Class 12 Political Science Chapter 14 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 14 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 14 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System and select needs one.

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 14 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board HS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 14 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here…


Q.1. Explain the emergence of coalition govts.

Ans : When no single party achieves absolute majority in the election then coalition government is formed by making alliance of two or more than two political parties. The election of 1967 brought into picture of the phenomenon of coalition government in Indian politics.

The reason for the emergence of coalition governments are as follows:

(i) After the results of 1967 elections were declared no single party could get majority.

(ii) Therefore, various non-congress parties came together to form joint legislature parties called S.V.D. (Sanyukt Vidhayak Dal) that supported non-congress government.

(iii) There was an attempt by the various non-congress parties to form a coalition government.

(iv) The coalition partners were ideologically incongruent and their ideals were not all same. But yet the system of coalition came into Indian politics for the first time.

Q. 2.Was the congress split in 1969 avoidable ? Explain. 

Ans : The congress split in 1969 was avoidable if syndicate and Indira Gandhi would have a good relationship. The equity between the two factions led to factional rivalry which created bitterness between Indira Gandhi and Syndicate. It led to Presidential elections and split of the party into two parts.

Q. 3. Write short note on abolition of Privy Purse of Princely states. 

Ans : After, independence of India, most of the princely state were integrated with India. The rulers of princely states were given privy purse for their maintenance. Nehru wanted to abolish this system became it was not in conformity with the principle of equality and justice as laid down in the constitution of India. 

Indira Gandhi also supported the fact that privy purse should be abolished. The government of India issued an ordinance to to abolish privy purse. However Supreme court of India struck down the ordinance. Later on in 1971. the constitution was amended with a view to remove legal obstacles for abolishing ‘Privy purse’.

Q. 4 What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s govt. in the early 1970s ?

Ans : The factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government in the early 1970s are mentioned below : 

(i) Charismatic leader :- Indira Gandhi was a charismatic leader. Due to her attracting personality, she become popular and powerful in the government.

(ii) Positive Programme :- Indira Gandhi took some positive programme for the benefits of poor, farmer, Dalits etc. Indira Gandhi gave emphasis on the growth of the public sector, land reforms and abolition of princely privileges. 

(iii) Garibi Hatao Programme :- The slogan Garibi Hatao was launched by Indira Gandhi and it became very popular. She tried to generate a support base among the landless labour, landless farmer, Dalits, adivasis and minorities etc.

Q. 5. Why did the Indira Govt. decide to devalue the Indian Rupee in 1967 ? What was its result ?

Ans : Indira Gandhi decided to devalue the Indian Rupee in 1967 due to following reasons :

(i) There was grave economic crisis during that period resulting from successive failure of monsoons, widespread drought.

(ii) There was decline in agricultural production which led to service food shortage.

(iii) Depletion of foreign exchange reserves and rapid drop in industrial production and exports.

(iv) There was a sharp rise in military expenditure and diversion resources from planning and economic development. As a result of devaluation, value of Indian rupees decreased. Earlier ön US. dollar could be purchased for less than Rs 5, after devaluation it cost more than Rs. 7.

Q. 6. Explain briefly the term SVD in the new Era of Coalition.

Ans : The election of 1967 brought into picture the phenomenon of coalitions. Since no single party had got majority, various non congress parties came together to form joint legislative parties called Samyukta Vidhayak Dal (SVD) that supported non congress government. That is why these governments came to be described as SVD governments. In most of these cases the coalition partners were ideologically incongruent. The SVD government in Bihar, for instance included the two socialist parties – SSP and the PSP – along with the CPI on the left and Jana Sangh on the right. 

In Punjab it was called the ‘Popular United Front’ and comprised the two rival Akali parties at that time sant group and the Master group – with both the communist parties – the CPI and the CPI (M), the SP, the Republican Party and the Bharatiya Jana Sangh.

Q. 7.In which four states of the country the congress did not get a majority in the state legislatures ?

Ans : In Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh of the country the congress did not get a majority in the state Legislatures.

Q.8. What was the Electoral Verdict of the fourth general election of 1967 ? 

Ans : The electoral verdict of 1967 fourth general election jolted the congress party. In the 4th general election held in February 1967, the congress party was facing the electorate for the first time without Nehru The congress did manage to get a majority in the Lok Sabha, but with its lowest tally of seats and share of votes. 

Since 1952. Half the ministers in India Gandhi’s cabinet were defeated. The political stalwarts who lost in their constituencies were kamaraj in Tamil Nadu, S.K. Patil in Maharashtra, Atulya Ghosh in west Bengal and K.B. Sahay in Bihar. The congress lost majority in as many as seven states. In two other states defections prevented it from forming a government.

Unit 1 PART – 1
Chapter 1The Cold War Era
Chapter 2The End of Bipolarity
Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics
Chapter 4Alternative Centres Of Power
Chapter 5Contemporary South Asia
Chapter 6International Organisations
Chapter 7Security In The Contemporary World
Chapter 8Environment And Natural Resources
Chapter 9Globalisation
Unit 2PART – 2
Chapter 1Era of One-Party Dominance
Chapter 2Challenges of Nation Building
Chapter 3Politics Of Planned Development
Chapter 4India’s External Relations
Chapter 5Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System
Chapter 6The Crisis of Democratic Order
Chapter 7Rise of Popular Movements
Chapter 8Regional Aspirations
Chapter 9Recent Developments in India Politics

Q.9. What speculation arose after the death of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru in the Indian politics ?

Ans : After the death of Pl. Jawaharlal Nehru speculation arve in various matter of Indian politics.

We can mention all these matter in some points like :

(i) After the death of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru the first speculation was regarding the issue of eligible political successor of Nehru.

(ii) A fear emerged in the minds of people that like so many other newly independent countries, India too would not be able to manage a democratic structure.

(iii) There were doubts if the new leadership would be able to handle the multiple crisis which waited for a solution.

(iv) It is feared that democratic failure in the country might lead to a political role for the army.

Q. 10. Discuss the nature of new Congress(R) party.

Ans : The electoral contest of 1971 was a landmark in the Indian Politics. was the restoration of congress (R).

(i) In Fact the electoral contest appeared to be loaded against congress (R). After all the new congress was just one faction of an already weak party. Everyone believed that the real organisational strength of the congress party was under the command of congress (0). 

(ii) To make matters worse for Indira Gandhi, all the major non communist, non-congress opposition parties formed an electoral alliance known as the Grand Alliance.

(iii) The SSP, PSP, Bharatiya Jana Sangh, swatantra party and the Bharatiya Kranti Dal came together under this umbrella.

(iv) The congress (R) – CPI alliance won more seats and votes in 1971 Lok Sabha election than the congress had ever won in the first four general elections, which was regarded as an dramatic decision.

Q. 11. Which of the following statement about the Grand Alliance 1971 is correct ?

(a) was formed by non-communist, non-congress party.

(b) had a clear political and ideological programme. 

(c) was formed by all non-congress parties.

Ans : Grand Alliance of 1971 was formed by non communist, non congress party.

Q. 12. State reasons for the defect of the congress in 1967. Give reasons for your answer. 

Ans : The reasons for the defect of the congress in 1967 were as follows :

(i) Increased mobilization of regional ethnic and communal groups in the politics of India led to the defeat of the congress party.

(ii) Anti-Congressism developed in the later part of 1960’s, increased unity among non-congress parties led to the defeat of the congress party.

(iii) Internal differences within the congress party was also another reason for the defeat of the congress party. 

(iv) Ignorance of the public protests by the government and considering the protest as law and order problem rather than expressions of people’s problems.

Q. 13. When and why did Congress face challenge of political succession second time ?

Ans : After the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1966, the Congress faced challenge of political Successor in second time.

Q. 14. In what ways Indira Gandhi re-invented her party Congress (R) ? 

Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No.8. (Very Long Answer) 

Q. 15. What is non- Congressism? Discuss in the light of Indian Political Scene of 1967 ?

Ans : Same as Ans of Q, No.9. (Short Answer)

Q.16. Write the differences between Congress (O), and Congress (R) ?

Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No.6. (Very Long Answer). 

Q.17. Write short notes on :

(a) New Congress (R) party . 

Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No.7 (Very long answer) 

(b) Indira Hatao.

Ans: Same as Ans of O. No. 2. (Long Answer) 

(c) Privy Purses of Princely states.

Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 3. (Long Answer) 

Q. 18. What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress Party ? 

Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 5. (Very Long Answer)

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