Class 12 Sociology Chapter 9 New Areas of Social Change The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 9 New Areas of Social Change and select need one.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 9 New Areas of Social Change
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Long type question and answer
Q.1. What is Globalisation ? Explain it brief.
Ans: Globalisation simply means growing interconnectedness and interdependence among the nations of the world. Only one way of understanding cannot explain the full concept of Globalisation. Different academic disciplines may focus on different aspects of globalisation.
Globalisation refers to the mixing of the global with the local, Globalisation on neither entirely spontaneous nor entirely delinked from the commercial interests of globalisation. Globalisation can be seen as a strategy often adopted by foreign firms while dealing with local traditions in order to enhance their marketability. As for example, in India, television channels like Star, MTV, Channel v etc. are using Indian language for enhancing their marketability. This is an example of globalisation.
Q.2. What are the impacts of Globalization on our local culture?
Ans: There are many views regarding the impact of globalisation on culture. A central contention Is that as a result of globalisation all cultures will become similar i.e. homogeneous. We have already seen this trend. Act over the world, people are using same dress material, food habits, enjoying same movies and video albums life styles of people of different parts of the globe have becomes similar. Thus a homogeneous culture is evolving over the globe.
On the other hand, as a result of globalisation of culture Is taking place globalization refers to the mixing of global with the local. This tendency is not entirely spontaneous. In India we see that all the foreign television channels like Star, MTV, channel v, carton network etc. One using Indian language. Similarly though McDonalds beef products are very popular abroad, in Indian they are selling only vegetarian children items. Thus globalisation of culture is increasing. On the other hand, consumerism emerged as a new cultural trend high flying professional working in software firms, multinational banks, stock markets, travel fashion and media industry are the main clientele of the booming consumer industry. Growth of multinational shopping malls, multiplex cinema halls, amusement parks etc. are symbol of growing consumer culture.
Q.3. How communication system has been affected by globalisation?
Ans: Globalisation is all about global interconnectedness. With the tremendous growth in the sphere of science and technology, new means of communication like mobile phone, satellite television, internet, e-mail etc. emerged and due to which globalisation picked up momentum. On the other hand, globalisation also changed the communication system. As a result of the emergence of internet, electronic economy gained momentum.
The electronic economy implies that in the globalized world Banks, corporations and individual are now able to shift funds internationally with the click of a mouse. Now people prefer to carry plastic money like credit card instead of cash.
In India sea change occurred in the telecommunications scenario by 1999. By 2006, India became the country with the forth largest usage of mobile phones. Various multinational companies like Vodafone, Aircel, Airtel etc. are providing mobile services in India. So far as mobile handsets are concerned Nokia, Samsung, L. G, Motorola, etc. are some of the multinational players.
Thus, globalisation has affected the communication system.
Q.4. Globalisation affected different section of people differently. Discuss.
Ans: Globalisation, for some one may mean new opportunities, while for there it may means loss of livelihood. As for example, women silks spinners of bihar lost their jobs as Chinese and Korean silk yarn entered the market consumers prefer Chinese yarn as it is cheaper and has a shine. Similarly, with the entry of large fishing vessels into Indian waters, the livelihood of women fish sorters, dryers, vendors and net makers get affected as there big vessels take away the fish that used to be earlier collected by Indian fishing vessels.
On the other hand, after globalization the IT sector, information industry etc. got boost and employment avenues of English educated India middle class increased tremendously.
Q.5. Discuss the means of electronic mass media.
Ans: Radio, television, internet, telephone etc. are some of the electronic mass media. Though as a means of communication radio and television are quite old, its rebirth took place with the emergence of satellite radio and television. The staggering growth of private satellite television has been one of the defining developments of contemporary India. On the other hand, the advent of privately owned FM radio station in 2002 provided a boost to entertainment programmes over radio. In order to attract audiences there privately run radio station sought to provide entertainment by broadcasting popular music. Along with privately owned radio station, we have also seen the growth of community owned radio station.
Apart from Radio and TV, internet, mobile phone etc. are some of the important of electronic means of communication.
In India sea change occurred in the telecommunications scenario by 1999. By 2006 India become the country with the forth largest usage of mobile phones. Mobile phone help people to stay in touch with their family and friends. Most of the advertisement of mobile services shows mothers talking to their sons and daughters or grand parents talking to their grand children. Mobile become so popular among to students that they protest against the decision of an university to ban Mobile in the campus by writing letter to the president of India. Students uses mobile to keep in touch with their friends and family members as well as serving nets. In some cases it is found that face to face contact declined due to excessive use of cell phones.
Q.6. How is our culture affected by man media?
Ans: Culture is something which keeps itself changing with the changing time and circumstances. Mass media is on of the most important elements which exert influence upon culture. During British rule, mass media was used to spread anti-colonial sentiment. Under British rule newspapers and magazines, films and radio comprised the range of mass-media. Radio was wholly owned by the state. News papers and films, though autonomous from the state where strictly monitored by the Raj. Newspapers and magazines were not very aside circulated as the literate public was limited. The 19th century social reforms were often wrote and debated in news papers and journals. Anti colonial public opinion was nurtured and channelised by the nationalist press, which was vocal in its opposition to the oppressive measures of the colonial period.
Sometimes colonial government imposed censorship, for instance during the ilbert Bill controversy, some prominent news papers of that time were Kesari, Matarubhumi, Amrit Bazar Patrika, Bombay Samacher, etc.
Television programming was introduced experimentally in India to promote rural development as early as 1959. By 1976 television stations were set up by Doordarshan in 7 cities Delhi, Mumbai, Srinagar, Amritsar, Kolkata, Chennai and Jalandhar. Every broadcasting centre had its own mix programmes comprising news, programmes for children and women, programme for farmers as well as entertainment programmes. With the advent of colour broadcasting during the 1982.
Asian Games in Delhi and rapid expansion of the national network led to rapid commercialization of television broadcasting. During 1984-85, television network covered a large portion of Indian population. During this period endogenous soap operas like Hum Log and Buniad were aired. They were hugely popular and attracted substantial advertising revenue for Doordarshan. Revenue for Doordarshan as well as of television sets increased manifold with the broadcasting of the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
After globalization television channels increased manyfold in India. Privately run satellite channels have multiplied rapidly since the mid 1990s. The coming of transactional television companies like Star TV, MTV, Channel1 v, Sony and Other have greatly widened cable networks in India. However all these foreign channels have begun producing programmes in Hindi and other Indian regional languages.
Presently most television channels are on throughout the day 24×7. Television channels are growing in number in English, Hindi and in Regional languages. These channels are broadcasting Reality shows, Talks shows, Bollywood shows, Family Soaps, Interactive shows, Game show etc.
These TV channels through their various programmes affects the lifestyle as well as mindset of Indian youth. Now companies before launching any product in the market, carry advertisements on television. These advertisements also change the food habit, as well as the dress code of the people. Cold drinks like Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Miranda etc. We’re popularised by television. Film based entertainment, both domestic and important exert influence upon the youths in respect of dress code and life style. Thus, mass media affects our culture.
Q.7. What are the evil consequences of television on our society?
Ans: In India starting the globalisation process the private satellite channels have been going to be increased rapidly. These satellite channels have broadcasting varied types of programmes foe entire world. Entering the transnational companies like Sony, star etc. have changed the quality and character of programmes. They broadcasted programmes produced at European countries which are more effective to attract Indian viewers. But social attitude, customs and conventions of both these countries are not equal that creates the crisis of social ethics in the midst of conservative Indian society.
Besides off these types of private channels have broadcasting various types of sensational and soul-touched news that imparts an evil impact on our society. Hence by capturing the personal moments of political leaders, filmstars destroys the privacy of mankind. These are some evil consequences of television on our society.
Q.8. What is meant by mass communication?
Ans: Mass communication is different from other means of communication as it requires a formal structural organization to meet large scale capital production and management demands. The state or the market have a major role in the structure and functioning of mass-media. Mass media functions through very large organizations with major investments and large body of employees.
So far as the means of mass communication are concerned – it can be classified into two types – print media and Electronic media. Newspapers, Magazine, Journals, News bulletin etc. are included in print media. On the other hand Radio, TV, Internet, Telephone, Mobile phone etc. are included in electronic media.
Q.9. How does mass media help in cultural change?
Ans: Mass-media is one of the most implicative elements which provides an immense influence upon culture. It simply means to inform people about various development and entertainment. There are two types of media – print media and electronic media. Newspaper, magazines, journals etc. are included in print media while radio, television, computer etc. are called electronic media.
During British rule mass media was used to spread into anti-colonial sentiment. In present time electronic media become popular and most of the electronic media have broadcasting programmes on throughout the day in 24×7 mode and it helps to emerge a new social ethics. Mass media brings the rapid changement into the life-style as well as mind set of Indian youth. Cold drinks like Coca-Cola, Pepsi, KFC restaurant, pizza of McDonald’s pizza are popularised through television.
Costume or attire is the special identity of our culture. Because of globalization mass media brings the rapid changement and development into the dress code. On the other hand, dance, music, etc. are the inseparable part of culture and it provide through the mass media. Growth of multinational shopping malls, multiplex etc. are the symbol of growing consumer culture through where can buy up to date materials of branded companies like REEBOK, NIKE, LEE etc.
Now a days DVD, CD, Internet, FM Radio broadcasted different types of reality show, programmes of dance and music have been defining developments of Indian culture. The trend of blending music is the latest update of culture and popularised specially. Thus mass media helps into the changements.
Q.10. In what way globalisation affected Indian television?
Ans: Television programming was introduced experimentally in India to promote rural development as early as 1959. By 1976 television stations were set up by Doordarshan in 7 cities Delhi, Mumbai, Srinagar, Amritsar, Kolkata, Chennai, and jalandhar. Every broadcasting centre had it’s own mix programmes comprising news, programmes for children and women, programmes for farmers as well as entertainment programmes. With the advent of colour broadcasting during 1982. Asian Games in Delhi and rapid expansion of the national network led to rapid commercialization of television broadcasting. During 1984-85, television network covered a large portion of Indian population. During this period endogenous soap operas like Hum Log and Buniad were aired. They ware hugely popular and attracted substantial advertising revenue for Doordarshan. Revenue for Doordarshan as well as sell of television sets increased manifold with the broadcasting of the epics Ramayana and Mahabharat.
After globalization television channels increased manifold in India.
Privately run satellite channels have multiplied rapidly since the mid 1990s. The coming of transactional television companies like Star TV, MTV, Channel v, Sony and others have greatly widened cable networks in India. However all these foreign channels have begun producing programmes in Hindi and other Indian regional languages.
Presently most television channels are on throughout the day 24×7. Television channels are growing in number in English, Hindi and in Regional languages. These channels are broadcasting Reality shows, Talk shows, Bollywood shows, Family soaps, Interactive shows, Game shows etc.
Q.11. Discuss the major developments in India print media. Since independence.
Ans: Technology have changed the process of news papers production. News paper production have become fully automatic from reporters desk to final page proof. The use of paper has been fully eliminated with this automated chain. Networking of personal computers through LAN and use of news making software brought there changes. Instead of shorthand, notebook, pen, typewriter, and old telephone, a modern reporter carries a mini tape recorder or mobile phone having recording facility ,a laptop, a modem etc.
Now, newspapers are using new technology for improving pictorial coverage, photographers carry digital cameras and instantly send the photographs to the central news desk via modems.
The most significant happening in the last few decades has been the Indian newspaper revolution. The beginning of this growth predated liberalisation. According to the National Readership survey 2002. The top two dailies in India are Hindi newspaper Dainik Jagran and Dainik Bhaskar. The fastest growing dailies are the Assamese dailies in urban areas and the Bengali dailies in rural areas.
Q.12. ” There is an increasing tendency towards globalisation of culture “. Do you agree? Explain why.
Ans: Yes, I agree that there is an increasing tendency towards globalisation of culture among the new generation. As a result of globalisation, globalisation of culture is taking place. Globalisation refers to the mixing of global with the local. This tendency is not entirely spontaneous. In India, we see that all the foreign television channels like STAR, MTV, Channel v, cartoon Network etc. are using Indian language. Even in the case of language, globalisation has exerted its influence. Now the young generation of India Is picking up a Hinglish mixture of Hindu and English in common parlance.
Unprecedented growth of non-media in recent years, especially satellite television channels and FM radios have contributed largely in the sphere. On the other hand, consumerism emerged as a new cultural trend. High flying professional working is software firms, multinational banks, stock markets, travel fashion and media industry and the main clientele of the booming consumer industry. Growth of multinational shopping malls, multiplex cinema halls, amusement parks etc, are symbols of growing consumer culture.
Like this, globalisation of culture is increasing and people mainly young generation are attracted towards it.
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