Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 8 Industry

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Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 8 Industry, answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SEBA Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 8 Industry and select need one.

Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 8 Industry

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 8 Industry Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.


Chapter – 8


Q.1. Classify industries stating the basis of your classification.

Ans: Industries can be classified based on several criteria. 

Here are some common classifications:

1. Primary Industries: 

  • Extractive Industries: Involve the extraction of natural resources from the earth. Examples include mining, fishing, forestry, and agriculture.
  • Genetic Industries: Involve cultivation and reproduction of plants, animals, and aquatic life for various purposes, such as farming and breeding.

2. Secondary Industries: 

  • Manufacturing Industries: Involve the conversion of raw materials into finished or semi-finished products. Examples include automobile manufacturing, textile production, and food processing.
  • Construction Industries: Involve the construction of buildings and infrastructure. Examples include residential and commercial construction, road building, and bridge construction.

3. Tertiary Industries: 

  • Service Industries: Provide various services to individuals and businesses. Examples include banking, education, healthcare, tourism, and IT services.
  • Trade Industries: Involve the buying and selling of goods. Examples include retail, wholesale, and e-commerce businesses.
  • Transportation and Communication Industries: Involve the movement of people, goods, and information. Examples include airlines, railways, postal services, and telecommunications.

4. Quaternary Industries: 

  • Knowledge-based Industries: Involve the creation and management of information and knowledge. Examples include research and development, information technology, and consulting services.

5. Quinary Industries: 

  • High-level Decision-Making Industries: Involve high-level management and decision-making in government, industry, education, and other sectors.

6. Heavy and Light Industries: 

  • Heavy Industries: Involve the production of heavy goods and large equipment. Examples include steel production and heavy machinery manufacturing.
  • Light Industries: Involve the production of consumer goods and smaller products. Examples include electronics manufacturing and textile production.

7. Private and Public Sector Industries:

  • Private Sector Industries: Owned and operated by private individuals or corporations for profit. Examples include most businesses and corporations.
  • Public Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the government for public welfare. Examples include public utilities, public transportation, and government-run healthcare facilities.

Q.2. What is a household industry? What kind of goods is produced by this industry?

Ans: A household industry refers to a small-scale manufacturing business typically operated from home, involving the production of handmade goods. The term ‘household industry’ originates from the historical practice where individuals worked in their household or homes to create products later sold to others.

In today’s world, household industries continue to thrive in various parts of the globe. 

Here are a few examples:

1. Industrial Food Production: This category encompasses items like jams, jellies, pickles, bread, and cheeses, often crafted in small batches and sold at local farmers’ markets or specialty stores.

2. Handmade Crafts: This category includes products like pottery, woodworking, knitting, and jewelry, frequently marketed through online platforms or craft fairs.

3. Custom Tailoring: This involves creating bespoke garments, often using traditional methods and techniques, and is frequently carried out by skilled craftsmen in their own homes.

4. Handmade Soaps and Cosmetics: This area focuses on producing natural and organic soaps, lotions, and other beauty products, often made with high-quality ingredients and sold online or in specialty stores.

5. Upcycling and Recycling: This practice involves repurposing old or discarded materials to create new products, such as transforming old tires into garden planters or fashioning new clothes from recycled fabrics.

Q.3. Present a comparative discussion on small-scale and large-scale industries.

Ans: Small scale industries refer to businesses that have a smaller scale of production and fewer employees compared to large scale industries. They are typically family-owned and operated, and have a limited market reach. On the other hand, large scale industries have a larger scale of production, more employees, and a wider market reach. 

They are typically owned and operated by corporations or large companies:

Small Scale IndustriesLarge Scale Industries
Investment in Plant & Machinery is typically less, usually below Rs. 10 croresInvestment in Plant & Machinery is typically more, usually more than Rs. 10 crores
Typically employs fewer number of employees, usually less than 50Typically employs more number of employees, usually more than 50
Operates on a smaller scale with lower production capacityOperates on a larger scale with higher production capacity
Often uses less advanced technology and equipmentOften uses more advanced technology and equipment
Typically owned and managed by individuals or small groups of peopleTypically owned and managed by large corporations or conglomerates
Has a lesser economic impact on the country as compared to large scale industriesHas a greater economic impact on the country as compared to small scale industries
Has fewer resources at its disposal and relies more on local inputsHas more resources at its disposal and relies less on local inputs
Has fewer regulations and compliance to follow as compared to large scale industriesHas more regulations and compliance to follow as compared to small scale industries
Typically serves a local or regional market and has a smaller customer baseTypically serves a national or international market and has a larger customer base

Q.4. Define agro-based industry with examples. 

Ans: Industries based on agricultural raw material are known as agro – based industries such as sugar industries based on sugarcane and cotton textile industry etc. The best known agro industries include cotton industry which manufacture cotton related products like jackets, clothes.

Q.5. Give a brief idea of mineral-based industry.

Ans: Mineral-based industries are main industries that get their raw materials from mineral ores. It provides employment to both rural and urban populations. Mineral-based industries include the steel and iron industries, as well as the heavy machinery industries.

Q.6 What do you mean by basic industry? Give examples. 

Ans: A basic industry, also known as a primary industry, refers to an industry involved in the extraction or production of raw materials or primary goods directly from natural resources. These industries provide essential inputs for various other sectors and are fundamental to economic development.

Examples of basic industries include:

1. Mining Industry: Involves the extraction of minerals, ores, coal, oil, and natural gas. Mining provides raw materials for various sectors, including energy, manufacturing, and construction.

2. Agriculture: Encompasses the cultivation of crops and the rearing of livestock. Agriculture provides raw food materials for the food processing industry and other related sectors.

3. Forestry: Involves the harvesting of timber and other forest products. Forestry provides raw materials for the construction industry, paper and pulp industry, and various manufacturing sectors.

4. Fishing and Aquaculture: Activities in this sector provide fish and seafood products for human consumption and other industries, such as food processing and pharmaceuticals.

Q.7 Give an outline of the factors determining the localisation of industry.

Ans: The reasons for the localization of industries can be outlined as follows:

1. Natural Resources: Industrial enterprises can utilize the natural resources of a specific region or utilize natural materials available to the local workforce.

2. Processes and Technologies: Industrial projects can be manufactured using the appropriate processes, equipment, and components required for production.

3. Materials: Some industrial projects generate their own materials, which can also be utilized in other initiatives.

4. Skills: Local labor skills and administrative facilities can be employed in the development of industrial projects.

5. Market Demands: Provinces or regions often have their own unique products and services demanded in the market, which can compete with other national or international products and services.

6. Commercial Space: A suitable environment for industrial and commercial activities is essential for the growth of local industries.

These factors contribute significantly to the growth of local enterprises in the industry and are closely linked to the economic development of the region.

Q.8. Write with examples about the role of raw materials in the location of industries.

Ans: The heavy and basic industries are mainly localised near the source of raw materials. They are established in the area surrounding the raw material to minimise the transport cost. The sugar industries are located near the raw material sugarcane as it is a perishable product and delays in transport affect the production. 

Coal, petroleum and hydro-electricity are the chief sources of power. The heavy industries need power in abundance. These industries are generally localised near the areas where power is easily available. The iron and steel industry, fertiliser, aluminium and copper smelting are power intensive industries, and hence located near the sources of power.

Q.9. Write briefly on the iron and steel industry of India.

Ans: Iron and steel industry is one of the important industries in India. India was the third largest producer of crude steel between 2014 and 2016. In 2019, India became the world’s second largest steel producer[1] after China and the world’s largest producer of sponge iron. The industry produces 82.68 million tonnes of gross finished steel and 9.7 million tonnes of pig iron.

Policy for this sector is set by the Indian Ministry of Steel, which coordinates and plans the development and growth of the iron and steel industry, both in the public and private sector; Formulation of policies relating to production, pricing, distribution, import and export of iron and steel, ferroalloys and refractories; and mainly concerns itself with the development of input industries related to iron ore, manganese ore, chrome ore and refractories required for the steel industry.

Most of the public sector undertakings market their steel through the Steel Authority of India (SAIL). The Indian steel industry was de-licensed and de-controlled in 1991 and 1991 respectively.

Steel factory: There are two types of steel plants – small steel plants and large steel plants. About half of the country’s steel is produced by medium and small industrial enterprises.

Small steel mills are small, have electric furnaces and use steel scrap as well as sponge iron. They have re-rollers, which also use steel balls. They produce carbon steel and alloy steel of certain specifications. There are about 650 small steel mills in India.

Production: The steel industry in India was unlicensed and unregulated in 1991 and 1999 respectively. 2014-1. Total marketable finished steel (alloy + non-alloy) production in 2013 was 91.46 million tonnes, which is 4.3% higher than 2013-14. Production of salable cast iron in 2014-15 was 9.7 million tonnes, which is 22% higher than in 2013-14.

Q.10. Give an account of the cotton textile industry of India. 

Ans: The cotton textile industry of India is an ancient art form that was prevalent in different parts of India and is still used in some places for final or special occasions. Tula Vastra is a hand-made or machine-made textile jute that can be openworked in ancient India or used as a traditional best and headband for final ceremonies.

Different types of jute were used to make cotton cloth. For example, mul jute, pat jute, silk etc. were used. These jute were produced in different regions of India and were traditionally dyed. Then these jute were wrapped on special sticks or machines to make them more beautiful and beautiful. Later, designs and patterns such as stars, churi, brocade, jersey, kanchi, batik, etc. were used.

Dyeing on cotton fabric was done systematically. In ancient times, local ingredients such as twig powder, henna, indigo, potash etc. were used. Recitations were made using this color, which enhanced the quality and elegance of a garment.

The main purpose of the cotton textile industry was to show respect for beauty, style, nature and local culture. As such, the cotton textile industry is considered an invaluable part of the traditional textile industry of India.

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