Also, Dalit women have been employed to cook the meal.
(c) Earlier when children went home for lunch, they did not return to the school. But now with the mid-day meal being provided in school, their attendance has improved.
(d) Earlier mothers were interrupted in their work to feed their children at home during the day. This is not so, now.
Higher Order Thinking Skill
Q.1. Explain in detail how laws and schemes have helped recognize equality.
Ans: (a) There are several laws in India that protect every person’s right to be treated equally.
(b) The government has also set-up several schemes to improve the lives of communities and individuals who have been treated unequally for several centuries. These schemes are to ensure greater opportunity from disadvantaged people.
Q.2. “Some children, after implementation of scheme are treated equally even though the law requires it.” Why?
Ans: Attitude changes very slow. People continue to discriminate others on the basis of their caste, religion, disability, economic status and on the basis of gender.
Q.3. List some factors that determines why some people are treated unequally.
Ans: The caste we are born into, the religion we practice, the class background we come from, whether we are male or female-these are often the things that determine why some people are treated unequally.
Q.4. Describe the struggle for equality faced by African-Americans initially.
Ans: In the United States of America, the African-Americans were treated extremely unequally and denied equality through law. For example, when travelling by bus, they either had to sit at the back of the bus or get-up from their seat whenever a white person wished to sit.
Value Based Questions
Q.1. Mention the provisions of constitution that ensure equality.
Ans: The recognition of equality includes some of the provisions in the constitution.
(i) Every person is equal before the law. It means that every person; President or a domestic worker has to obey the same laws.
(ii) No person can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, race, caste, place of birth or whether they are male or female.
(iii) Every person has access to all public places, including playgrounds, hotels, shops and markets, All persons can use publicity available wells, roads and the bathing ghats.
(iv) Untouchability has been abolished.
Q.2. What is the challenge for a democratic nation? How can this be achieved?
Ans: The challenge for a democratic nation is to fulfill all the essentials of a democracy. We can achieve this through:
(i) Trying to expand the idea of democracy.
(ii) Pushing for greater recognition of equality.
(iii) Struggling for the recognition of equality.
(iv) Maintaining dignity of all people.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
I. Multiple Choice Questions
Tick (✓) the correct option:
1. Which is the most common form of inequality?
(iv) Any of these is common.
Ans: (ii) Casteism.
2. African-Americans were discriminated against in _______.
(iii) South America.
(iv) None of these.
Ans: (i) Africa.
3. Universal Adult Franchise means _______.
(i) all adults in the country are allowed to vote.
(ii) equality among citizens.
(iii) a set of government rules and regulations.
(iv) None of these.
Ans: (i) All adults in the country are allowed to vote.
4. Which book did Valmiki write?
(ii) Two lives.
(iv) He wrote no book.
Ans: (iii) Joothan.
5. Thinking of oneself and other persons as worthy of respect is referred as _______.
Ans: (ii) Dignity.
6. When did Civil Rights Movement start?
(i) 1 December, 1954.
(iii) 1 January, 1964.
(iv) 1 December, 1955.
Ans: (iv) 1 December, 1955.
7. _______ was the leader of Civil Rights Movement of America.
(i) Barack Obama.
(ii) Rosa Parks.
(iii) Nelson Mandela.
(iv) None of these.
Ans: (ii)Rosa Parks.
II. Fill in the blanks:
1. Some groups at the bottom level of the caste ladder are called _______.
2. The attitude of the people to think all as equal change _______.
3. When persons are treated unequally, their ______ is violated.
4. In a democracy, all citizens are ______ before the law.
5. Rosa Parks was an ______ woman.
6. Civil Rights Movement began in 1950s in _______.
7. When persons’ are treated unequally their ______ is violated.
8. The Indian Constitution recognises every person as _______.
9. Establishing ______ in a democratic society is a continuous struggle.
III. True False:
1. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, religion or national origin.
2. Uttrakhand was the first state in India to introduce the mid-day meal scheme in 2001.
3. The dignity of both Om Prakash Valmiki and the Ansaris was not violated.
4. Universal Adult Franchise is based on the idea of equality.
5. Om Prakash Valmiki is not a famous Dalit writer.