Class 9 History Chapter 2 French Revolution, Elective History class 9 SEBA Notes and Question Answer In English Medium answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SEBA Class 9 History Chapter 2 French Revolution and select need one.
Class 9 History Chapter 2 French Revolution
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Lesson – 2
1. VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTIONS
(a) Who was the emperor of France during the time of the French Revolution?
Ans: Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte.
(b) What is Cahier?
Ans: a number of sheets of paper or leaves of a book placed together, as for binding. a report of the proceedings of any body: A cahier of the committee was presented to the legislature.
(c) Who was the author of ‘The Wealth of Nations’?
Ans: Adam Smith.
(d) In which year was the emperor Louis XVI executed?
Ans: 21 January 1793
(e) In which year was the Congress of Vienna held ?
Ans: 1814 – 15
(f) Who said,” I am the State”?
Ans: Louis XIV.
(g) Who said himself to be the son of Revolution?
(h) Who said,” When France sneezes,Europe catches cold”?
(i) Under whose presidentship was the Oath of Tennis Court convened?
(j) Who composed the book, ‘Social Contract’?
Ans: Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
(k) In which year was the republic in France formed?
Ans: 22 September 1792.
(l) What was the incident of the 18th Brummaire?
Ans: Marx wrote The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon between December 1851 and March 1852. The “Eighteenth Brumaire” refers to November 9, 1799 in the French Revolutionary Calendar — the day the first Napoleon Bonaparte had made himself dictator by a coup d’etat.
(m) What was the message of French Revolution?
Ans: So, through French Revolution the idea of freedom, abolition of monarchy was spread. Changes in society were brought in terms of social, political and economical policies. Gaining equality, liberty, and fraternity was their aim in which they succeeded through a long yet active procedures.
B. SHORT NOTES ON:
(a) States General.
Ans: Estates-General, also called States General, French États-Généraux, in France of the pre-Revolution monarchy, the representative assembly of the three “estates,” or orders of the realm: the clergy (First Estate) and nobility (Second Estate)—which were privileged minorities—and the Third Estate, which represented the majority of the people.
The origins of the Estates-General are to be found in traditions of counsel and aid and the development of corporate representation in the 13th century. The first national assembly of representatives of the three estates met at Notre-Dame in Paris on April 10, 1302, to discuss the conflict between Philip IV (the Fair) and Pope Boniface VIII.
(b) Fall of Bastille.
Ans: Bastille was used as a royal prison and also as fortress gate for the city of Paris. The Paris Commune order led to the demolition of the prison.
In July 1789, an angry mob laid siege on the fortress of Bastille. The day the bastille was attacked by the angry people, there were very few prisoners who were held in the prison and also the number of guards who guarded the fortress was less. The people were thus able to overwhelm the guards and also arrested and murdered the governor. The people claimed the bastille.
(c) Declaration of the Rights of man and citizen.
Ans: The representatives of the French people, organized in a National Assembly, considering that ignorance, forgetfulness or contempt of the rights of man are the sole causes of public miseries and the corruption of governments, have resolved to set forth in a solemn declaration the natural, inalienable and sacred rights of man, so that this declaration, being ever-present to all the members of the social body, may unceasingly remind them of their rights and duties; in order that the acts of the legislative power and those of the executive power may at each moment be compared with the aim of every political institution and thereby may be more respected; and in order that the demands of the citizens, grounded henceforth upon simple and incontestable principles, may always take the direction of maintaining the constitution and welfare of all.
In consequence, the National Assembly recognizes and declares, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following rights of man and citizen:
1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.
2. The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
3. The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. No body nor individual may exercise any authority which does not proceed directly from the nation.
4. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by law.
5. Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society. Nothing may be prevented which is not forbidden by law, and no one may be forced to do anything not provided for by law.
(d) Paris commune.
Ans: In 1871 France was at war with Prussia — and losing badly. Napoléon III had been captured and he agreed to a humiliating peace. Many Parisians did not want to surrender to Prussia, and there were many who also felt the gains of the 1789 Revolution had been lost. The Paris Commune was a seizure of power by a popularly-led government that ruled Paris for three months. Some call it a failed revolution, as it was certainly violent and had the hallmarks of a French revolution — including barricades in the streets. However, after three months, it was crushed by the conservative forces that were still essentially in control of the French nation. Despite its inauspicious start, the Third Republic would endure until 1940 when it was defeated by the German Nazis and replaced by the government of Vichy which collaborated with the Nazis. After the Liberation of France, the Fourth Republic was formed and lasted until 1958 when a new constitution was created by Charles de Gaulle establishing the current Fifth Republic.
(e) Women March.
Ans: Women’s March, demonstrations held throughout the world on January 21, 2017, to support gender equality, civil rights, and other issues that were expected to face challenges under newly inaugurated U.S. Pres. Donald Trump. The march was initially scheduled to be held only in Washington, D.C., but “sister marches” arose throughout the United States and numerous other countries. According to some estimates, as many as 4.6 million people attended the various events in the United States, and it was widely believed to be the largest single-day demonstration in that country’s history.
The idea for the Women’s March arose after Republican Trump defeated his Democrat opponent, Hillary Clinton, in the 2016 presidential election; in addition, Republicans gained control of Congress on election day. During the campaign, Trump attracted much attention for his conservative political views as well as for his inflammatory remarks, a number of which were about women. Notably, a hot-mic video from 2005 surfaced in which he told an entertainment reporter that “when you’re a star you can do anything,” including grabbing women by the genitals.
(f) Jacobin Club.
Ans: The Jacobin Club was formed by Maximilian Robespierre. One of the influential political clubs that formed by Maximilian Robespierre during the French revolution was the Jacobins club. They were considered to be the radical revolutionaries who planned the rise of the French revolution and the downfall of the King. Jacobin is sometimes used in the UK as a pejorative for radical, left-wing revolutionary politics.
The measures are taken by him follow:
- Formation of political clubs.
- Members of the Jacobin Club.
- All citizens got the right to vote.
- Declaration of France as a Republic. ETC
- All properties of Churches, the nobility were taken by state and distributed amongst farmers.
(g) Black September.
Ans: The first Labor Day holiday was celebrated on Tuesday, September 5, 1882, in New York City, in accordance with the plans of the Central Labor Union. The Central Labor Union held its second Labor Day holiday just a year later, on September 5, 1883.
By 1894, 23 more states had adopted the holiday, and on June 28, 1894, President Grover Cleveland signed a law making the first Monday in September of each year a national holiday.
Many Americans celebrate Labor Day with parades and parties – festivities very similar to those outlined by the first proposal for a holiday, which suggested that the day should be observed with – a street parade to exhibit “the strength and esprit de corps of the trade and labor organizations” of the community, followed by a festival for the recreation and amusement of the workers and their families. This became the pattern for the celebrations of Labor Day.
(h) Reign of terror.
Ans: 1. The period from 1793 to 1794 CE is known as the Reign of Terror. Robespierre, the leader of Jacobin club, followed a policy of strict control and punishment.
2. He arrested, imprisoned and then tried all the people he saw as enemies of the republic through a revolutionary tribunal.
3. They included exnobles and clergy, members of other political parties, even members of his own party who did not agree with his methods. If the court found them guilty, they were guillotined.
4. Robespierres government issued laws placing an upper limit on wages and prices. All the people were allowed to have only a fixed amount of meat and bread.
5. Peasants were forced to send their grain to the cities and sell it at prices fixed by the government. The use of more expensive white flour was forbidden.
6. All the citizens were required to eat a loaf of bread made of whole wheat.
7. Churches were shut down and their buildings were converted into barracks or offices.
Ans: A consulate is the office of a consul. A type of diplomatic mission, it is usually subordinate to the state’s main representation in the capital of that foreign country (host state), usually an embassy (or, only between two Commonwealth countries, a high commission).
Consulate, (1799–1804) French government established after the Coup of 18–19 Brumaire (Nov. 9–10, 1799), during the French Revolution. The Constitution of the Year VIII created an executive consisting of three consuls, but the First Consul, Napoleon Bonaparte, wielded all real power, while the other two, Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès and Pierre-Roger Ducos (1747–1816), were figureheads. The principles of representation and legislative supremacy were discarded. The executive branch was given the power to draft new laws, and the legislative branch became little more than a rubber stamp. Elections became an elaborate charade, with voters stripped of real power. Napoleon abolished the Consulate when he declared himself emperor in 1804.
3. Essay Type Questions
(a) Briefly discuss the causes of French Revolution.
Ans: Causes Of French Revolution of 1789:
1. Social: The social conditions in France in the late 18th century were extremely unequal and exploitative. The clergy and the nobility formed the first two Estates and were the most privileged classes in French society. They were exempt from payment of taxes to the State. On the other hand, the Third Estate that consisted of peasants and workers formed the majority of the population. They were burdened with excessive taxes with no political and social rights. As a result, they were extremely discontent.
2. Economic: As a result of numerous wars waged by Louis XVI the State coffers were empty. The situation was made even more complex by France’s involvement in the American War of Independence and the faulty system of taxation. While the privileged classes were excused from paying taxes the Third Estate was more and more burdened with them.
3. Political: The Bourbon king of France, Louis XVI was an extremely autocratic and weak-willed king who led a life of obscene luxury. This led to a lot of disenchantment among the masses who then were leading life of extreme poverty and widespread hunger.
4. Intellectual: The 18th century was marked by a conscious refusal by French thinkers of the ‘Divine Rights Theory’. Philosophers like Rousseau rejected the paradigm of absolute monarchy and promulgated the doctrine of equality of man and sovereignty of people. They played a pivotal role in exposing the fault lines of the old political system, i.e. the ancien regime, and articulating the popular discontent.
(b) How did the writings of Philosophers and intellectuals inspire the French revolutionaries against the autocracy of the king?
Ans: Philosophers had an influence on the French Revolution:
1. During the French Revolution, philosophers played a significant role. With their revolutionary principles, they galvanized the French people and prepared them to resist injustice.
2. They did not believe in the divine doctrine or the monarchy’s absolute power.
Philosophers influenced French people’s thinking in the following ways:
1. They thought that man controlled his own fate.
2. Criticized monarchs’ divine and absolute powers.
3. The concept of establishing a government based on a social contract between citizens and their representatives.
4. It is not a good idea to concentrate on all of one’s abilities.
The Role of Philosophers in the French Revolution was to inspire people with their revolutionary ideas.
Since it was one of the first major revolutions in the world, the philosophers gave the citizens the intellectual legs to stand up and fight against the injustice of the French monarchy.
Some of the most famous and influential French philosophers were Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, and Diderot. Their revolutionary ideas not only encouraged the common people of France to fight for their rights in the French Revolution but also inspired the rest of the world.
(c) Briefly mention about the functions of National Assembly.
Ans: During the French Revolution, the National Assembly was a revolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the Third Estate (commoners) after they broke away from the Estates-General in 1789.
The functions of the National Assembly included:
1. Drafting the Constitution: One of the primary functions of the National Assembly was to draft a new constitution for France, aimed at creating a more equitable and just society. This led to the formation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, a fundamental document that proclaimed the basic rights and freedoms of all citizens.
2. Legislative Authority: The National Assembly acted as the legislative body, creating and passing laws that aimed to dismantle the feudal system, abolish privileges of the clergy and nobility, and promote equality and individual rights.
3. Confiscation of Church Lands: The National Assembly, in an effort to address France’s financial crisis, confiscated Church lands and property, selling them to the highest bidders. This move, known as the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, also reformed the Church structure, making it more accountable to the state.
4. Establishment of a Constitutional Monarchy: Initially, the National Assembly aimed to establish a constitutional monarchy, limiting the powers of the king and creating a constitutional framework for the government. However, radical elements within the Assembly eventually led to the abolition of the monarchy and the proclamation of the First French Republic in 1792.
5. Suppression of Feudal Privileges: The National Assembly passed laws and decrees that abolished feudal privileges, serfdom, and other remnants of the medieval feudal system. This was a crucial step toward creating a more egalitarian society.
6. Promotion of Enlightenment Ideals: The National Assembly was influenced by Enlightenment ideals of reason, liberty, and equality. Its actions reflected these principles, laying the groundwork for modern democratic and republican values in France.
In summary, the National Assembly played a pivotal role in shaping the course of the French Revolution by drafting key documents, passing significant legislation, and fundamentally altering the political and social landscape of France.
(d) Discuss the results of the French Revolution.
Ans: The French Revolution of 1789 was a turning point in world history. The impact of the French Revolution on the freedom struggle of different countries of the world is immense.
1. Ideology of Nationalism: The emergence of patriotism and nationalism in the French Revolution influenced various countries of the world. National states were established in countries like Germany, Italy, Greece, etc. under the inspiration of this ideal.
2. Ideals of Equality, Alliance and Liberty: The main ideals of the French Revolution were- Equality, Alliance and Liberty. Beyond the boundaries of France, over time, this ideal inspired the struggle to establish people’s rights in various countries of the world.
3. Spread of progressive thought: As a result of the French Revolution, the political, social, economic conditions were greatly changed. The progressive thought of French philosophers like Rousseau, Voltaire, Montesquieu etc. is appreciated all over the world.
4. Spread of democratic ideals: As a result of the French Revolution democratic ideals spread. This revolution ended the autocratic monarchy in France and democratic rule became popular. People of different countries of the world were inspired by democratic ideals like fundamental rights, freedom of speech, independence of judiciary, secularism etc.
(e) Write briefly how did Napoleon capture power in France.
Ans: Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and related wars. Born on the island of Corsica in 1769, Napoleon was educated at military schools in France and became a second lieutenant in the French army. He quickly rose through the ranks, becoming a brigadier general and then a major general, and in 1799 was appointed first consul of France. In 1804, Napoleon proclaimed himself Emperor of the French and established a new dynasty. He continued to expand the French Empire through military conquest, eventually becoming one of the most powerful rulers in Europe.
Napoleon Bonaparte achieved power through a combination of military might and political strategy.
1. Introduction: Napoleon was born on the island of Corsica in 1769 and educated at military schools in France. He became a second lieutenant in the French army in 1785.
2. Gaining the rank of lieutenant: Napoleon quickly rose through the ranks, becoming a lieutenant in 1792. He demonstrated his military prowess in several battles, including the Siege of Toulon, where he helped drive the British from the city.
3. Promoted to Brigadier General: In 1796, Napoleon was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General and given command of the Army of Italy. He won several decisive battles, including the Battle of Rivoli, which helped establish French control over northern Italy.
Promoted to Major General: In 1799, Napoleon was promoted to the rank of Major General and became First Consul of France. He introduced several reforms, including the establishment of a new legal system, the Napoleonic Code.
4. Consulate Rule: As First Consul, Napoleon consolidated his power and became the effective ruler of France. He implemented several reforms aimed at modernizing and centralizing the French government.
Proclamation of the French Emperor: In 1804, Napoleon proclaimed himself Emperor of the French and established a new dynasty. He continued to expand the French Empire through military conquest, eventually becoming one of the most powerful rulers in Europe.
In conclusion, Napoleon Bonaparte gained power through a combination of military conquest and political strategy. He rose through the ranks in the French army and eventually became First Consul and Emperor of France.
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