NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 12 Role Of The Government In Health Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 12 Role Of The Government In Health and select need one. NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 12 Role Of The Government In Health and After Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT SST Class 7 Solutions.
NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 12 Role Of The Government In Health
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 7 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 12 Role Of The Government In Health and After, NCERT Class 7 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – II: History, Social and Political Life – II: Civics, Our Environment: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Role Of The Government In Health
Social And Political Life-II [Civics]
QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
Q.1. In this chapter you have that health is a wider concept than illness. Look at his quote from the Constitution and explain the terms ‘living standard’ and ‘public health’ in your own words.
An important part of the Constitution says it is the “duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.”
Ans: ‘Living standard’ means the level of living of people at which they live. If they live in hygienic conditions enjoying all the comforts of life, it means their living standard is high. On the contrary, if they are bound to live a filthy surroundings and drink polluted water and eat unhygienic foods, it means they lead a low standard of living.
Q.2. What are the different ways through which the government can take steps to provide health care for all? Discuss.
Ans: The different ways in which government can take steps to provide healthcare for all are:
(i) Prevention of spread of diseases.
(ii) Provision of cheaper health-services for the poor.
(iii) Opening of primary health centres, dispensaries and family welfare centres.
(iv) Making provisions to deal with emergency or epidemics.
Q.3. What difference do you find between private and public health care area? Use the following table to compare and contrast these.
Q.4. “Improvement in water and sanitation can control many diseases.” Explain with the help of examples.
Ans: Lack of clean water and sanitation is the second most important risk factor for the occurrence of disease, after malnutrition.
(i) Consumption of contaminated water causes many water-borne diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, diarrhoea.
(ii) Many vector-borne diseases like malaria, Japanese encephalitis are caused due to dirty and stagnant water. So, improvement in water and sanitation can control many diseases.
Q.1. Would you associate all or some of these pictures (shown on the textbook page 19) with ‘health? In what ways? Discuss in groups.
Ans: Some of the pictures given on textbook page 19 associated with the health are:
(a) On the top, van with cross sign is in a rural area (i.e., village). Government sends mobile health centre in the form of a van with emergency health services facilities. The doctors and nurses go along with this van in village, and check the ill people and also treat them by giving medicines.
(b) Some doctors are shown in operation theater operating a patient. These doctors are taking care of the health problems of the patient.
Q.2. Pick two situations from the college (shown on page 19) that are not related to illness and write two sentences on how they are related to health.
Ans: (i) A woman, having two earthen pots on her head is going to fetch water. The women like her, collect water from other open tanks or wells. The water so collected is not clean and creates health problems.
(ii) Two garbage containers are shown kept in front of the houses in a slum. The containers are used to put in all types of wastes even rotten food particles, The house flies sitting on these waste carry pathogenic germs to our eatables, as a result we become ill.
Q.3. Can you provide a title to these columns (given on the textbook page 20)?
(i) Left hand column: Progress of Health Care System in India.
(ii) Right hand column: Paradox of Health Care Progress.
Q.4. In India, it is often said that we are unable to provide health services for all because the government does not have enough money and facilities. After reading the above left hand column (see textbook page 20), do you think this is true? Discuss.
Ans: Yes, It is true that India has progressed a lot in healthcare system since indepen-dence.
(a) The healthcare facilities we had in 1950, were insufficient for the population.
(b) Even today when infrastructure of healthcare has developed and increased tremendously, it does not saturate the needs of our growing population.
(c) Our healthcare system in the rural areas is not in a state of meeting the needs of the people.
(d) These poor people can not bear the cost of treatment in private hospitals.
(e) India is investing on healthcare even less than the average of South Asian countries.
Q.5. Read the story given below. Then imagine that you are a judge in the court. What would you say to Hakim Sheikh?
Ans: Being a judge, I would give a fair judgement in Hakim Sheikh’s case. He would be granted due compensation The doctors of government hospitals will be punished for dereliction of duty.
Q.6. Why did Ranjan have to spend so much money? Give reasons.
Ans: Ranjan belonged to a well-to-do-family. Hence, his parents took him to a private hospital and got quick treatment by spending a huge amount of money.
Q.7. What problems did Aman face in the public hospital? How do you think the hospital can work in a better manner? Discuss.
Ans: Aman faced the following problems in the public hospitals:
(a) Great rush at the test centre.
(b) Long queue at the OPD center.
(c) Change of doctor, the whole treatment not by the same doctor.
(d) Non-availability of medicines.
If the number of counters and doctors will be raised and the management of some of its services like cleanliness (Safai) and diagnostic tests such as blood tests, stool and urine tests, X-ray, ultrasound, etc. are handed over to the private bodies the hospital can work in a better manner.
Q.8. Where do you go when you are ill? Are there any problems that you face? Write a paragraph based on your experience.
Ans: I go to a private health clinic. I prefer it because there is no rush. The doctors take proper care, immediately special attention is given to all patients. It is neat and clean. We get all facilities under one roof.
Q.9. What problems do we face in private hospitals? Discuss.
Ans: The problems faced in private hospitals are:
(i) High cost of treatment.
(ii) The doctors prescribe more tests than required that include high costs.
Q.10. In what ways is the public health system for everyone?
Ans: The government has established public hospitals and health centres to provide healthcare to all citizens. The resources needed to run these services are obtained from the money that we, the public, pay to the government as taxes. Hence such facilities are meant for everyone.
Q.11. Private health facilities can mean many things. Explain with the help of some examples from your area.
Ans: Private health facilities can mean many things. Today these facilities or clinics are run by big companies. Such companies run many businesses associated with these centres. For example, the facilities of medicines, pathology, X-ray, ultrasound, stretchers, wheel-chairs, etc. are associated with medical facilities. Big companies at a time run many establishments which feed their health clinics.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What do you mean by a good health?
Ans: A state of free of any illness, disease, or sickness with a cool, fresh mind without taking any stress or pressure is what a good health means. A disease free person but in a depressed condition is not health.
Q.2. What is the role of government in health care?
Ans: Our Constitution lays down the primary duty of the government as providing health care to all. Our Constitution guarantees ‘Right to Life’ to all citizens and the government must safeguard their rights.
Q.3. What is the position of India in terms of health care services in the world?
Q.4. Which country has the largest number of medical colleges in the world?
Ans: India has the largest number of medical colleges in the world.
Q.5. What is the full form of WHO?
Ans: The full form of WHO is World Health Organization.
Q.6. What are the communicable diseases?
Ans: Diseases which spread from one person to another through different ways like through water, air, food, touch etc. are called as communicable diseases.
Q.7. Who has been given the duty to safeguard the right to life of every person in our constitution?
Ans: The government has been given the duty in our Constitution to safeguard the right to life of every person.
Q.8. What do you mean by ‘health’?
Ans: ‘Health’ refers to our ability to remain free from physical illness and injuries. It also includes mental health.
Q.9. Name the organisation which is responsible for policy making on health care in India.
Ans: The Ministry of Health and Family welfare is responsible for formulating policy on health care in India.
Q.10. What is the Pulse Polio Campaign?
Ans: Pulse Polio Campaign is run by the government. Children who are six month to five years of age are given free polio drops under this campaign.
Q.11. Write the full form of NVBDCP.
Ans: The full form of NVBDCP is National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme.
Q.12. How does gender discrimination affect the equality in health-services in India?
Ans: Because of gender-discrimination, women are not taken to the doctor in a prompt manner. They are devoid of expensive health treatments.
Q.13. Describe the ‘Right to Life’.
Ans: ‘Right to Life’ means every individual has the right to live a meaningful and dignified life with basic facilities like food, shelter, clothing and education.
Q.14. Which category of people are prone to illness?
Ans: Those people who are unable to have proper meals, live in a dirty environment, don’t have clean and potable water to drink, live in cramped conditions are prone to illness.
Q.15. What is the full form of RMPs?
Ans: RMP stands for Registered Medical Practitioners.
Q.16. Which sections of society in India experience inequality regarding healthcare facilities?
Ans: Poor people and women.
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What do you understand by ‘Medical Ethics’?
Ans: Medical ethics refer to the values that guide medical professionals. Such values include honesty, justice, dignity of work used by medical practitioners.
Q.2. What does the public healthcare system do?
Ans: (a) The public healthcare system looks after the health of a large section of population. It covers both the rural areas (i.e., villages) and the towns and cities.
(b) It prevents the diseases from occurring by immunization programmes and giving treatments those who have already become infected.
Q.3. Why was the 1983 National Health Policy not successful?
Ans: The 1983 National Health Policy was committed to providing health services to all by the year 2000. But it was largely unable to achieve its goals. This was because the government could not make health services as a part of the country’s development programme. Also they could not fulfil its targets of providing required nutrition and sanitation to the growing population.
Q.4. Explain the availability of private health-services in our country.
Ans: (i) There are pathological laboratories which do tests and offer facilities like X-ray and ultrasound.
(ii) There are also private chemist shops from where we can buy medicines.
(iii) In urban areas, many doctors run their private clinics.
(iv) Some hospitals and nursing homes are privately owned.
(v) These services are run for profit. The cost of these services are therefore usually high and the medicines prescribed are expensive.
Q.5. List some facilities provided by the government to its people.
Ans: Some facilities provided by the government to its people are:
(i) The Government has agencies like the municipalities which are responsible to ensure that conditions for healthy living are maintained.
(ii) Many NGOs have also taken upon themselves to go to the areas and spread education and awareness among the people to keep their surroundings clean and maintain good food and hygiene habits.
Q.6. ‘Costa Rican approach not to have an army’. Do you agree with this statement?
Ans: Costa Rican approach not to have an army is absolutely right because the funds divided from defence budget are allocated towards social programmes such as education and health of citizens and citizens are the greatest assets. The well-being of the people should be top priority of government.
Q.7. Write the steps which were taken by panchayats of Kerala Government in 1996 to improve health of the people?
Ans: (i) Health centres were improved.
(ii) Water supply schemes were checked.
(iii) Proper planning was done for water, food, women’s development and education.
(iv) The working of schools and anganwadis was ensured.
Q.8. What is health insurance policy? What are its benefits?
Ans: Health insurance is a policy in which the insurance company agrees to a specified amount for medical expenses in case of injury or illness, so that people may seek better quality health care. Yet, today, health insurance coverage is taken up mostly by urban, middle- and upper-class Indians. Indian government has proposed a universal health insurance scheme so that the common man can access good health care.
Q.9. Imagine yourself as a judge what decision you take in favour of Hakim Sheikh’s case?
Ans: If I was a judge in the court, I would sympathize with Hakim Sheikh by ordering the authorities to pay him the money he had spent in the private hospital. Also I would ask for improving the condition of public hospitals, as it is the right of everybody to have check-up in any government. hospital. The government hospitals could not deny to any such treatment.
Q.10. Why have private healthcare centres mushroomed in the country?
Ans: Private healthcare centres are mushrooming / growing up because the increasing population has increasing requirement which cannot be adequately met by the public healthcare system.
Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Describe these terms:
1. Public Health Care.
Ans: Public Health Care: Public health is the practice of protecting and improving the health of a community. Under the constitutional provisions, public health is the responsibility of the state or the central government. This includes schools, hospitals, telephone services. etc. People can demand these services and also raise questions about their non-functioning.
2. Private Health Care.
Ans: Private Health Care: Private health services refers to an activity that is organised by an individual or company for its own profit. There are a large number of doctors who have their own private clinics. Private health services are costly and cannot be afforded by the poor easily. Therefore, as a rule of government, one-fourth of the beds in private hospitals are reserved for the poor.
3. Medical Tourists.
Ans: Medical Tourists: This refers to foreigners who come to a country specifically for medical treatment at hospital that offer world-class facilities at a lower cost than what they would have to pay in their countries.
Q.2. What are the drawbacks of India’s rural healthcare system? What can be done to improve India’s rural healthcare system?
Ans: Some drawbacks of India’s rural healthcare system are:
(i) Local villagers who study medicine prefer to work in cities.
(ii) There is lack of specialized doctors in villages.
(iii) There is lack of modern machines and medical tools.
Following measures can be taken to improve India’s rural healthcare system:
(i) More medical camps should be organised.
(ii) Skilled doctors should be given incentives to open clinics in villages.
Q.3. What is the Costa Rican approach and what facilities are provided by the Costa Rican government to its people?
Ans: Costa Rica is considered to be one of the healthiest countries in South America. Costa Rica took a very important decision and decided not to have an army. All the money which was used to manage army, could be used for other useful projects, such as health, education and meeting other basic needs of the people.
The Costa Rican government provides basic services and amenities to all Costa Ricans. For example, it provides safe drinking water, sanitation, nutrition and housing. Government also considered that health education is very important and knowledge about health is an essential part of education at all levels.
Q.4. Is adequate healthcare facilities available to everyone? Explain.
Ans: No, adequate healthcare facilities is available to everyone equally in India because:
(i) Private services are concentrated more in urban areas.
(ii) These services are run for profit and they use modern facilities but they are not affordable by all people.
(iii) Poor people find it difficult to afford private services and they go to government hospital at last during sickness which are poorly maintained.
(iv) In India lower social classes have no adequate means of livelihood, dirty surroundings, lack of safe drinking water and are more prone to diseases.
(v) Expense on private treatment make their situation even more worse.
Q.5. List the various measures by which spread of diseases can be checked.
Ans: Various measures by which spread of diseases can be checked are:
(a) There should be appropriate healthcare facilities such as health centres, hospitals, laboratories, ambulance services, blood banks etc.
(b) In order to run such facilities there should be health workers, nurses, qualified doctors and other health professionals who can advice, diagnose and treat illness.
(c) There should also be appropriate medicines and equipments that are necessary for treating patients.
Q.6. Why are health services referred to as ‘public’ ?
List some of the advantages of public health services.
Ans: Health services are often referred to as public because of the following reasons:
(a) In order to fulfil its commitment of providing healthcare to all citizens, the government has established these hospitals and health centres.
(b) The resources needed to run these services are obtained from the money that the public pay to the government as taxes.
(c) Government provides quality healthcare services either free or at a low cost so that even the poor can seek treatment.
Q.7. Explain the three tier system that exists in public health services.
Ans: The three tier system that exists in public health services can be explained as follows:
(a) At the village level there are health centres where there is usually a nurse and a village health worker. They are trained in dealing with common illnesses and work under the supervision of doctors at the Primary Health Centre (PHC).
(b) At the district level is the District Hospital that also supervises all the health centres.
(c) Large cities may have many government hospitals and also specialised hospitals.
Higher Order Thinking Skill
Q.1. Indian doctors do not prefer to work in India, even if they get their education here. Why?
Ans: Indian doctors prefer to work abroad because:
(a) They get better material and benefits for their services.
(b) They get better professional opportunities and research opportunities.
(c) Doctors are less professionally discriminated against in other countries.
Q.2. Write about some aspects of our lives which affect our health.
Ans: (a) Sometimes we are dull, inactive, anxious or scared for long stretches of time.
(b) We also get mentally strained because of work load, family
Q.3. “For those who are poor, every illness in the family is a cause of great anxiety and distress.” Explain the statement.
Ans: This statement is true because:
(a) Firstly, those who are poor are undernourished. Their families are not eating as much as they should.
(b) They are not provided basic necessities like drinking water, adequate housing, clean surroundings etc., and therefore are more likely to fall ill.
(c) They do not have enough money to afford medical/healthcare facilities.
Q.4. Why everyone cannot utilize private healthcare facilities?
Ans. Private healthcare centres charge huge fees, prescribe costly medicines and tests and thus they are not easily affordable by all.
Q.4. List the constitutional measures that help to ensure health for all.
Ans: The constitutional measures that help to ensure health for all are:
(a) According to Indian Constitution, it is the primary duty of the government to ensure the welfare of the people and provide healthcare facilities to all.
(b) The government must safeguard the Right to Life to every person and provide timely medical treatment to all persons.
(c) The court also said that it was the duty of the government to provide the necessary health services, including treatment in emergency situations. Hospitals and medical staff must fulfil their duty of providing the necessary treatment.
Value Based Questions
Q.1. Comment on the policy of Kerala Government in 1996 towards healthcare services.
Ans: Some major changes introduced by Kerala government in 1996 are:
(i) 40% of the entire state budget was given to panchayats.
(ii) The villages could now make proper planning for water, food, women’s development and education.
(iii) Health centres were improved.
(iv) The working of schools and anganwadi was ensured.
(v) Water supply schemes were checked to ensure good health.
Though the situation was improved, yet there were loopholes like shortage of medicines, insufficient hospital beds and lesser number of doctors.
Q.2. Why healthcare services are not available equally to all in India? What can be done to remove inequalities in healthcare services?
Ans: Healthcare services are not available equally to all in India because:
(i) More and more healthcare services are privatised now and they are concentrated in urban areas.
(ii) These services are run for profit and they use modern facilities which are not affordable by all.
(iii) The poor people are unable to use these facilities.
(iv) Very less percentage of the population can afford medicines required during illness.
(v) The poor people visit government hospitals during sickness which are poorly maintained. Following measures can be taken to remove inequalities in healthcare services:
(a) The government should provide healthcare services to all citizens. especially the poor and the disadvantaged.
(b) The government should improve the basic health and sanitation conditions of the people so that diseases do not spread.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Multiple Choice Questions
Tick (✔) the correct option:
1. Which one of the following refers to our ability to remain free of illness, injuries and all other factors that affect our physical and mental well-being?
Ans: (i) Health.
2. The Five-year plans to improve public health are initiated by the _______.
(i) State government.
(iii) Central government.
(iv) Zila parishad.
Ans: (iii) Central government.
3. What is full form of RMP?
(i) Revenue Medical Personal.
(ii) Registered Medical Personal.
(iii) Registered Medical Practitioner.
Ans: (iii) Registered Medical Practitioner.
4. Which one of the following is communicable disease?
(iii) Small Pox.
Ans: (i) T.B.
5. _______ is the first Indian state to guarantee Right to Health.
Ans: (i) Assam.
6. AVIVA LIFE INSURANCE belongs to _______ sector.
(iv) joint sector.
Ans: (ii) Private.
7. What is the position of India in terms of healthcare services in the world?
Ans: (iv) Fourth.
8. To remain healthy a man should get _______.
(i) Pollution free environment.
(ii) Clean drinking water.
(iii) Uncontaminated food.
(iv) All the above.
Ans: (iv) All the above.
II. Fill in the blanks:
1. _______ is the cornerstone of rural healthcare system.
Ans: Primary Health Centre.
2. Cholera comes under a ________ disease.
3. Treatment at government hospital is provided either free or at a _______ fee.
4. In ______ campaigns few drops of medicine are given to all children below 4 years of age.
Ans: Pulse Polio.
III. True or False:
1. Fumigation is done to prevent the spread of diseases.
2. Private healthcare facilities are not affordable by all.
3. Malaria, dengue are some water-borne diseases.
4. Contaminated water does not cause any disease.
5. OPD term refers to Out Patient Depart-ment.