Class 9 History Chapter 1 American War Of Independence, Elective History class 9 SEBA Notes and Question Answer In English Medium The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SEBA Class 9 History Chapter 1 American War Of Independence and select need one.
Class 9 History Chapter 1 American War Of Independence
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American War Of Independence
Answer very briefly
(a) When and who discovered America ?
Ans : America was discovered in 1492 by Christopher Columbus.
(b) Who founded Virginia ?
Ans : The British colony of Virginia in America was founded by Sir Walter Raleigh.
(c) Who was the king of England during the American War of Independence ?
Ans : King George 3 was the king of England during the American War of Independence.
(d) How many British colonies were there in America ?
Ans : There were 13(thirteen) British colonies in America.
(e) Who drafted the Declaration of Independence ?
Ans : The great Philanthropist, Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence.
(f) In which battle did the combined forces of America and France defeat General Cornwallis ?
Ans : The combined forces of America and France defeat General Cornwallis in the battle of York Town in 1781.
(g) Mention two foreign powers who had helped America.
Ans : Two foreign powers that helped America during her fight against England were France and Spain.
(h) Who authored ‘Common Sense’ ?
Ans : Thomas Paine authored the book titled ‘Common Sense’.
(i) Under whose presidentship was the American Constitution drafted ?
Ans : Under the presidentship of George Washington, the American Constitution was drafted.
(j) Who was the first president of America ?
Ans : George Washington was the first president of America.
(k) The American natives were known by what name ?
Alternate Question: By what name were the American natives known ?
Ans : The American natives were known by the name ‘Red Indians’.
(l) What is the tenure of office of the American president ?
Ans : The tenure of office of the American president is four years.
(m) Name two main political parties of America.
Ans : Two main political parties of America are the Democratic and the Republican.
(n) When did the American Constitution come into force ?
Ans : The American Constitution came into force on March 4, 1791.
WRITE SHORT NOTES
(a) Origin of the name-America.
Ans : Origin of the name-America :- America was discovered by Christopher Columbus of Spain in 1492.But, the new world discovered by him was not named after him. It was named after Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian mariner from the city of Florence. He seemed to have made three voyages to the new continent discovered by Columbus. Amerigo, who went to the new world after Columbus wrote account of his voyages giving geographical details of the new world. He was the first explored by him and earlier by Columbus was a new continent. Therefore a German professor of Geography named the new continent after Amerigo. From then, the named gained popularity and the new world came to be known as America, as the Latin version of Amerigo is Americus.
(b) Declaration of Independence.
Ans : Declaration of Independence :- The American Revolution popularly known as the American War of Independence ranks as one of the most glorious events of world history. It originated as a result of certain economic and political hurdles which England had placed upon America. The rejection of the Olive Branch Petition by King George 3 in 1775 marked the beginning of the open hostilities between the American colonists and the British forces.
Meanwhile, in an assembly in Philadelphia, the great Philanthropist Thomas Jefferson drafted a Declaration of Independence on 4th July, 1776. This document marked the birth of the United States of America as an independent nation. This document listed certain grievances against King George 3 and also put forward some logical arguments for independence.
The three important point of this Declaration were:
1. Every human being has the right to live life freely, happily and independently.
2. Every government should rule with the consent of the people.
3. People have the right to overthrow autocratic governments.
Besides, the concluding part of the document asserted that,” these united colonies were and ought to be free and independent states; that they were absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connections between them and the state of Great Britain was and ought to be totally dissolved.”
(c) Pilgrim fathers.
Ans : Pilgrim fathers :- In England, there was a conservative section of the Christian community, is called the Puritans.But they had to face many difficulties in practising their religion in their own country. Therefore, in 1620 many Puritans left England in a ship named ‘Mayflower’ and got settled in one of the colonies named Plymouth.These early migrants from England who had fled from England due to religious persecution came to be known as Pilgrim Fathers. Their example was followed by many others and many other came away from England and got settled in Plymouth.
(d) Boston Tea Party.
Ans : Boston Tea party: In 1767, Charles Townshend, the British Prime minister, passed import duties on several commonly used items such as glass, paper and tea to enhance revenue. This caused widespread riots and violent protests from the colonists. Under pressure, the Townshend duties were repealed and only the tax on tea retained.The continuation of the tax on tea was opposed by the colonists and it eventually led to riots in many of the colonies.
In May 1770, riots took place between the British army and the people of Boston. As a result of the riot, many people died. This event came to be known as Boston massacre.This incident infuriated the colonists and created a wave of immigrant protests all over the country.So when in 1773, three ships loaded with tea arrived at the Boston port, some colonists dressed as Red Indians boarded the ships and threw nearly 342 tea chests into the sea.This incident came to be known as ‘Boston Tea party’. The incident of Boston Tea party is considered as a significant event of the American War of Independence.
It marked the beginning of the armed resistance to the British domination of America. The Punitive measures undertaken by the British government to punish the colony of Massachusetts to which Boston belonged, precipitated the crisis and directly led to the outbreak of open war between the colonists and the British.
(e) Stamp Act Congress.
Ans : In order to meet the expenses incurred in the Seven Years War, the Prime Minister of England George Greenville introduced an act named Stamp Act in 1765. This act made it compulsory to use stamps in all documents, agreements and newspapers of America. The colonists opposed this Act, as they had no representatives in the British Parliament. Therefore, some of the leaders such as Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry and Christopher Gadsden organised a gathering of representatives of nine colonies in New York in 1765 to chalk out programmes of agitation against the Act.
This assembly came to be known as the Stamp Act Congress. This assembly appealed to British King George 3 to repeal the Act. The Assembly strongly opposed the Act and planned major demonstrations against the Act. In this British Parliament, liberal members like William Pitt and Edmund Burke criticised the Act as an unwise and provocative measure and urged for its repeal. As a result,the British government repealed the Act. This repealing of the Act showed the colonists the power of agitation and protest.
(f) Armed Neutrality.
Ans : Armed Neutrality :- While many countries like France, Spain and Holland actively supported the American colonists in their fight against England during the American War of Independence, many countries like Denmark, Sweden, Portugal, Russia,etc. remained neutral and wanted free movement of their ships in the seas. They opposed the British Custom of searching their ships in the sea for men and materials in support of the colonists. These countries formed an association named Armed Neutrality so that their ships could move in the Seas without the fear of being searched by the British.Thus, the Armed Neutrality proved to be detrimental to the British interests as three countries continued to trade with the colonists with the support of the countries of Armed Neutrality.
(g) Bill of Rights.
Ans : Bill of Rights :- The American War of Independence came to an end with the Treaty of Versailles in 1783. Soon after the achievement of independence ,55 representatives of 12 states (Rhode Islands had no representative) started the work of farming the Constitution.Finally, the Constitution prepared by this group was formally accepted on 4 March, 1791. But the newly approved Constitution did not have fundamental rights of citizens and so in November 1791 some amendments were made to overcame these Incorporated certain fundamental rights such as right to exist,right to religion, right to expression,free press,right to religion, right to expression, free press, right to property , right to trial by jury, etc. These rights as Incorporated in the American Constitution came to be known as Bill of Rights.
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