Class 9 History Chapter 2 French Revolution

Class 9 History Chapter 2 French Revolution, Elective History class 9 SEBA Notes and Question Answer In English Medium The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SEBA Class 9 History Chapter 2 French Revolution and select need one.

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Class 9 History Chapter 2 French Revolution

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 9 History Chapter 2 French Revolution Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

French Revolution

Lesson – 2

HISTORY

VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS

(a) Who was the emperor of France during the time of the French Revolution ? 

Ans : The emperor of France during the time of the French Revolution was Louis XVI.

(b) What is Cahier ? 

Ans : The memorandums submitted by the representatives listing the needs and demand of their constituencies as per suggestion of the king came to be known as Cahier.

(c) Who was the author of ‘The Wealth of Nations’ ?

Ans : The author of ‘The Wealth of Nations’  was Adam Smith.

(d) In which year was the emperor Louis XVI executed ? 

Ans : Emperor Louis XVI was executed by the National Convention in 1793.

(e) In which year was the Congress of Vienna held ? 

Ans : The Congress of Vienna was held in the year 1815.

(f) Who said,” I am the State” ? 

Ans : The statement ‘I am the State’ was said by Emperor Louis XVI.

(g) Who said himself to be the son of Revolution ? 

Ans : Napoleon said himself to be the son of Revolution.

(h) Who said,” When France sneezes,Europe catches cold” ? 

Ans : The statement ‘ When France sneezes, Europe 

catches cold’ was said by Prince Metternich.

(i) Under whose presidentship was the Oath of Tennis Court convened ?

Ans : The Oath of Tennis Court was convened under the presidentship of Bally.

(j) Who composed the book, ‘Social Contract’ ? 

Ans : The famous book ‘ Social Contract’ was written by Rousseau.

(k) In which year was the republic in France formed ? 

Ans : France became a republic in the year 1792.

(l) What was the incident of the 18th Brummaire ?

Ans : The starting of the consulate after dissolving the powers of the Directors came to be known as 18th Brummaire.

(m) What was the message of French Revolution ? 

Ans : The message of French Revolution was equality, liberty and fraternity.

SHORT NOTES ON

(a) States General. 

Ans : States General :- The summoning of the States General in 1789 was the immediate cause for the outbreak of French Revolution. King Louis XVI was forced to call the States General which consisted of three groups or Estates of French society. These were: 

1.The First Estate consisted of Bishops and other  important men of the church.

2. The Second Estate consisted of nobles and men of high birth.

3. The Third Estate consisted of peasants, artisans, small merchants, and the bourgeoisie which included the industrial and commercial entrepreneurs, professional men, etc.The representatives of three groups together constituted what is known as States General.

The Estates-General consisted of 1200 members, 600 representing the first two estates and the remaining 600 were from the Third estate. The members of the Third Estate demanded that the three estates should constitute and meet as a single body representing the entire country.They also wanted every member to have an individual vote. But these demands were rejected by the king and by the members of first two estates. 

Abbe Sieyes,an important leader of the Third Estate therefore suggested that the Third estate should convert itself into a National Assembly. This was too much for the king and he put off the general meeting of the estates general. Soon the Third Estate met together, converted itself into a national assembly and called the other two Estates to join them. This was the beginning of the French Revolution.

(b) Fall of Bastille.

Ans : Fall of Bastille:- The fall of Bastille Prison on 14th July, 1789 is an important landmark event of French Revolution. The Bastille fort symbolised the tyranny, oppression and the despotism of the French monarchy and it was a symbol of its power and autocracy.The mob, particularly from Paris already agitated over the posting of the soldiers all over the city, marched towards the fort and stormed it on July 14, 1789. They broke the walls of the prison and set free the prisoners. Many consider it as real beginning of French revolution. The fall of Bastille prison is therefore an event of great significance.It signalled the commencement of a great revolution which put an end to the old order. It marked the end of royal despotism, aristocratic domination and the power of the privileged class. It ushered a new era of liberty, equality and fraternity and established the sovereignty of the people. That is why, the day July 14 is recognised as the chief national day even today in France.

(c) Declaration of the Rights of man and citizen.

Ans : Declaration of the Rights of man and citizen :- The Third Estate which had been summoned in May 1789 by King Louis XVI under financial difficulties converted itself to the constituents Assembly and decided to frame a new Constitution for France.One of its first tasks was to issue a set of fundamental rights and liberties to the French people.On Aug, 26th 1789 the Assembly passed a charter of liberties known as the ‘Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the citizen’. This document reflected the spirit of Rousseau’s philosophy. It asserted that :

(i) all men are born equal in rights.

(ii) Sovereignty resides with the people.

(iii)Laws must be the expression of the general will of the people.

(iv) None should be punished unless for violation of the laws of the land.

(v) All men have the freedom of expression.

(vi) All taxes would be raised only by the consent of the people. 

Thus the declaration recognised the fundamental rights of man, his right to liberty, equality, freedom from arrest from arbitrary imprisonment, freedom from arrest from arbitrary imprisonment, freedom of speech and writings, right to vote, right to equitable taxation etc. Thus the document is a Magna Carta of individual rights and liberties.

(d) Paris commune.

Ans : Paris commune :- The fall of Bastille prison on 14 July 1789 marked the beginning of the French Revolution and the overthrow of French monarchy. A new tricolour flag was adopted. A National Guard was created in Paris under the command of Marquis Lafayette. A new Municipal Council consisting of the chosen representatives of various localities of Paris was set-up to rule Paris. This committee came to be known as ‘Paris Commune’. It controlled the affairs of Paris for the next three years.

(e) Women March.

Ans : Women March :- Soon after the fall of the Bastille prison on 14th July, 1789 a revolutionary government was formed in Paris under the banner of Paris commune with a new National Guard.Under pressure, King Louis XVI recognised the new set-up. But at the same time  he tried to bring about a counter-revolution with the help of foreign powers and local supporters. With this in view, he gave a sumptuous banquet to his royal supporters on 4th October, 1789. 

Soon rumours spread that the National tricolour was insulted by King’s royal supporters and that the king was planning a counter-revolution. The Parisians became furious and wanted to kill all the counter-revolutionaries. Therefore on 5th October,1789 the women of Paris numbering About six to seven thousand mad with hunger and rage, marched to the palace of the King Louis XVI in Versailles. This came to be known as the famous march of hungry women of Paris. They marched to Versailles and compelled King and his royal family to join the revolution. Ultimately, the king yielded and on compulsion accompanied the crowd to Paris the very next day while the crowd sang along the way, “We have the baker, baker’s wife and the little cook boy, now we shall have bread.”When the royal family reached Paris they became virtual prisoners in the hands of the Paris Commune.

(f) Jacobin Club.

Ans : Jacobin Club :- The Jacobins were a group of French revolutionaries who wanted to establish social and political democracy in France in the place of Bourbon monarchy. They came to prominence during the days of the Legislative Assembly formed in 1791.They stood for the abolition of monarchy in France,  removal of property franchise and confiscation of all church property and execution of all those who were opposed to the revolution. Robespierre and Danton were the key personalities of this group. Jacobins were primarily responsible for the execution of King Louis XVI and for the ten-month long reign of terror in France. They practically controlled the density of France from 1791 to 1794. The power and position of this group ended with the guillotining of their leader Robespierre on 6th July, 1794.

(g) Black September.

Ans : Black September :- The events of the revolutionary France in 1791 compelled the foreign powers to come to the aid of King Louis XVI. The combined armies of Austria and Prussia invaded France towards the end of August,1792 and on 2nd Sept.captured Verdun,the last strong-hold before Paris. Fear and frenzy gripped the city. Soon a rumour was spread that the thousands of royal supporters kept in jail and the counter-revolutionaries hiding within the country would join the foreigners to undo the revolution.

Thereupon, the radicals let loose a reign of two days of terror (Sept.2nd and 3rd) in which thousands of suspected royal supporters and counter-revolutionaries were savagely butchered to death.This event came to be known as Black September or September massacre.

(h) Reign of terror.

Ans : Reign of terror :- Amidst the chaos of the bloody massacre of September 1792, a new Legislative Assembly was elected. It converted itself into a National Convention.A Committee Public Safety consisting of twelve members was authorised by this National Convention  to take all necessary executive action to deal on account of the activities of royalists and the counter-revolutionaries.It therefore, let loose a ten-month long reign of terror from September 1793 to july 1794 under the leadership of Robespierre in which all those who were guillotined. 

This period in French history is known as the ‘Reign of Terror’.It is estimated that about five thousand people were executed in Paris alone during this period.This period of French is reckoned as one of the black periods of French history when hundreds perished due to difference of opinion and whims of certain leaders.

(i) Consulate.

Ans :- Consulate :- One of the features of the new Constitution of the Third year(1795) prepared by the National Convention was the creation of a new executive organ of the state known as Directory.It consisted of five directors who were to be appointed by the bicameral Legislative Assembly.Their main task was to see to the enforcement of laws within the country. In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte with the help of one of the directors overthrew this executive organ and established a government of system of government came to be known as the consulate. It consisted of a government of three consuls of whom Napoleon was the First Consul and the president of the consulate. The other two consuls served as assistants. The First Consul was not only the administrative head but also exercised supreme control over to the army and foreign policy. 

The legislative organs of the consulate consisted of four houses, namely, the council of the state, tribunate, the legislative body and the senate. The Council of state proposed the laws, the Tribunate discussed the laws, the Legislative body was the given right to vote in the bills. The senate had the final right of testing the constitutionality of any law passed by the other three organs. Thus, the legislative power lay in the hands of the Senate whose members were nominated by the consuls.

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