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Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 2 People on The Earth
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People on The Earth
Chapter – 2
TEXTUAL QUESTION AND ANSWERS
Q.1. Give a definition of human geography and mention its major branches?
Ans: A thorough analysis of man and all his activities as the chief product of nature gives birth to several distinct branches of human geography, without which human geography cannot be analyzed. Several major branches of human geography developed in various contexts such as society, culture, economy, politics etc. are discussed here.
1. Population Geography: The branch of human geography in which population distribution, nature, evolution, reproduction, migration, population growth and dynamics, population density etc. are explained scientifically is called Population Geography.
2. Settlement Geography: The branch of human geography that deals with the origin, development, evolution, arrangement etc. of human settlements is called Settlement Geography.
3. Social Geography: Social Geography analyzes all human activities as social beings in different social contexts. Here the structure of society, family, social customs, caste, religion, caste, social structure, social organization, social customs etc.
4. Cultural Geography: In this branch of human geography, there is an analysis of the various customs of the excellence of civilizations in space and time. Here human civilization, cultural field, cultural group, cultural organization, skill etc.
5. Historical Geography: The branch of geography that deals with the evolutionary history of human beings from the past to the present is called historical geography.
6. Political Geography: The branch of human geography that sheds light on various state-centered local activities at the national and international levels is called Political Geography.
7. Economic Geography: The branch of human geography that clearly discusses the multiple economic activities and work-centered environment of people’s daily life is called economic geography.
8. Regional Geography (Regional Geography): This branch of human geography is made up of natural and human factors. Here, different regions of the world are divided into several parts and various development plans are taken in modern geography. Regional geography deals with various aspects of topography, rivers, climate, natural flora, social and cultural aspects of a region.
9. Medical Geography: In the most modern branch of human geography, the geographical distribution of various diseases, the search for the source of the disease, the environmental impact on the outbreak of the disease, the awareness about the disease etc. are scientifically discussed, it is called Medical Geography.
Q.2. Briefly write about the subject matter of human geography?
Ans: The subject matter of human geography is very broad. It features a combination of natural and unnatural elements. According to most geographers, the combination of natural and non-natural environments is the central theme of human geography. Therefore, the content of human geography is basically; Can be divided into 2 parts. namely-
1. Natural environment.
2. Unnatural or cultural environment.
A brief description of these is given below:
1. Natural Environment: The natural environment of a region is mainly developed in terms of several natural conditions.
(a) Spherical Earth.
(d) Soils and Minerals.
(f) Natural Vegetation etc.
2. Unnatural or cultural environment: The unnatural environment or cultural environment of a region is developed in terms of the better needs of people in that area, and these better needs of people are controlled by some favorable environment.
(a) Density of population.
(b) Extent of success and improvement.
(c) Extent of human enthusiasm and labor force.
(d) Extent of privatization.
(e) Local differences in occupation, wealth and human interest and enthusiasm.
Q. 3. Write briefly, what do you mean by human race?
Ans: human race – all of the living human inhabitants of the earth; “all the world loves a lover”; “she always used `humankind’ because `mankind’ seemed to slight the women” human beings, humankind, humans, mankind, humanity, world, man. group, grouping – any number of entities (members) considered as a unit.
Q. 4. Write briefly the bases Or criteria of division of human race.
Ans: Racial identification is made on the basis of a number of external and internal physical characteristics. The external physical characteristics are phenotypic characters, which are mostly adaptive in nature, but the internal physical characteristics are genotypic characters, which are strictly hereditary and non-adaptive.
Modem genetics has provided much information regarding the bodily characteristics of man. It has found that phenotypic characters may not tally with genotypic characters when recessive genes are present in the body. As a matter of fact, importance should be given on the genotypic characters while studying the racial criteria.
Q. 5. Discuss in brief the origin of human and human race?
Ans: The origin of the human species, Homo sapiens, traces back millions of years to a common ancestor shared with other primates. The evolutionary process leading to modern humans, known as hominization, began approximately 7 million years ago. Our ancestors, belonging to the hominid family, evolved in Africa. The most famous early human ancestor is Ardipithecus ramidus, dated to about 4.4 million years ago, followed by Australopithecus afarensis, famously represented by the fossil “Lucy,” who lived around 3.2 million years ago.
The emergence of the genus Homo, to which modern humans belong, occurred around 2.8 million years ago. Homo habilis, one of the earliest members, was adept at tool use. Over time, different Homo species, including Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis, appeared and adapted to diverse environments.
Around 300,000 years ago, anatomically modern Homo sapiens evolved in Africa. These early Homo sapiens gradually migrated and replaced other hominid species, eventually spreading across the globe. The exact reasons for this replacement are still debated and might involve a combination of factors like superior cognitive abilities, better social organization, and technological advancements.
This evolutionary journey reflects the complex and fascinating history of the human race, highlighting our shared ancestry with other living beings and the gradual development of traits that make us uniquely human.
Q. 6. Divide man on the earth bases on the physical characters like hair, noce, face, heights, skin, etc.
Ans: It’s important to approach the concept of dividing humanity based on physical characteristics with caution, as it can reinforce harmful stereotypes and divisions among people. Nevertheless, it’s true that humans display a wide range of physical traits due to their evolutionary history and adaptation to diverse environments. These traits include variations in hair type, nose shape, facial features, height, skin color, and more.
These differences can be broadly categorized into several groups:
1. Hair Type: Humans have varying hair textures, from straight to wavy to curly. This trait is not confined to specific geographic regions but varies widely within populations.
2. Nose Shape: Nose shapes differ across populations, with some having broader noses and others having narrower ones. These differences are adaptations to local climates and are not exclusive to any particular group.
3. Facial Features: Facial features, including eye shape, cheekbone structure, and lip size, exhibit diversity among different populations. These differences are the result of complex genetic and environmental factors.
4. Height: Human height can vary significantly based on genetics, nutrition, and overall health. Certain populations, such as the Nilotic peoples in East Africa, are known for being taller on average.
5. Skin Color: Skin color is one of the most visible differences among human populations. It is an adaptation to varying levels of UV radiation in different regions. People from regions with high sun exposure often have darker skin, while those in regions with less sun have lighter skin.
Q. 7. Mention the characteristics of the thee major human races in the world.
Ans: The main characteristics of the three major human races are:
1. Caucasian or White Race: Often characterized by light to pale skin, a variety of hair textures and colors, and a range of eye colors.
2. Mongoloid or Asian Race: Typically includes light to medium skin tones, straight hair, diverse eye shapes, and brown eyes as the most common color.
3. Negroid or Black Race: Often associated with dark to very dark skin, curly to kinky hair, brown eyes, and a range of facial features.
Q. 8. Which region of the world are considered first origin of man? With the help of sketch briefly write about the spread and distribution of major human races in the world?
Ans: Fossils of early Homo sapiens were found in Qafzeh cave in Israel and have been dated 80,000 to 100,000 years ago. These humans seem to have either become extinct or retreated back to Africa 70,000 to 80,000 years ago, possibly replaced by southbound Neanderthals escaping the colder regions of ice-age Europe.
The Major Divisions of the Human Race:
Most anthropologists recognize 3 or 4 basic races of man in existence today. These races can be further subdivided into as many as 30 subgroups.
Ethnographic division into races from Meyers Konversationslexikon of 1885-90 is listing:
Caucasian races (Aryans, Hamites, Semites)Mongolian races (northern Mongolian, Chinese and Indo-Chinese, Japanese and Korean, Tibetan, Malayan, Polynesian, Maori, Micronesian, Eskimo, American Indian),Negroid races (African, Hottentots, Melanesians/Papua, “Negrito”, Australian Aborigine, Dravidians, Sinhalese)
Q. 9. What are the major religion? Discuss the silent characteristics and distribution of this religion group along with there population size?
Ans: The major religions in the world include Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism.
Some of the features of Christianity are as follows:
1. Belief in the Trinity: Christians believe in the Holy Trinity, consisting of God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit.
2. The Bible: Christians regard the Bible as their sacred scripture, comprising the Old Testament and the New Testament. It serves as a guide for faith and practice.
2. Islam: Those who follow the Islamic faith are called Muslims, and there are around 1.9 billion Muslims in the world today. This makes Islam one of the world’s largest religions, the second-largest religion after Christianity.
Islam is a monotheistic religion, meaning Muslims only believe in one God, Allah.
Some of the features of Islam are as follows:
1. Monotheism: Islam is a monotheistic faith, emphasizing the belief in one God (Allah in Arabic) as the sole deity and creator of the universe.
2. Prophet Muhammad: Muslims believe Muhammad is the last and final prophet, receiving revelations from Allah, as recorded in the holy book, the Quran.
3. Hinduism: Hinduism is by many accounts the oldest religion in the world, due to its origins in Vedic beliefs dating as far back as the 1500s BCE. The religion has no founder, and is a synthesis of many different Indian religious traditions. The religion waxed and waned in competition with Jainism and Buddhism throughout Indian history, before seeing a huge resurgence after the medieval period. Thereafter it became the dominant religion on the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is one of the most geographically concentrated of the major world religions – of the world’s 1.12 billion Hindus, 1.07 billion live in India and Nepal. The sheer number of practitioners, however, makes Hinduism the world’s third largest religion.
Some of the features of Hinduism are as follows:
1. Polytheism: Hindus believe in a multitude of deities, each representing different aspects of the divine. The most significant deities include Brahma (the creator), Vishnu (the preserver), and Shiva (the destroyer).
2. Reincarnation: Hindus believe in the cycle of reincarnation, where the soul is reborn into different life forms based on karma (actions in previous lives). The ultimate goal is to achieve moksha, liberation from this cycle.
4. Buddhism: Buddhism is one of the world’s largest religions and originated 2,500 years ago in India. Buddhists believe that the human life is one of suffering, and that meditation, spiritual and physical labor, and good behavior are the ways to achieve enlightenment, or nirvana.
Some of the features of Buddhism are as follows:
1. Four Noble Truths: Buddhism centers around the Four Noble Truths: the truth of suffering, the cause of suffering (craving), the cessation of suffering (Nirvana), and the Eightfold Path leading to the end of suffering.
2. Noble Eightfold Path: This ethical and mental guideline outlines the right understanding, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration to achieve enlightenment and liberation from suffering.
Q. 10. Write in brief about religion compositions and distribution of population in India.
Ans: Religion in India is characterised by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. The preamble of Indian constitution states that India is a secular state. There is separation of the state and religion, such as religious instructions cannot be imparted at public schools and political parties cannot ask for votes during elections in the name of religion. The Indian subcontinent is the birthplace of four of the world’s major religions; namely Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. According to the 2011 census, 79.8% of the population of India practices Hinduism, 14.2% adheres to Islam, 2.3% adheres to Christianity, 1.7% adheres to Sikhism, 0.7% adheres to Buddhism and 0.4% adheres to Jainism. Zoroastrianism, Sanamahism and Judaism also have an ancient history in India, and each has several thousands of Indian adherents. India has the largest population of people adhering to Zoroastrianism (i.e. Parsis and Iranis) and Bahá’í Faith in the world, even though these religions initially grew in Persia. Throughout India’s history, religion has been an important part of the country’s culture.
Q.11. Write a short notes on:
(a) Men and human geography.
(b) Human race.
(c) Negroid population group.
(d) Religion composition.
(e) Buddhist religion.
(f) People of Christian religion in India.
Ans: (a) Man and human geography: Man, as a species, has a profound impact on the field of human geography. Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of human societies, their interactions with the environment, and the spatial relationships between individuals and their surroundings. It explores how people and their activities are distributed in space and how they use and perceive their environment.
(b) Human race: Definitions of human race. all of the living human inhabitants of the earth.
Synonyms: human beings, humanity, humankind, humans, man, mankind, world. type of: group, grouping. any number of entities (members) considered as a unit.
As a result of the impact and influence of the geographical conditions future physical difference begin to emerge among the people of the world. Nevertheless people with similar physical features have been placed together to form what is known as human race. The team human race repairs to a group of the people having almost similar physical characteristics which are transport to the next generation through the process of hardly. On the basis man has been characteristics into three primary human races called Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid race.
(c) Negroid population group: The term had been used by forensic and physical anthropologists to refer to individuals and populations that share certain morphological and skeletal traits that are frequent among populations in most of Sub-Saharan Africa and isolated parts of South and Southeast Asia (Negritos).
(d) Religious composition: Religious composition refers to the distribution of different religious beliefs and affiliations within a specific geographic area or population. It provides insights into the religious diversity and demographics of a region or society. Studying religious composition can help researchers, policymakers, and sociologists better understand cultural dynamics, social integration, and potential sources of conflict or cooperation. Analyzing religious composition is crucial in addressing issues related to religious freedom, interfaith relations, and the impact of religion on various aspects of society, including politics, education, and public policy. This information is often gathered through surveys, censuses, and other data collection methods to provide a comprehensive picture of the religious landscape within a given area.
(e) Buddhist religion: Buddhism, religion and philosophy that developed from the teachings of the Buddha (Sanskrit: “Awakened One”), a teacher who lived in northern India between the mid-6th and mid-4th centuries BCE (before the Common Era). Spreading from India to Central and Southeast Asia, China, Korea, and Japan, Buddhism has played a central role in the spiritual, cultural, and social life of Asia, and, beginning in the 20th century, it spread to the West. They constitute about 6% of the world’s population. Buddhism spread from India to the countries of Bhutan China Sri Lanka South East Asia etc.
(f) People of Christian religion in India: Christianity in India has ancient roots, dating back to the arrival of Christian missionaries in the 1st century AD. Today, Christians form a significant religious minority, constituting around 2.3% of India’s population. They are spread across various states, with notable communities in states like Kerala, Goa, Tamil Nadu, and parts of Northeast India. Indian Christians practice diverse denominations, including Catholicism, Protestantism, and Eastern Orthodoxy. They have made substantial contributions to education, healthcare, and social welfare in India. Despite challenges, the Christian community continues to play a vital role in the country’s cultural and social fabric, fostering religious diversity in this pluralistic nation.
Q.12. Choose the correct answer:
(a) with which racial did the people of China belong?
(i) Caucasoid group
(ii) Negroid group.
(iii) Mongoloid group.
(iv) Australiod group.
Ans: Mongoloid group.
(b) in which continent did man appear first?
(c) which is the largest religion group in in terms of population?
(iv) Chinese Folk Religion.
(d) When was human being born on the earth?
(i) 5-6 lakh years ago
(ii) 1-2 lakh years ago
(iii) 50-6 lakh years ago
(iv) 10-12 lakh years ago
Ans: 5-6 lacks years ago.
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