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Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics
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US Hegemony in World Politics
PART – 1
VERY SHORT ANSWER
Q.1. What is uni_polar System ?
Ans : When power is concentrated in the hands of one powerful group or in one power block,it is called uni_polar system.
Q.2. Correct the sentence.The root of the word ‘hegemony’ lie in classical Rome.
Ans : The root of the word ‘hegemony’ lies in classical Greek.
Q.3. Write ‘yes’ or ‘no’.
Originally the word ‘hegemony is used to denote the preponderent position of Athens in ancient Greece.
Ans : Yes.
Q.4. Fill in the blank :
____is the direct outcome of a US military research project.
Ans : Internet is the direct outcome of a US military research project.
Q.5. What is soft power ?
Ans : This is the third sense of hegemony which is about the capacity to ‘manufacture consent’.
Q.6. When did the first Gulf War break out ? The 1st Gulf War occurred in August,1990.
Q.7. What is hard power ?
Ans : (i) This is the first meaning of hegemony that relates to the relations, patterns and balances of military capability between states .
(ii) It is the notion of hegemony as military preponderance that is especially germane to the current position and role of the US in the world politics.
Q.8. What is meant by ‘Operation Desert Storm’ ?
Ans : The liberation of Kuwait from Iraq by the United Nations came to be known as “Operation Desert Storm”.
Q.9. Give an example of hegemony as structural power.
Ans : Technical education like MBA__The idea that business is a profession that depends upon skills that can be taught in a university is uniquely American.Today, there is no country in the world in which MBA is not a prestigious degree.
Q.10. Which event does ‘9/11’ refer to in the context of contemporary world politics ?
Ans : On 11 September 2001 , nineteen hijackers hailing from a number of Arab countries took control over four American commercial aircraft shortly after take off and flew them into important buildings in the US.
Q.11. In which year Iraq invaded Kuwait ?
Ans : In 1991,Iraq invaded Kuwait.
Q.12. Write one constraint on American power ?
Ans : The institutional architecture of the US.
Q.13. When the US Hegemony began ?
Ans : US Hegemony began from 1991.
Q.14. In which year US Military research project began ?
Ans : In 1950, US military research project began.
Q.15. Give one example of a global public goods ?
Ans : Internet is an example of global public began.
Q.16. What is Global village ?
Ans : Global village refers to a world with a safe super power and even if the behaviour of the super power is intolerable the other do not have any other of leaving.
Q.17. Who was the president of USA during the ‘First Gulf War’ ?
Ans : George W.Bush was the president of USA during the first Gulf war.
Q.18. How many persons were killed in the attack of 9/11 ?
Ans : More than 3000 people were killed in the attack of 9/11.
Q.19. When the first MBA course outside USA was established ?
Ans : The first MBA course outside USA was established in 1950.
Q.20. Name the first business school which was established in USA in 1881 ?
Ans : Wharton school is the first business school which was established in 1881 in U.S.A.
Q.1. What does hegemony mean ?
Ans : Hegemony is defined as dominating the international system by only one centre of power.
Q.2. Give two examples of public goods.
Ans : Two examples of public goods are__Internet and sea.
Q.3. Who launched’ Operation Enduring Freedom’ against whom ?
Ans : George W.Bush launched “Operation Enduring Freedom” against all those suspected to be behind the 9/11 attack mainly All Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
Q.4. When did USA hegemony begin ?
Ans : The U.S hegemony had began since 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Q.5. Who set up Bretton Woods System and when ?
Ans : The Bretton Woods System was first set up by the U.S after the Second World War.
Q.6. Mention two products of US Hegemony.
Ans : The two products of US hegemony are Internet and SLOC’s
Q.7. What is the bandwagon strategy ?
Ans : Bandwagon strategy occurs when weaker states beside that the cost of opposing a stronger power exceeds the benefits to be gained from supporting it.
Q.8. Do you think alternative centres of political and economic power can limit US Hegemony ? Justify your answer.
Ans : Yes, to some extent alternative centres of political and economic power can limit US Hegemony. Organization like ASEAN, European Union begun to play dominant role in all over the world.
Q.9. Who Won the US presidential election in 1992 and in 1996 ?
Ans : Bill Clinton won the presidential election in 1992 and in 1996.
Q.10. What do you mean by the term ‘hegemony’ ?
Ans : The term hegemony means leadership. Hegemony is a state of power that is able to dominate the global Political system.
Q.11. What is the US share in the world economy ?
Ans : The U.S share in the world economy is 28 percent.
Q.12. When did the US Hegemony begin and why ?
Ans : U.S hegemony began in 1991 after the collapse of Soviet Union. when Soviet Union was disintegrated totally in 1991 then the hegemony of U.S started and the U.S become the only super_ power.
Q.13. Examine the Process by which US Hegemony got established ?
Ans : The process was three types by which US Hegemony established.they are:
(i) Hegemony as hard power.
(ii) Hegemony as soft power.
(iii) Hegemony as structural power.
Q.14. What do you understand by Bandwagon strategy ?
Ans : Band wagean strategy was a strategy for own development of production for the expansion of business, progress of technology to put domination on other state.
Q.15. What means by PPP ?
Ans : PPP means Pakistan people’s party.
Q.16. Mention the constraints that operate on the US hegemony ?
Ans : The constraints that operate on US hegemony are:
(b) Civil society and American mass media.
(c) Institutional architecture of American state.
Q.17. What is All Qaeda ?
Ans : All Qaeda was a terrorist group of Afghanistan.U.S launched Operation”Enduring Freedom” against All: Queda.
Q.18. What is ‘Hegemony as soft power’ ?
Ans : Hegemony as soft power means that it arises from the attractiveness of a country’s culture, political ideals and policies. The ideological or cultural dimensions is the main basis for soft power.
Q.1. What is Guantanamo Bay ? Discuss its significance.
Ans : Guantanamo Bay is a US navel base in Cuba where the detained persons were sent.Its significance is that the prisoners were meted out in human behaviour.
They were arrested mostly without proofs .The prisoners here didn’t enjoy the law of their own country,or of the US . Even the UN representatives were not allowed to meet them.
Q.2. Why did US launch its invasion of Iraq ?
Ans : U.S launched its invasion of Iraq due to following reasons:
(i) Controlling Iraq Oil fields and installing a regime friendly to the US.
(ii) To prevent Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction (WMB).
Q.3. Write a brief note on Indo_US relationship ?
Ans : Indo_US relationship:
(a) Areas of Conflict:
(i) India’s friendship with Soviet Union :- US did not like the behaviour shown by India during the cold War era.It was upset with India’s closeness to Soviet Union.
(ii) India’s policy of non_alignment: US was also upset with India’s policy of non_alignment. It said that India is being a diplomat over the issue.
(iii) US support to Pakistan: India did not like the US supporting Pakistan and providing all the required assistance during Indo_Pak War.
(b) Areas of Cooperation:-
(i) Indian American Diaspore: This factor is providing a good platform for the development of Indo_US relationship.
(ii)Trade relations :- Trade relations between the two countries have been profitable to both the countries and is improving the relationship.
Q.4. Suggest some measures to resist hegemony.
Ans : (i) Coalition of big powers :- A military coalition by the big powers like China,India,Russia etc.have the potential to challenge US hegemony.
(ii) Bandwagon strategy :- It suggests that instead of engaging in activities opposed to the hegemonic power,it may be advisable to extract benefits by operating within the hegemony system.
(iii)Hide Strategy :- This implies staying aloof from the dominant power and not allowing any influence of the hegemon.
(iv) Combination of NGOs social movements :- It may rise from sections of the media and intellectual, artists,writers etc. These various actors may well from links across national boundaries including Americans to criticise and resist US policies.
Q.5. What does US hegemony mean in today’s world? Mention any two constraints that operate on US Hegemony ?
Ans : US Hegemony in today’s world means the dominance of US in all spheres_military , economic,ideas of good life etc.
The constraints on US Hegemony are:
(i) The first constraint in the institutional architecture of the American state itself. A system of division of power between the three branches of the government places significant brakes upon the unrestrained and immoderate exercise of America’s military power by the executive branch.
(ii) The second constraint is domestic in nature and stems from open nature of the American Society. American mass media may from time to time impose or promote a particular perspective on domestic public opinion in the US and they also keep on aye over the methods of government.
Q.6. Discuss the role of States in a global village.
Ans : The whole world is now a global village.we live in these global Village with US being the village headman. None of the actors can leave as this is the only world we know and the only village we live in. Resistance to the headman’s hegemony would then be the only option available to live in the global village.
Q.7. How can hegemony be overcome ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No.4 (Long answer)
Q.8. Discuss US Hegemony under Jefferson Bill Clinton ?
Ans : During the rule of Bill Clinton,US focused on soft issues like establishment of democracy, protection of environment and promotion of world trade . However Bill Clinton ordered operation Infinite Reach against the terrorist without giving importance to U.N.O.
Q.9. What was ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’ ? List out its outcome ?
Ans : On March 19,2003,the US launched its invasion of Iraq under the code name “operation Iraqi Freedom”. The purpose of this invasion we as to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of mass_destruction .
The purpose of this invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction.The US military lost over 3,000 military personnel in the war but Iraqi casualties were very much higher.
Q.10. What do you mean by public goods? List out the examples of global public goods ?
Ans : Global public goods are those which can be consumed by one people, without reducing the amount of the good available for other.For example, internet and sea.
Q.11. Mention the important factors which describe India’s relationship with the US ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No.3 (Long Answer)
Q.12. Write a note on ‘9/11’ ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. NO .10 ( Very short Answer)
Q.13. What were the reason of the first Gulfwar ?
Ans : The reason of first Gulfwar:
(a) Controlling Iraqi oilfields.
(b) Installing a regime friendly to USA.
(c) Preventing Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction.
|Unit 1||PART – 1|
|Chapter 1||The Cold War Era|
|Chapter 2||The End of Bipolarity|
|Chapter 3||US Hegemony in World Politics|
|Chapter 4||Alternative Centres Of Power|
|Chapter 5||Contemporary South Asia|
|Chapter 6||International Organisations|
|Chapter 7||Security In The Contemporary World|
|Chapter 8||Environment And Natural Resources|
|Unit 2||PART – 2|
|Chapter 1||Era of One-Party Dominance|
|Chapter 2||Challenges of Nation Building|
|Chapter 3||Politics Of Planned Development|
|Chapter 4||India’s External Relations|
|Chapter 5||Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System|
|Chapter 6||The Crisis of Democratic Order|
|Chapter 7||Rise of Popular Movements|
|Chapter 8||Regional Aspirations|
|Chapter 9||Recent Developments in India Politics|
Q.14. Explain US military action during Clinton Era ?
Ans : Operation Allied Force:
(a) The Albanian population in the Kosovo province of Yugoslavia faced discrimination and the government too did not pay any attention.
(b) In 1991, the air forces of the NATO countries led by the US bombarded targets around Yugoslavia for well over two months.
(c) This resulted in the downfall of the government of Slobodan Milosevic and the stationing of the NATO Fortin Kosovo.
Operation Infinite Reach:
(a) The Al_Qaeda terrorist organisation bombarded the US embassies in Nairobi,Dar_es_Salaam in 1998.
(b) As a response to the attack, the US attacked the Al_Qaeda terrorist targets in Sudan and Afghanistan through cruise missiles.
(c) The US did not bother about the UN sanction or provisions of the international law in this regard.
Q.15. What is ‘Hegemony as Hard Power’ ?
Ans : American military dominance today is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms ,the US has military capacities that can reach any point on the planet accurately, lethally and in real time .The military dominance of the US is not just based on higher military spending,but on a qualitative gap , a technological chasm that no other power can at present concessively span.
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