Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 7 Agriculture

Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 7 Agriculture, answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SEBA Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 7 Agriculture and select need one.

Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 7 Agriculture

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 7 Agriculture Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.


Chapter – 7


Q.1. What is meant by agriculture? Mention briefly the factors influencing agriculture? 

Ans: Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops, and raising livestock. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics.

The factors influencing agriculture are:

1. Soil: For agriculture to develop, the soil needs to have depth as well as nutrients. Texture of soil is important as it determines if the soil can hold water or not. Sandy soil is not fit for agriculture as it does not retain water. On the other hand, loam soils are good for agriculture. Agriculture develops in fertile land that is rich in organic matter.

2. Climate: Sunshine, humidity and rainfall are important factors that influence agriculture. Agriculture doesn’t develop in extreme climates. It is difficult to grow crops in areas that have temperatures beyond 45 degree celsius or below 1 degree celsius.

3. Topography: Relief of the land and terrain influence agriculture as they determine level of soil erosion, ease in tilling and mechanization of farms. Farms mostly develop in plains and valleys as the level of soil erosion is less. On the mountain, the hill has to be cut into terraces to practice farming. This makes tilling of the land as well as use of machinery difficult.

4. Human factors: Agriculture is also influenced by human factors like market, labour and political aid. If there is availability of cheap labour, then labour intensive crops are grown. Places near markets grow perishable goods. Government aid in agriculture is an important factor too. In the 1960’s the government aided Green Revolution in India changed the agricultural scene of states like Punjab and Haryana.

Q.2. Explain why agriculture practice is not similar  everywhere in the world? 

Ans: Agriculture practice is not similar everywhere in the world because in meghalaya there was roof corp agriculture in madhya pradesh do strip farming and in Uttarakhand their were terrace cultivation.

Q.3. Classify agriculture and give the basis of your classification. 

Ans: A general sharing model for classifying agriculture can be developed based on issues related to agricultural expansion, enterprise, and prosperity. 

This sharing model may include some of the following elements:

Agricultural Enterprises: This section will contain the mention of agricultural enterprises, such as paddy, jute, meat processing animals, and detailed description of the enterprises.

Agricultural Extension: This section will describe the processes of agricultural extension, such as minerals, fertilizers, medicines, irrigation systems, and other technical aspects.

Agricultural Prosperity: This section will cover your agricultural proliferative plan, such as market value, marketing system, marketing value, abundance and serving.

Markets and Marketing: This section will discuss market and marketing related topics such as marketing process, marketing methods, customer needs, parcelling, warehousing, and other marketing topics in detail.

Technological Expansion: This section will cover new technological elements related to agriculture, such as sensor technology, automation, hardware and software related issues.

Q.4. What is permanent agriculture? Discuss briefly its characteristics. 

Ans: Permanent agriculture is defined as an integrated and progressive production system inspired by natural ecosystems. Permanent agriculture is mainly based on the use and the promotion of biodiversity around and on the farm.

Here are some characteristics of permanent agriculture:

(a) Perennial Crops: Permanent agriculture involves the cultivation of perennial crops, such as fruit trees (e.g., apple, mango, citrus), nut trees (e.g., almond, walnut), vineyards (for grapes), and perennial grasses (e.g., bamboo). These crops have longer life cycles and can produce yields for many years.

(b) Deep Root Systems: Perennial plants often have deep root systems that help them access water and nutrients from deeper soil layers. This characteristic makes them more resilient during droughts and adverse weather conditions.

(c) Soil Conservation: Perennial crops play a vital role in soil conservation. Their extensive root systems help prevent soil erosion by stabilizing the soil structure. This is particularly important in areas prone to erosion and desertification.

(d) Biodiversity: Permanent agriculture systems often incorporate a variety of perennial crops, creating diverse ecosystems. This biodiversity supports a range of wildlife and beneficial insects, contributing to overall ecosystem health.

(e) Carbon Sequestration: Perennial plants capture and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, aiding in carbon sequestration. This is crucial for mitigating climate change by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.

(f) Reduced Chemical Inputs: Perennial crops generally require fewer chemical inputs such as pesticides and fertilizers compared to annual crops. Their long life spans and natural resistance to pests and diseases contribute to reduced dependency on synthetic chemicals.

(g) Sustainable Water Usage: Perennial crops, particularly those adapted to specific regions, are often better suited to the natural water availability of the area. They can be selected based on their drought tolerance, reducing the need for excessive irrigation and promoting sustainable water usage.

(h) Agroforestry Practices: Permanent agriculture systems often integrate trees and shrubs with other crops, creating agroforestry systems. Agroforestry combines agricultural and forestry practices, providing multiple benefits such as improved soil fertility, increased biodiversity, and enhanced ecosystem resilience.

(i) Long-Term Economic Stability: Once established, perennial crops provide a stable source of income for farmers over several years. This long-term economic stability can enhance the livelihoods of farming communities.

(j) Ecosystem Services: Perennial agriculture systems provide various ecosystem services, including water purification, pollination, and habitat for wildlife. These services contribute to the overall well-being of the environment and surrounding communities.

Q.5. Give a brief outline of shifting cultivation. How these types of agriculture regards the environment.

Ans: Shifting cultivation, also known as slash-and-burn agriculture, is an agricultural practice in which land is cleared, cultivated, and then abandoned for a period of time to allow natural vegetation to grow back.

Here’s a brief outline of shifting cultivation:

(a) Clearing: Forest or vegetation is cut down and burned, releasing nutrients into the soil. The ashes provide a source of nutrients for crops.

(b) Cultivation: Crops are planted in the cleared area and cultivated until the soil fertility declines, typically for a few years.

(c) Abandonment: After a few years, the plot is abandoned, and the forest is allowed to regrow. The farmer moves to a new plot and repeats the process.

(d) Rotational Cycle: The farmer may return to the original plot after several years once the soil fertility has been naturally restored.

Environmental Impact of Shifting Cultivation:

(a) Biodiversity Loss: The initial clearing of forests results in habitat loss and reduces biodiversity. The regrowth period allows biodiversity to recover to some extent.

(b) Carbon Emissions: Burning forests for clearing releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, contributing to climate change. However, during the fallow period, the regrowing forest sequesters carbon, offsetting some of these emissions.

(c) Soil Erosion: Without the forest cover, soil is susceptible to erosion, especially in regions with heavy rainfall. This erosion can lead to loss of fertile topsoil and degradation of land.

(d) Water Quality: Runoff from cleared areas can pollute nearby water bodies with sediment and agrochemicals used in cultivation.

Q.6. Present a comparative picture of large scale and small scale agriculture? 

Ans: Agricultural productivity is variously measured, and large-scale farming is often less efficient than small sustainable farms. 

A comparative picture of large-scale and small-scale agriculture are:

Q.7. What do you mean by plantation farming? Discuss its characteristic? 

Ans: Plantation farming is the practice of clearing a large parcel of forest land and planting large quantities of desired crops on the cleared land. This type of cultivation helps in increasing the desired yield and makes the cultivation easier to control.

The main characteristic of plantation agriculture are:

(a) A signal crop is grown over a large area.

(b) It is capital intensive and done with migrant labour.

(c) All produce is used as raw material in industries such as tea coffee rubber sugarcane banana etc.

(d) Plantation has an interface of agriculture and industry both.

Q.8. Describe briefly the relationship between urbanisation and market gardening.

Ans: Urbanization has been underpinned by the rapid growth in the world economy and in the proportion of gross world product and of workers in industrial and service enterprises. Globally, agriculture has met the demands from this rapidly growing urban population, including food that is more energy-, land-, water- and greenhouse gas emission-intensive. But hundreds of millions of urban dwellers suffer under-nutrition. So the key issues with regard to agriculture and urbanization are whether the growing and changing demands for agricultural products from growing urban populations can be sustained while at the same time underpinning agricultural prosperity and reducing rural and urban poverty.

This development in agriculture is known as market gardening. This trend is fast catching up in India due to expansion of urbanization in the country and villages and towns are getting interlink due to the impact of globalisation.

Q.9. What kind of environment is required for rice cultivation? Write briefly about the geographical distribution of rice. 

Ans: Rice is mainly a crop of tropical monsoon climate. 

Rainfall: Paddy cultivation requires abundant rainfall. Generally 150 to 250 cm of rainfall is required. 

Warmth: Rice is generally grown in areas with temperatures ranging from 16°C to 27°C.

Here’s a brief overview of the geographical distribution of rice cultivation:

Asia: Rice originated in Asia and continues to be a crucial crop in the region. Major rice-producing countries in Asia include China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand, and the Philippines. These countries have favorable climates for rice cultivation, with warm temperatures and significant monsoon rains.

Africa: Rice cultivation in Africa is widespread, with countries like Nigeria, Egypt, Madagascar, and Senegal being significant producers. In Africa, both irrigated and rainfed rice cultivation methods are employed, adapting to various local climates.

Latin America: Several countries in Latin America, such as Brazil, Colombia, and Peru, are known for rice cultivation. In these regions, rice is often grown in flooded fields called paddies, similar to the traditional methods in Asia.

United States: In the United States, rice is primarily cultivated in the states of Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Texas. The cultivation practices in the U.S. vary from flooded fields to well-drained soil cultivation.

Europe: While rice is not a staple crop in Europe, Italy and Spain are notable European countries where rice is grown. Italy, in particular, is famous for its high-quality varieties like Arborio and Carnaroli, primarily cultivated in the Po Valley.

Australia: In Australia, rice is grown in the Murray-Darling Basin, mainly in New South Wales. Australian rice cultivation relies heavily on irrigation due to the country’s arid climate.

Q.10. Give an account of wheat cultivations? 

Ans: Wheat cultivation is an important part of agriculture and wheat is a major non-grain crop. 

The account of wheat cultivation is given as:

Seed selection: The seeds of suitable race are selected for wheat cultivation. Before selecting any seed for each standard land individual quality efficiency and land requirements are analyzed.

Land Departure: Land suitable for wheat is exited. Good yields are obtained if the land is thin and has a good drainage system.

Soil Test: Suitable soil for wheat is tested to ensure soil fertility, elemental nutrients and soil pH are correct.

Sowing and Care: Proper procedure is followed when sowing seeds for wheat. Good yield is obtained if seeds are sown properly and technology is matched.

Care and timely irrigation: Care and timely irrigation are very important for wheat. Matching technology, use of suitable fertilizers and proper irrigation technology are followed.

Next steps: The next step is taken at the appropriate time when wheat cultivation is completed. It can re-cultivate the soil, replenish basic nutrients, and increase wheat cultivation for better yields.

Wheat cultivation can be helpful in combating this problem. It is based on proper care, technology, and science that can help in growth and provide better products for the farmers.

Q.11. Discuss the importance and geographical distribution of cotton farming? 

Ans: 1. Economic Significance: Cotton farming is economically significant as it provides income to millions of farmers worldwide. It is a major cash crop, especially in developing countries, contributing significantly to their economies.

2. Raw Material for Textile Industry: Cotton is the primary raw material for the textile industry. It is used to produce a wide range of products, including clothing, beddings, towels, and industrial textiles. The global textile industry heavily relies on cotton fibers.

3. Employment Generation: Cotton farming generates employment opportunities in both rural and urban areas. Farming activities, harvesting, and processing of cotton create jobs for millions of people globally.

4. Contribution to GDP: Cotton and textile industries collectively contribute to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of many countries. The cotton industry includes not only farming but also ginning, spinning, weaving, and garment manufacturing sectors.

5. Export Revenue: Cotton and cotton products are essential exports for many countries. Cotton farming helps generate foreign exchange earnings, enhancing a country’s overall economic stability.

Geographical Distribution of Cotton Farming:

6. United States: Cotton farming is prominent in the southern states of the U.S., particularly in Texas, Georgia, and Mississippi. The U.S. is a major exporter of cotton and has advanced agricultural practices in cotton cultivation.

7. India: India is one of the largest cotton-producing countries globally. Cotton farming is widespread in states like Gujarat, Maharashtra, Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh. India’s cotton is known for its quality and is a crucial component of the country’s agricultural economy.

8. China: China is a significant producer and consumer of cotton. Cotton farming is concentrated in regions like Xinjiang, Hebei, and Shandong. Chinese cotton is utilized for domestic consumption as well as for the textile industry.

9. Pakistan: Cotton is a major cash crop in Pakistan, with Punjab and Sindh provinces being the primary cotton-producing regions. The cotton industry is a vital part of Pakistan’s economy, providing employment and export opportunities.

10. Brazil: Brazil is a leading cotton producer in South America. Cotton farming is prevalent in states like Mato Grosso and Bahia. Brazilian cotton is known for its quality and contributes significantly to the country’s agricultural exports.

11. Africa: Several African countries, including Mali, Burkina Faso, and Ivory Coast, are prominent cotton producers. Cotton farming plays a crucial role in the agricultural economies of these nations, providing livelihoods to millions of smallholder farmers.

12. Central Asia: Countries like Uzbekistan are significant cotton producers in Central Asia. Cotton farming is vital for the economy of these nations, although it has been a subject of environmental and ethical concerns due to certain farming practices.

Q.12. What kind of environment is required for growing tea? 

Ans: Tea cultivation necessitates a specific environment to ensure the production of high-quality yield. Creating a suitable environment for tea cultivation enhances the quality of tea plants, promotes their growth, and improves the sap quality. 

The following are essential aspects of the environment required for tea cultivation:

1. Weather: Calm and favorable weather conditions are crucial for tea cultivation. Tea plants require suitable warmth and adequate rainfall. Proper rainwater supply nourishes the tea plants throughout the growing season.

2. Soil and Climate: The soil suitable for tea cultivation should be silty loam or loam with a good drainage system. It must be rich in nutrients to support the growth of tea plants.

3. Ample Sunlight Exposure: Tea cultivation requires ample sunlight exposure, allowing the tea plants to bask in the sun and receive optimal sunlight.

4. Quality and Fertility of Soil along with Land Success: Tea plants require proper nutrients to produce high-quality tea leaves. Fertile soil and successful land management contribute significantly to their growth.

5. Adequate Water Supply: Tea cultivation demands a consistent water supply, especially during the dry period, to ensure the plants receive sufficient hydration.

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