Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 3 Population Growth and Distribution

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Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 3 Population Growth and Distribution

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 3 Population Growth and Distribution Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

Population Growth and Distribution

Chapter – 3


Q.1. Write about the trend of population growth in the world? Why and during which period was the population growth rate high? 

Ans: Because Population began growing rapidly in the Western world during the industrial revolution. The most significant increase in the world’s population has been since the 1950s, mainly due to medical advancements and increases in agricultural productivity.

This dramatic growth has been driven largely by increasing numbers of people surviving to reproductive age, the gradual increase in human lifespan, increasing urbanization, and accelerating migration. Major changes in fertility rate have accompanied this growth.

1901-1921: This period is marked by very slow, rather stagnant population growth. During this period high birth rate was counter balanced by high death rate. The progressive growth rate in 1921 over 1901 was only 5.42 per cent. In fact, the census 1921 registered a negative growth rate of 0.31 per cent which happened only once throughout the demographic history of India. The high mortality during this period was a result of large scale abnormal deaths due to epidemics and draughts.

1921-51: This is known to be a period of steady population growth. The mortality rate started showing downward trend as a result of improvement in general health and sanitation conditions after 1921. The crude death rate which stood at a high of 47.2 per thousands in 1911-21 declined to 27.4 per thousands in 1941-51. On the other hand birth rate continued to stay abnormally high and declined only 39.9 per thousands in 1941-51 as against 48.1 per thousands in 1911-21. Decline in death rate was also a result of improvement in distribution system as a result of improved transpirations so that timely supplies of food could be made available to draught and famine stricken areas. The combined effect was that the population started increasing steadily.

1951-81: After 1951, there was a steep fall in mortality rate but the fertility rates continued to be high. Therefore this period experienced Rapid growth of population and is often referred to as period of population explosion. The total population of the country increased from 361.09 million in 1951 to 683.3 million in 1981, recording and increases of 89.2% in thirty years.

Q.2. What  is the estimate of world population? State the major reasons of spatial variation in population growth? 

Ans: About 7 billion. There is spatial variation in population growth because the places which are fertile, more people live there and the places which are infertile less people live there. The demand of agriculture is also an important reason of spatial variation in population.

Some of the major reasons for spatial variation in population growth include:

Fertility Rates: Regions with high fertility rates tend to experience faster population growth. Cultural norms, access to education, and healthcare services can influence fertility rates, leading to spatial disparities.

Mortality Rates: Areas with lower mortality rates, often due to better healthcare infrastructure, sanitation, and disease prevention, tend to have higher population growth rates. Lower mortality rates result in a larger proportion of the population reaching reproductive ages, contributing to population growth.

Migration Patterns: Migration, both internal and international, plays a crucial role in shaping population growth. Regions with economic opportunities, better living standards, or political stability attract migrants, leading to population growth in those areas. Conversely, regions facing conflict, natural disasters, or economic decline may experience outmigration and population decline.

Economic Opportunities: Areas with thriving economies and employment opportunities often attract people seeking better livelihoods. Urban centers and industrialized regions tend to experience higher population growth due to job prospects and higher living standards.

Social and Cultural Factors: Social and cultural factors, such as gender roles, religious beliefs, and traditional practices, can influence population growth. Regions with gender equality, awareness of family planning, and delayed marriages often have lower fertility rates.

Government Policies: Government policies related to family planning, healthcare, and migration can significantly impact population growth rates. Regions with effective family planning programs tend to have slower population growth.

Infrastructure and Development: Access to essential services like education, healthcare, and sanitation can impact population growth. Developed regions with better infrastructure often experience lower birth rates due to increased access to education and healthcare, leading to more informed family planning decisions.

Natural Resources: Regions rich in natural resources may attract population growth due to economic activities related to resource extraction, leading to migration and population concentration.

Q.3. Give a picture of regional variation in population growth in present time in the world? 

Ans: When demographers attempt to forecast changes in the size of a population, they typically focus on four main factors: fertility rates, mortality rates (life expectancy), the initial age profile of the population (whether it is relatively old or relatively young to begin with) and migration. In the case of religious groups, a fifth factor is switching – how many people choose to enter and leave each group, including how many become unaffiliated with any religion.

This chapter presents an overview of each of these five main drivers of population change. It highlights important trends, discusses key assumptions about the future and acknowledges weak spots in the demographic data currently available on some countries and religious groups.

In some cases, this chapter also shows how different the projections would be if particular factors, such as migration, were not taken into account. These hypothetical scenarios are intended to give readers a sense of how much impact various factors have on the projections.

Q.4. Write about population distribution in the world as rate the major factor of unevenness in the distribution? 

Ans: Geographical factors: Favorable topography, availability of mineral and freshwater resources, favorable climate and soil fertility are some of the reasons affecting population distribution. Indo-Gangetic Plains, Diamond Mines of South Africa, etc, are densely populated.

The distribution of population in the world is uneven. Some areas are very crowded while some are sparsely populated. 

There are various reasons behind uneven distribution:

Geographical factors: Favorable topography, availability of mineral and freshwater resources, favorable climate and soil fertility are some of the reasons affecting population distribution. Indo-Gangetic Plains, Diamond Mines of South Africa, etc, are densely populated.

Social and cultural factors: Areas of better housing, education and health facilities are more populated. Places of religious and cultural significance also attract people e.g., Varanasi, Jerusalem, etc.

Economic factors: Places having more industries, transportation and communication facilities provide better employment opportunities. People are attracted to these places because of these reasons, e.g., Mumbai, Osaka etc.

Q.5. Discuss with example about the role of topography and climate in population distribution? 

Ans: The climate and topography of a region influences the population density of a region. Higher population is observed in the fertile plains as it is easy to cultivate crops. Mountainous regions and deserts usually have lesser people residing in them.

The role of topography and climate in population distribution are:

1. Topography:

(a) Mountains and Plateaus: 

  • Population Density: Mountainous regions often have low population density due to rugged terrain and limited habitable land. Plateaus might have slightly higher population density if they have fertile valleys or plains.

Example: The Andes in South America have sparse populations at high altitudes due to steep slopes and harsh living conditions.

(b) Plains and Valleys: 

  • Population Density: Flat plains and fertile valleys are highly attractive for settlement due to the availability of arable land and easy construction.

Example: The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta in Bangladesh and India is densely populated because of the fertile soil and ample water supply.

(c) Coastal Areas:

  • Population Density: Coastal regions are densely populated due to access to water for trade, transportation, and fisheries.

Example: The Nile Delta in Egypt is densely populated as it offers both fertile land and access to the Mediterranean Sea for trade.

2. Climate:

(a) Temperate Climates:

  • Population Density: Regions with moderate temperatures and distinct seasons often have higher population densities as they support agriculture and comfortable living conditions.

Example: The Eastern United States and Western Europe are densely populated due to their temperate climates, supporting agriculture and urban centers.

(b) Harsh Climates:

  • Population Density: Extremely hot or cold climates deter large-scale human habitation due to challenging living conditions.

Example: The Sahara Desert in Africa has a low population density because of its hot, arid climate, making it inhospitable for most forms of life.

(c) Water Availability: 

  • Population Density: Regions with ample water supply from rivers or lakes support agriculture and higher population densities.

Example: The region around the River Indus in Pakistan is densely populated due to the river’s water supply, supporting extensive agriculture.

(d) Tropical Climates: 

  • Population Density: Tropical regions often have dense vegetation and high humidity, which can make living conditions challenging. Coastal tropical areas are an exception due to trade opportunities.

Example: Coastal areas in Southeast Asia, like Mumbai in India, are densely populated despite the tropical climate because of trade, economic opportunities, and access to the sea.

Q.6. Stating the major densely populated regions of the world briefly discuss their geographical characteristics?

Ans: According to Topography– Highly dense areas where people live are in plains rather than plateau and mountains. Because plains are suitable for farming, transportation and many other factors such as water and electricity. The Ganges plains are the most densely populated area of the world.

The geographical characteristics making this region’s density thickly populated are:

1. Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh and India):

  • Geographical Characteristics: A vast alluvial plain formed by the confluence of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers. It’s crisscrossed by numerous distributaries and tributaries, providing fertile soil. Subject to monsoons and prone to flooding, but also rich in biodiversity.
  • Population Density: Extremely high due to fertile soil, abundant water, and favorable climate. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is one of the most densely populated cities globally.

2. Nile Delta (Egypt):

  • Geographical Characteristics: A deltaic region at the northern end of the Nile River. Characterized by fertile soil due to annual flooding, making it historically crucial for agriculture.
  • Population Density: High due to its agricultural productivity and historical significance. Cairo, located near the delta, is one of the most densely populated cities in Africa and the Middle East.

3. Yangtze River Delta (China):

  • Geographical Characteristics: A densely populated region around the Yangtze River, comprising flat plains and fertile land. It includes major cities like Shanghai and Nanjing.
  • Population Density: High due to economic opportunities, navigable rivers, and fertile soil. Shanghai, a global financial center, is one of the most densely populated cities in China and the world.

4. Tokyo-Yokohama Metropolitan Area (Japan):

  • Geographical Characteristics: A coastal region in Japan’s Kanto Plain, benefiting from a mild climate and proximity to the Pacific Ocean. It includes Tokyo Bay, surrounded by mountains on three sides.
  • Population Density: Very high due to economic activities, urbanization, and advanced infrastructure. Tokyo is one of the most densely populated cities globally and a major economic hub.

5. Java Island (Indonesia):

  • Geographical Characteristics: A volcanic island with fertile soil, lush rainforests, and abundant natural resources. It’s located in Southeast Asia, with a tropical climate.
  • Population Density: Extremely high due to agricultural productivity, urbanization, and cultural factors. Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, is one of the most densely populated cities in Southeast Asia.

6. Mumbai Metropolitan Region (India):

  • Geographical Characteristics: A coastal city located on the west coast of India, consisting of a series of islands and reclaimed land. Mumbai is prone to monsoons and has a natural harbor.
  • Population Density: Very high due to economic opportunities, trade, and historical significance. Mumbai is one of the most densely populated and economically significant cities in India and the world.

Q.7. What are the major thinly populated regions of the world? What are the main reasons behind thin populated in those areas? 

Ans: Some of the more sparsely populated regions of the world are found in Afghanistan, Syria, Iraq, the Arctic Circle, the Sahara, the Himalayan region of Asia, Iceland, Northwest Africa, the Outback of Australia, and Mongolia.

Here are some major thinly populated regions:

1. Siberia, Russia: Siberia is a vast and sparsely populated region in northern Asia. It is characterized by extreme cold, harsh winters, and large expanses of wilderness. Despite its immense size, its population density is very low.

2. Northern Canada: Northern Canada, including the territories of Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, is remote and features a harsh subarctic and Arctic climate. The population in these regions is sparse, with many indigenous communities.

3. Greenland: Greenland is the world’s largest island and an autonomous territory of Denmark. Much of its land is covered by ice, and its population is concentrated in a few coastal towns, resulting in low overall population density.

4. Mongolia: Mongolia is a landlocked country in Central Asia with vast stretches of deserts, steppes, and rugged mountains. The country has a relatively low population density, with most of the population concentrated in the capital, Ulaanbaatar.

5. Namib Desert, Namibia: The Namib Desert in southwestern Africa is one of the world’s oldest and driest deserts. Its harsh arid conditions make it thinly populated.

Here are some of the main reasons:

1. Harsh Climates: Extreme cold or hot climates, as well as regions with severe weather patterns, can deter human settlement. For example, the polar regions, such as the Arctic and Antarctic, have extremely low population density due to their frigid conditions.

2. Inhospitable Terrain: Rugged and mountainous terrains, deserts, and areas with difficult topography can make it challenging to establish communities. For instance, the Himalayan mountain range in South Asia and the Sahara Desert in North Africa have low population density.

3. Lack of Water Resources: Areas with limited access to freshwater sources, such as deserts or arid regions, are less attractive for human habitation. The scarcity of water for drinking and agriculture can severely limit population growth.

4. Natural Hazards: Regions prone to natural disasters like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and hurricanes may have lower population densities due to the risks associated with these events.

5. Disease and Health Risks: Areas with high prevalence of diseases, especially those with limited access to healthcare and medical services, may have lower population densities due to health risks. Certain tropical regions may be sparsely populated because of the risk of diseases like malaria.

Q.8. What do you mean by human migration? What are its major types. 

Ans: Human migration is the movement of people from one place in the world to another. Human patterns of movement reflect the conditions of a changing world and impact the cultural landscapes of both the places people leave and the places they settle.

Types of human migration are given below:

  • Internal migration: moving within a state, country, or continent
  • External migration: moving to a different state, country, or continent
  • Emigration: leaving one place to move to another
  • Immigration: moving into a new place 
  • Return migration: moving back to where you came from
  • Seasonal migration: moving with each season or in response to labour or climate conditions

Q.9. Write briefly why human migration take place? 

Ans: Push factors occur where someone is currently living and make continuing to live there less attractive. A push factor could be political unrest, a lack of job opportunities, or overcrowding. Pull factors occur in a potential destination and make it an attractive place to migrate to.

Migration is important for the transfer of manpower and skills and provides the needed knowledge and innovation for global growth. In order to address the issues raised by global migration, it is necessary to improve international coordination.

Modern humans migrated out of Africa over 60,000 years ago. This map shows their migration paths. Those migrations were likely driven by climate, food availability, and other environmental factors. As time passed and cultures became less nomadic, war and colonialism began to fuel migrations, too.

Advantages of Human Migration:

• A richer and more diverse culture

• Helps to reduce any labour shortages

• Migrants are more prepared to take on low paid, low skilled jobs these are the main reason to human to migrate.

Q.10. State the push and pull factors of human migration? 

Ans: The definition of push factors are forceful reasons that cause people to leave their residence. 

They include aspects such as:

  • War
  • Poverty
  • Floods
  • Droughts
  • High crime
  • Lack of safety
  • Lack of services

The definition of pull factors entails the reasons individuals move to a certain location. 

This includes variables such as:

  • Higher employment opportunities
  • More wealth
  • Safety
  • Political stability
  • Good climate
  • Better services
  • Low occurrence of natural hazards among others

Q.11. What do you mean by International migration? Write briefly about the causes and consequences of the international migration with example. 

Ans: International migration is the movement of people across international borders for the purpose of settlement. International migrants change their usual place of residence from one country to another.

Causes of International Migration:

1. Economic Opportunities: One of the primary drivers of international migration is the search for better economic prospects. People often move to countries with stronger economies and more job opportunities. For example, many individuals from developing countries migrate to the United States or Western European countries in search of higher-paying jobs.

2. Conflict and Persecution: Political instability, armed conflict, and persecution force many individuals and families to flee their home countries. For instance, the Syrian refugee crisis resulted in millions of Syrians seeking asylum in various countries, including neighboring nations and European countries.

3. Education: Students often migrate abroad to pursue higher education in prestigious institutions. Countries like the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia attract a large number of international students every year.

4. Family Reunification: Family ties play a significant role in migration. Individuals may move to join family members who have already settled in another country. This is common in countries like Canada, where family reunification is a key aspect of immigration policy.

Consequences of International Migration:

1. Cultural Diversity: Migration results in cultural exchange, leading to increased diversity in host countries. Immigrants bring their traditions, languages, cuisines, and art, enriching the cultural fabric of the host nation.

2. Economic Impact: Migrants contribute to the economy by filling labor gaps, paying taxes, and often starting businesses. However, they can also strain social services, leading to debates about economic impacts. For example, migrant workers contribute significantly to the economies of Gulf countries like Qatar and the UAE.

3. Social Integration Challenges: Integration challenges arise as migrants adapt to new societal norms and languages. Host countries often face the task of fostering social cohesion and combating discrimination. European countries, like Germany and Sweden, have faced social integration challenges due to the influx of refugees.

4. Remittances: Migrants often send remittances back to their home countries, which can have a significant impact on the economies of these nations. For instance, remittances from the U.S. and other countries are crucial for the economies of countries like Mexico and the Philippines.

Write short notes:

(a) Population explosion.

(b) Density of population.

(c) Internal migration.

(d) International migration.

(e) Pull  factor of human migration.

(f) Push factors of human migration. 

(g) Bangladesh India population migration. 

Ans: (a) Population explosion: It refers to the rapid increase in the population of an area among human beings. Furthermore, it is a situation where the economy is not capable of coping with the increasing demand of its population. During 1950 to 2000 World population explosion occurred in which the population suddenly increased from 250 crore in 1952 600 crore in 2000 bringing about an increase of 350 crore within a period of 15 years against the growth of 150 crore within a long period of 150 years during 1800 to 1950. The main factor responsible for these phenomenon where repaid increase in food supply rise in the standard of living advancement in Medical Science and health care etc. 

(b) Density of population: Population density is the concentration of individuals within a species in a specific geographic locale. Population density data can be used to quantify demographic information and to assess relationships with ecosystems, human health, and infrastructure. Density of population is obtained by driving the total population of an area by the total area of loose top world density of population in 2010 was around 47 person per square kilometre. The density of population variance from country to country. Easy e Bangladesh is the highest density of population with 1046 person per sq km Police Stop on the other hand India density of population in 2010 was around 378 per person per sq km.

(c) Internal migration: Internal migration is the movement of people between usual residences within national states. This article starts with a description of the levels of residential mobility and degrees of interregional migration in industrialized countries.

(d) International migration: International migration is the movement of people across international borders for the purpose of settlement. International migrants change their usual place of residence from one country to another.

It is known as International migration Police Stop the largest International migration to place from the 17th of mid 19th century. More than 10 crore people migration from Europe to country such as USA Australia New Zealand South Africa etc. The main causes for international migration are possibilities or job in peaceful extensive economic development religious persecution political instability civil war International wire partition of the country frequent natural calamities etc. 

(e) Bangladesh India population migration: A large number of people from east Pakistan migrate to Assam in the late 1960 and early 1970 as due to Indians partition in 1947 the Pakistan partition in 1971. Even after the creation of Bangladesh after the Bangladesh war of 1971 the Migration of people to India continued as hundreds where displays as a result of the Waffle list of other factors that caused this migration where is easily availability of agriculture land and better economic opportunities in the state of Assam police toxins are some had a precious border with Bangladesh hundreds of Muslims migrated to the state without much difficulty Police Stop the sudden influx of foreigners into the state profoundly changed the state demography social balance and economic condition.

Q.12. Choose the correct answer:

(a) In which year World has a population of about 1 billion? 

(i) In 1950.

(ii) In 1808.

(iii) In1908.

(iv) In1008.

Ans: In 1808.

(b) What is the main reason of the world population growth? 

(i) Increase in birth rate.

(ii) Decrease in death rate.

(iii) Decrease in death rate compare to bath rate.

(iv) Migration.

Ans: Increase in birth rate. 

(c) Which is the last population continued in the world? 

(i) Africa.

(ii) Oceania.

(iii) Europe.

(iv) South America.

Ans: Oceania.

(d) Among the following countries which one has the highest population density? 

(i) Japan.

(ii) India.

(iii) Bangladesh.

(iv) Indonesia.

Ans: Bangladesh. 

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