Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 4 Human Settlement

Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 4 Human Settlement answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SEBA Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 4 Human Settlement, Elective Geography Class 9 SEBA Notes and Question Answer In English Medium and select need one.

Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 4 Human Settlement

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 4 Human Settlement Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

Human Settlement

Chapter – 4


Q.1. What do you mean by human settlement? Discuss briefly about its origin and growth? 

Ans: Thus, the process of settlement inherently involves grouping of people and apportioning of territory as their resource base. Settlements vary in size and type. They range from a hamlet to metropolitan cities.

The origins of human migration can be traced to several factors:

1. Early Human Migration: Homo sapiens originated in Africa around 200,000 years ago. Early humans were nomadic, following food sources and favorable climate conditions. Over tens of thousands of years, humans gradually migrated out of Africa and dispersed to different parts of the world, populating various regions.

2. Agricultural Revolution: The shift from a nomadic, hunter-gatherer lifestyle to settled agricultural communities marked a significant turning point in human migration. The development of agriculture allowed for stable food production, enabling the growth of communities and the establishment of civilizations. As populations increased, people migrated within and between regions to find suitable land for farming.

3. Trade and Exploration: Throughout history, trade routes and exploration led to the movement of people across continents. Ancient civilizations like the Greeks and Romans engaged in trade and established colonies, facilitating cultural exchange and migration. Similarly, the Silk Road in Asia connected different cultures and led to the movement of goods and people.

4. Industrial Revolution: The Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, transformed economies from agrarian to industrial. This shift created new employment opportunities in urban centers, prompting rural-to-urban migration within countries. Additionally, industrialized nations sought labor from other regions, leading to international migration on a larger scale.

5. Modern Globalization: The 20th and 21st centuries have seen unprecedented levels of international migration due to globalization. Advances in transportation and communication, along with economic disparities between countries, have facilitated the movement of people across borders. Political events, wars, and social factors continue to drive migration, leading to diverse and interconnected global societies.

Growth of Human Migration:

The growth of human migration has been exponential in recent centuries due to several factors:

1. Population Growth: As the global population has increased, so has the number of people migrating. Larger populations mean more individuals seeking economic opportunities and a better quality of life elsewhere.

2. Economic Disparities: Disparities in economic development between countries and regions drive people to migrate in search of better job prospects and living standards. Economic migration is a significant factor in the growth of international migration.

3. Political and Social Factors: Political instability, persecution, conflict, and social factors such as discrimination and lack of freedom compel people to move, often seeking asylum or refuge in other countries. The rise of refugees and asylum seekers has contributed to the growth of migration flows.

4. Technological Advancements: Advances in transportation and communication have made international travel easier and more accessible. Air travel, in particular, has significantly reduced the time and cost associated with long-distance migration.

5. Global Labor Market: The demand for skilled and unskilled labor in different parts of the world has led to the movement of workers seeking employment opportunities. Countries with aging populations often rely on immigrants to fill labor gaps.

Q.2. What is mean by settlement geography? Write briefly about it main subject matter. 

Ans: Settlement geography is a branch of human geography that investigates the earth’s surface’s part settled by humans. According to the United Nations’ Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements (1976), “human settlements means the totality of the human community – whether city, town or village – with all the social, material, organizational, spiritual and cultural elements that sustain it.” The method of study of settlement Geography where developed by a geographer name reach hard hard stone.

Some key areas of study within human geography include:

1. Population and Migration: Human geographers study population distribution, demographics, population growth, migration patterns, and the factors influencing these trends. This includes topics such as urbanization, rural-urban migration, and the impact of migration on societies.

2. Cultural Geography: Cultural geography examines the spatial aspects of human cultures, including language, religion, traditions, customs, and the diffusion of cultural traits. Geographers explore how cultural practices vary across different regions and how they shape landscapes and identities.

3. Economic Geography: This area focuses on the spatial patterns of economic activities, including trade, industry, agriculture, and the development of urban and rural economies. Economic geographers analyze factors influencing economic growth, resource distribution, and globalization’s impact on local economies.

Q.3. Present the classification of human settlement with example?

Ans: following the classification of human settlements:

1. Rural Settlements:

  • Villages: Small settlements typically characterized by agricultural activities and close-knit communities.
  • Hamlets: Smaller than villages, hamlets are tiny clusters of houses often found in rural areas.
  • Farmsteads: Isolated dwellings or groups of buildings associated with farming activities.

2. Urban Settlements:

  • Cities: Large and densely populated settlements with advanced infrastructure, diverse economic activities, and significant administrative functions. Cities are often centers of culture, commerce, and governance.
  • Towns: Smaller than cities but larger than villages, towns have more developed infrastructure and offer a wider range of services and amenities compared to villages.
  • Suburbs: Residential areas on the outskirts of cities or towns, often characterized by a mix of housing types and green spaces.
  • Megalopolis: A region comprising multiple interconnected cities and towns, forming a vast urban area. Examples include the BosWash corridor in the United States and the Taiheiyo Belt in Japan.

3. Based on Economic Activities:

  • Industrial Settlements: Towns or cities where industrial activities such as manufacturing, mining, or processing are the dominant economic drivers.
  • Commercial Settlements: Places primarily characterized by trade and commerce, including cities with vibrant markets and business districts.
  • Resort or Tourist Settlements: Locations developed specifically to cater to tourists, often featuring hotels, resorts, entertainment facilities, and recreational areas.

4. Administrative Classifications:

  • Capital Cities: The political and administrative centers of a country or region, where the government institutions, including the parliament and presidential palace, are located.
  • Provincial, State, or Regional Capitals: Cities serving as administrative hubs for specific regions within a country.
  • District Headquarters: Towns or cities that serve as administrative centers for smaller administrative units within a region or district.

5. Specialized Settlements:

  • Military Bases: Areas established for military purposes, housing soldiers, equipment, and military infrastructure.
  • Educational Settlements: Towns or areas centered around universities, colleges, and research institutions.
  • Religious Settlements: Places with religious significance, such as pilgrim towns or centers of religious worship.

Q.4. What do you mean by rural and urban settlement? Write the characteristic difference between these settlements.

Ans: A rural settlement is a community involved predominantly in primary activities such as farming, lumbering and mining. A urban settlement engages in predominantly in secondary and tertiary activities such as food processing and banking.

Here are the key distinctions:

Rural Settlements:

  1. Population Density: Rural areas have lower population density, with more space between houses and larger agricultural fields.
  2. Economic Activities: Predominantly agricultural activities, such as farming, livestock rearing, and forestry, are the primary economic pursuits. Traditional crafts and cottage industries are also common.
  3. Infrastructure: Basic infrastructure such as roads, electricity, and healthcare facilities may be limited compared to urban areas. Access to amenities can be challenging.
  4. Housing: Houses in rural areas are often traditional and may be scattered. Farmhouses are common, and the architecture is influenced by local traditions and materials.
  5. Lifestyle: Rural areas typically have a slower pace of life, with a strong sense of community. Traditional customs and close-knit relationships are often prominent features.

Urban Settlements:

  1. Population Density: Urban areas are densely populated, with buildings closely packed together. High-rise buildings and apartments are common, maximizing land use.
  2. Economic Activities: Diverse economic activities, including manufacturing, commerce, services, and technology, are prevalent. Specialization in various industries and sectors is common.
  3. Infrastructure: Urban areas have advanced infrastructure, including well-developed road networks, public transportation systems, healthcare facilities, schools, and recreational spaces.
  4. Housing: Urban housing includes a variety of structures such as apartments, condominiums, and townhouses. Housing styles and designs are influenced by modern architecture and urban planning.
  5. Lifestyle: Urban areas are characterized by a fast-paced lifestyle, cultural diversity, and a wide range of entertainment and recreational options. Access to education, healthcare, and job opportunities often attracts a diverse population.

Q.5. Mention the basic difference between dispersion and settlement and nuclear settlement.

Ans: The differences between dispersant settlement and nucleoid settlement are:

Nucleated SettlementDispersed Settlement
Settlement, where buildings or houses are grouped or clustered around a central point or nucleus, is known as nucleated settlement. Settlement, where buildings or houses are scattered or dispersed, is known as a dispersed settlement.
Houses or buildings are very close to each other. There may be a common wall between the two houses.Houses or buildings are far from each other. One house may be at a distance of half a kilometre from the other.
Geographical factors such as springs or fertile river valleys are favourable.Geographical factors such as extreme climate, barren land, etc, are not favourable.
For example, settlements in river valleys.For example, settlements in the desert of Rajasthan.

Q.6. Write in brief about the different types of settlement under the category of nuclear settlement with example and diagrams.

Ans: Nuclear settlements, also known as clustered settlements, are characterized by houses being closely grouped together. In these settlements, the houses or buildings are concentrated around a central point, forming a cluster. This central point could be a well, a religious structure, a marketplace, or any other focal point that brings the community together. Nuclear settlements are often found in areas where agricultural or other economic activities are communal, and the proximity of houses facilitates easier interaction and cooperation among residents.

Types of Nuclear Settlements:

1. Circular settlements: In this settlements, houses are arranged in a circular manner around a central open space. The central area could be used for community activities, ceremonies, or as a marketplace. An example of this pattern is the traditional African village layout.

2. Linear Settlements: Houses in a linear settlement are arranged in a line along a road, river, or other linear features. This pattern is often seen in villages established along riverbanks or transportation routes.

3. Star Settlements: In this Settlements, houses radiate outward from a central point, resembling the spokes of a wheel. This layout allows for efficient communication and interaction among residents. Star Settlements are common in some traditional Chinese and Indian villages.

4. T-shaped Settlements: Houses are arranged in the form of a ‘T,’ with a long central street and shorter streets branching off it. This pattern provides a clear central axis while allowing for lateral expansion. Some medieval European towns exhibit this layout.

5. Cross-shaped Settlements: Houses are arranged in the shape of a cross, with intersecting streets creating four distinct clusters. This layout allows for organized expansion and clear demarcation of different sections within the settlement.

Q.7. Write briefly about the origin and growth of urban settlements.

Ans: Origin of Urban Settlements: Urban settlements have a long history dating back to ancient civilizations. The origins of urban settlements can be traced to the transition from nomadic, hunter-gatherer lifestyles to settled agricultural communities. The development of agriculture around 10,000 years ago allowed humans to produce surplus food, leading to the establishment of permanent settlements. Early urban centers emerged in fertile river valleys such as the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the Nile in Egypt, the Indus in the Indian subcontinent, and the Yellow River in China. These river valleys provided fertile land for agriculture and facilitated trade and transportation, laying the foundation for urbanization.

Factors Contributing to the Growth of Urban Settlements:

1. Agricultural Surplus: The ability to produce surplus food allowed some individuals to specialize in non-agricultural activities, leading to the growth of crafts, trade, and early industries. This specialization encouraged people to gather in specific areas, forming towns and cities.

2. Trade and Commerce: Urban settlements served as hubs for trade and commerce. Strategic locations along trade routes attracted merchants, leading to the growth of markets and commercial activities. Ports and harbors facilitated international trade and contributed to urban growth.

3. Political and Administrative Functions: Urban areas often became centers of political power and governance. Kings, rulers, and administrative officials resided in cities, and urban centers served as capitals of empires and kingdoms.

3. Cultural and Religious Centers: Cities were centers of culture, education, and religious activities. Temples, libraries, and centers of learning attracted scholars and priests, contributing to the growth of urban settlements.

4. Technological Advancements: Innovations such as metallurgy, pottery, and textile production led to the growth of specialized industries in urban areas. Technological advancements in agriculture and water management also supported larger populations in urban centers.

5. Industrial Revolution: The 18th-century Industrial Revolution marked a significant shift in urbanization. Advancements in manufacturing, mechanization, and factory production led to the rapid growth of industrial cities. Factories attracted a large labor force, and urban areas expanded to accommodate the growing population.

6. Migration: Rural-to-urban migration, driven by the search for employment opportunities and a better standard of living, contributed to the growth of urban settlements. People moved from rural areas to cities in search of jobs in industries, services, and the growing commercial sector.

7. Infrastructure Development: The construction of railways, roads, bridges, and other infrastructure projects facilitated connectivity between cities and regions. Improved transportation allowed for the efficient movement of goods, people, and ideas, promoting urban growth.

8. Globalization: In the modern era, globalization has further accelerated urbanization. Cities have become global economic hubs, attracting investment, businesses, and a diverse workforce from around the world.

Q.8. Classify the urban settlement with example according to function.

Ans: Urban settlements can be classified based on their primary functions or economic activities. Here are some common types of urban settlements classified by function, along with examples:

1. Industrial Cities:

  • Example: Detroit, USA, known for its historical prominence in the automobile manufacturing industry.

2. Commercial Cities:

  • Example: New York City, USA, a global financial and commercial center with a diverse range of businesses.

3. Administrative Cities:

  • Example: Washington, D.C., USA, the capital of the United States and the center of its government institutions.

4. Port Cities:

  • Example: Shanghai, China, one of the world’s busiest port cities and a major hub for international trade.

5. Educational Cities:

  • Example: Oxford, United Kingdom, renowned for its universities and academic institutions.

6. Tourist Cities:

  • Example: Venice, Italy, a popular tourist destination known for its historic canals and architecture.

7. Cultural Cities:

  • Example: Paris, France, celebrated for its rich cultural heritage, museums, and artistic communities.

8. Technological and Innovation Hubs:

  • Example: Silicon Valley, California, USA, a global center for technology and innovation companies.

Q.9. What do you mean by hierarchy of settlement. write about this with example and diagrams? 

Ans: A settlement hierarchy is when settlements are put in an order and classified based on their size and/or the range of services that they provide for people. The higher up the hierarchy you go, there are fewer settlements but they increase in their size in terms of population and the number of services provided.

we can take an example: suppose think that India has a population of about 120 crores. now you need to the population of each and every state according in ascending order. so here for that we need the information for that we may take the help of that heirarchy.

Q.10. Write briefly about the land use pattern of rural and urban settlements.

Ans: In rural areas, agriculture is the main occupation along with fishing, mining, etc. Agro-based activities are also common in rural areas. In rural areas, the availability of land is more and the population is less. In rural areas, the extent of residential areas is less. Land use in rural areas can be classified into Arable land, Fallow Land, Forest Land, and Grassland. In urban areas land is used for different purposes. It is necessary to make maximum use of the land. In urban areas with reference to population, the land is limited. Therefore, the distribution of the population is dense. Urban land use can be classified into Commercial land use, Residential land use, Commercial land use, etc.

Q.11. What do you mean by central business district. Mention its basic characteristics? 

Ans: A central business district (CBD) is an area within a city or town that is reserved for commercial and business activities. It is usually the most vibrant part of the city, with a high concentration of office buildings, retail outlets, restaurants, and other businesses.

Some characteristics of CBD are:

  • The CBD is typically characterised by high-rise office buildings, hotels, and shopping malls. It is a densely-populated area, with a mix of residential, commercial, and office buildings. The streets are usually crowded with pedestrians and vehicles, and there is a lively street life.
  • The CBD is the hub of the city’s economic activity and is home to the headquarters of many of the city’s leading businesses and organisations. It is also a major transportation hub, with a network of roads, railways, and airport connections.
  • The CBD is a key destination for tourists and business travellers and offers a wide range of shopping, dining, and entertainment options. It is also a major centre for arts and culture, with a number of museums, galleries, and theatres.
  • The CBD is a vibrant and exciting place and is the engine of the city’s economy. It is a place where people come to work, to shop, to eat, and to be entertained. It is a place that is always alive with activity.

Q.12. Write briefly about the relationship between rural and urban settlement.

Ans: 1. Settlements can be divided into urban and rural based on their functions. Rural settlements are smaller than urban settlements.

2. In rural areas, agriculture and allied agricultural activities like livestock rearing, fishing, lumbering, etc., are developed.

3. In urban areas, industries, construction, and economic activities like trade, transport, communication, banking, and insurance are important.

4. The development industries need various raw materials and services supplied by rural areas.

5. For example, cotton grown in rural areas is supplied to cotton textile industries in urban areas. Every day, many rural people commute to urban areas to work in different activities.

6. Thus, there is a good interrelationship between urban and rural areas since they depend on each other.

Q.13. Write short notes:

(a) Human settlement and settlement geography. 

(b) Culture and educational town.

(c) Rural-urban continuum.

(d) Urban fringe.

(e) satellite town

Ans: (a) Human settlements and settlement geography: Urban centres have factories which process the raw materials obtained from the surrounding rural areas or buy goods in bulk from importers and sell them to rural dwellers. On the other hand, rural settlements offer the market for the products manufactured, produced or purchased in bulk by the urban centres.

(b) Culture and educational town: 

Culture: The word ‘culture’ relates to aspects of human activity such as literature, music, dance, painting, sculpture, architecture, religious beliefs and even science.

Education rights: The government also has to recognise and provide grants to such istitutions of they fulfill others essential conditions.

(c) Rural urban continuum: Rural- urban continuum, the merging of town and country, a term used in recognition of the fact that in general there is rarely, either physically or socially, a sharp division, a clearly marked boundary between the two, with one part of the population wholly urban, the other wholly rural.

(d) Urban fringe: Urban fringe, sometimes also called “urban-rural fringe,” is the area of land where town meets country. The urban fringe is an area most often reserved for urban-based people who wish to be closer to nature and for industries that require large amounts of open land such as airports and wind farms. The size and scope of a city’s urban fringe are influenced by the agricultural needs of the society, the amount of available space, the proximity of other cities, and the value of the land surrounding it. 

(e) Satellite town: A satellite town, also known as a satellite city, is a self-sufficient smaller town located on the periphery of a larger metropolitan city, with its economic and social life often intertwined with the bigger city. These towns are distinguished from suburbs primarily due to their economic independence and the level of self-sustainability they possess. While suburbs largely rely on the main city for employment, satellite towns have their own industries, educational institutions, and healthcare facilities, reducing dependency on the primary city.

  1. The concept was introduced in the 20th century to manage rapid urbanization and to decongest overcrowded cities.
  2. Satellite towns are strategically located close enough to a major city for commuting, yet far enough to prevent merging into the urban sprawl.

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