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Class 12 Political Science Chapter 14 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System
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Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System
PART – 2
VERY SHORT ANSWER
Q. 1. In India ,which year was labeled at the dangerous decade,?
Ans : In India 1960’s where level at the dangerous decade.
Q. 2. To which state did lal Bahadur Shastri belong ?
Ans : Lal Bahadur Shastri belong to Uttar Pradesh.
Q. 3. Who became success of Lal Bahadur Shastri as prime minister of India ?
Ans : Country became the successor of Lal Bahadur Shastri as prime minister of India.
Q. 4. Which year was considered as a landmark care in India’s political and electrical history ?
Ans : In 1967 was considered as a landmark year in India political electrical history.
Q. 5. Name the full form of DMK .
Ans : Dravida Munnetra kazhagam was the full form of DMK.
Q. 6. when was the system of coalition aai started in India ?
Ans : In the year 1967 the system of coalition started in India.
Q. 7. To which MLA did the fish ‘Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’ belongs ?
Ans : The phrase aaya Ram, Gaya Ram, belongs to Gaya Lal MLA from Haryana.
Q. 8. when the fourth general election was held ?
Ans : In 1967 the fourth general election was held.
Q.9. How many seats were secured by Indian National Congress in lok in the lok sabha in 1967 election ?
Ans : The Indian National Congress secured 283 seats in the lok sabha in 1967 election.
Q. 10. what is the meaning of defection ?
Ans : Defection means an elected MLA and MP leave the political party on whose symbol they are elected and join other political party.
Q. 11. What do you mean by Syndicate ?
Ans : Syndicate refers to a group of powerful and influential leaders with the Congress party. it was an informal name given to n group of Congress party leader who control the party’s decisions making.
Q. 12. write the full form of SVD.
Ans : The full form of SVD Sanyukt Vidhayak Dal.
Q. 13. When PT. Jawaharlal Nehru died ?
Ans : Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru died in May 1964.
Q. 14. say the correct word :
(a) Lal Bahadur Shastri was the (first /second /third) prime minister of India.
Ans : Lal Bahadur Shastri was the second prime minister of India.
(b) The famous slogan Jai Jawan Jai Kisan was made by (Indira Gandhi /Maraji Desai/ Lal Bahadur Shastri)
Ans : The famous slogan Jai Jawan Jai Kisan was made by Lal Bahadur Shastri.
(c) The Congress Syndicate was led by (kapoori Thakur/ k kamra/S .Nijamingappa)
Ans :The Congress Syndicate was led by k kamraj.
(d) The elections were held in India in (1967/ 1977/ 1982)
Ans : The election were held in India in 1967.
(e) Dravida munneta kazhagam DMK belongs to (Uttar Pradesh/ Tamilnadu/ Madhya Pradesh)
Ans : Dravida Munneta kazhagam belongs to Tamil Nadu.
(f) The era of coalition and government begin in (1971 /1989 /1969 /1967)
Ans : The era of coalition government begin in 1967.
(g) Who was the leader of Syndicate ? K.kamraj /S.K.pabil / N.Sanjeeva Reddy /all the above.
Ans : K. Kamraj.
(h) Who gave a slogan of ‘Indira Hatao’
Ans : Grand Alliance, the non congress opposition alliance gave a slogan of Indira Hatao.
Q. 15. Why were 1960’s labelled as the dangerous decade ?
Ans : 1960’s labelled as the dangerous decade because some unresolved problem.
Q. 16. When did the era of coalition government began ?
Ans : In 1967.
Q. 17. Who was the founder of Congress socialist ‘party’.
Ans : Jayprakash Narayan.
Q. 18. Who become the prime minister of India after Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru ?
Ans : Lal Bahadur Shastri.
Q. 19. When Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru died ?
Ans : In 1964.
Q. 20. Write one factor that led to the opportunity of Indira Gandhi’s government in the year 1970 ?
Ans : For initiating the programme of ‘Garibi Hatao’.
Q. 21. Which party was the main opposition in the Lok Sabha in 1967 ?
Ans : SVD.
Q. 22. Who was the political successor of Lal Bahadur Shastri ?
Ans : Indira Gandhi.
Q. 23. Which of the following statement about Grand Alliance of 1971 is correct ?
(a) Was found by non communist, non Congress Party.
(b) Had a clear political and ideological programme
(c) Was formed by all non Congress parties.
Ans : (a) Was found by non communist, non Congress Party.
Q. 1. What were the two challenges faced by India from 1964 to 1966 during Lal Bahadur Shastri brief Prime Ministership
Ans : the two challenges faced by India from 19644 to 1966 during Lal Bahadur Shastri’s brief Prime Ministership were :
(i) During this time India was recovering from the economic implications of the war with China.
(ii) Food crisis took place in his regime. India saw drought in several states due to consecutive monsoon failure that further led to low productivity.
Q. 2. When and why did Congress face challenge of political succession second time ?
Ans : Congress faced challenges of political succession second time, after the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri.
It is because of :
(i) There was an intense competition between Morarji Desai and Indira Gandhi for the post of prime minister.
(ii) Morarji Desai had served as Chief Minister of Bombay state (today’s Gujarat and Maharashtra) and also a Minister at the Centre while, Indira Gandhi daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru had been Congress President and also the Union Minister for information in the Shastri cabinet.
Q. 3. What do you know about Lal Bahadur Shastri ?
Ans : Lal Bahadur Shastri was born in 1904 in Uttar Pradesh. He was unanimously chosen as the leader of the Congress parliamentary party and thus become the country’s next Prime Minister. He participated in the freedom movement since 1930. He was the prime minister of India from 1964 to 1966. He had been a Minister of UP cabinet, General Secretary of Congress. He coined the famous slogan ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kisan’.
Q. 4. How fourth general election jolted the congress ?
Ans : The electoral verdict of fourth general elections of 1967 jolted the congress party :
(i) The congress was facing the electorate for the first time without Nehru.
(ii) The congress did manage to get a majority in Lok Sabha, but with its lowest tally of seats and share of votes since 1952.
Q. 5. Name the two leaders who were known for the following two slogans ?
(a) ‘Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan’
(b) ‘Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’
Ans : (a) ‘Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan’ – Lal Bahadur Shastri.
(b) ‘Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’ – Gaya Lal,
Q. 6. Explain the term ‘Aya Ram Gaya Ram, How this term originates ?
Ans : The term “Aya Ram, Gaya Ram” refers to describe the pratice of frequent floor-crossing by the legislators. After the fourth-general election defection became a frequent phenomena in the politics of India. The term “Aya Ram, Gaya Ram” specially refers to Gaya Lal a MLA in Haryana. In the year 1967 Gaya Lal changed his party thrice in a fortnight.
Q. 7. What does the word “Political Earthquake signify in Indian Politics ?
Ans : The word ‘Political Earthquake signifies the Political disaster of congress in the fourth general election in Indian politics. Half the ministers in Indira Gandhi’s cabinet were defeated. Many senior and experienced congress men like Kamaraj, S.K. Patil, Atulya Ghosh and K.B. Sahay.
Q. 8. What is Non-congressism ?
Ans : The opposition parties of congress come together to form anti-congress fronts in the fourth general elections. This coming together of anti congress opposition parties is called the strategy of non-congressism. The parties opposed to the congress realised that the division of their votes kept the congress in power. Thus, parties that were entirely different and disparate in their programmes and ideology got together to form anti-congress fronts in some states and entered into electoral adjustment of sharing seats in others.
Q. 9. Give the status Explain the term ‘Grand of SVD.
Ans : The election of 1967 brought into picture the phenomenon of coalitions. Since no single party had got majority, various non-congress parties came together to form joint legislative parties that supported non-congress governments. That is why these governments came to be described as SVD or Sanyukt Vidhayak Dal governments.
Q. 10. Which party was the main opposition in the Lok Sabha in 1967 ?
Ans : The swatantra party was the main opposition party in the 1967 elections. The congress won 283 seats whereas the swatantra party captured 44 seats. 8.68% of vote was pulled in favour of swatantra party.
Q. 11. Explain the term ‘Grand Alliance’
Ans : Grand Alliance was formed by non-Communist and non-Congress political parties. It was formed in 1971. The SSP, PSP, Bhartiya Jana Sangha, Swatantra Party and the Bharatiya Kranti Dal were the members of Grand Alliance. It was an electoral alliance formed with the objective to oppose India Gandhi.
Q. 12. Explain the term ‘whip’.
Ans : During the Presidential elections of 1969 the then Congress president S. Nijaingapa issued a whip all the congress MPs and MLAS to vote in favour of Sanjeeva Reddy, the official candidate of the party.
Q. 13. Write few lines about Morarji Desai.
Ans : Morarji Desai was born in 1896. He was a freedom fighter and a prominent Gandhian leader. He was a proponent of Khadi naturopathy and prohibition. He had been the chief minister of Bombay state. Deputy Prime Minister (1967-69) He joined congress (o) after the split in the party. He had also been the Prime Minister from 1977 to 1979. Morarji Desai was the first Prime Minister belonging to a non-congress party.
Q. 14. When did Shastri’s Prime Ministership come to an end? Who was the Political successor of Lal Bahadur Shastri ?
Ans : Lal Bahadur Shastri’s Prime Ministership came to an abrupt end on 10 January 1966, when he suddenly expired in Tashkent, then in USSR and currently the capital of Uzbekistan. Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the political successor of Lal Bahadur Shastri.
Q. 15. What do you mean by SVD ?
Ans : Sanyukt Vidhayak Dal.
Q. 16. Who were the two leaders for the following two slogans ?
(a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
(b) Garibi Hatao.
Ans : (a) Lal Bahadur Shastri.
(b) Indira Gandhi.
Q. 17.Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’ how this term originates ?
Ans : When Gaya Ram changed his party from Congress to communist and when he also returned to Congress and after remaining some months in Congress again by joining to another party, Birendra Singh Rao declared this term.
Q. 18. When Pt. Nehru died and who became the Prime Minister of India after Pt. Nehru ?
Ans: In 1964 Pt. Nehru died and Lal Bahadur Shastri become Prime Minister of India.
Q. 19. Give the Status of SVO in the new Era of Coalition ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 6. (Long Answer)
Q. 20. What speculation arose after the death of Pt. Nehru in the Indian Politics ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 9. (Long Answer)
Q.21. (a) In the___ election___ and her party was defeated.
Ans : Lok Sabha, 1967.
(b) In the fourth general election of___ Jan Sangh secured___seats in the Lok Sabha.
Ans : Bharatiya.
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