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Class 12 Political Science Chapter 12 Politics Of Planned Development
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Politics Of Planned Development
PART – 2
VERY SHORT ANSWER
Q. 1. What is the full form of POSCO.
Ans : The full form of POSCO is Protection Of Children From Sexual Offences.
Q. 2. There were two models of development : one was liberal capitalist model, what was the other ?
Ans : The another model of development is socialist model .
Q. 3. When was the planning commission set up ?
Ans : The planning commission was setup in 1950.
Q. 4. What is FYP ?
Ans : FYP means five year plans.
Q. 5. When did the first five year plan start ?
Ans : the First Five Year Plan started from 1st April 1951.
Q. 6. Nee Malara scale project which was included in the first five year plan ?
Ans : The large-scale project included in the first five year plan was Bhakra Nangal Dam?
Q. 7. Who was the founder of Indian statistical Institute ?
Ans : P.C. Mahalanobis who was the founder of Indian statistical Institute.
Q. 8. On which country had India to be independent for food crisis ?
Ans : India has to be independent upon United States of America for food crisis.
Q. 9. Name the full form of AMUL?
Ans : The full form of AMUL is Anand Milk Union Limited.
Q. 10. Who is called the ‘Milkman of India’ ?
Ans : Dr Varghese Kurien is called the “Milkman of India”
Q. 11. State two objectives of planning ?
Ans : Two objectives of planning is to ensure development and progress.
Q. 12. State any two advantages of planning ?
Ans : ensure equal opportunity of development and Justice.
Q. 13. In which year Planning Commission was set up and who was the first Chairman of Planning Commission ?
Ans : The Planning Commission was setup in 1950. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Chairman of Planning Commission.
Q. 14. When was India’s new economic policy launched who was chief architect ?
Ans : India’s new economic policy was launched in 1991. The chief architect of India’s new economic policy was Dr Manmohan Singh.
Q. 15. What were the major outcome of planned economy.
Ans : (i) Reduces the wastage of time and resources and thus facilitates the optimum use of the country’s natural and human resources.
(ii) Helps the country to advance and progress and thus increases the per capita income.
Q. 16. Which Indian thinker emphasised the planning in India and when ?
Ans : Jawaharlal Nehru emphasised the necessity of planning in India in 1920’s.
Q. 17. Why is planning commission called extra constitutional body ?
Ans : planning commission is called an extra constitutional body because it is not created made the provision of constitution.
Q. 18. What is plan budget ?
Ans : Planned budget is that budget which spent on a five-year basis as per the priorities fixed by the plan.
Q. 19. Write few lines about distributive justice ?
Ans : Distributive justice emphasises on providing or distributing equal justice to the people.
Q. 1.Why did the Orissa Villagers protest against POSCO plan ?
Ans : Orissa villages protested against the POSCO plan because-
(i) it threatened the rights and liberties of the tribal people.
(ii) It displace them permanently from their home in Livelihood.
Q. 2. What do you mean by left and right party ?
Ans : Left Party refer to these who are in favour of poor and downtrodden and support government policies for the benefit of poor section.
On the other Right Party refer to those who are in favour of free market and free competition. It is an approach in which the government doesn’t interfere in the matter of economy.
Q. 3. What is meant by development ?
Ans : Development means increase in national economy. It also means change coupled with economic growth and socio-economic progress. It refers to increasing capacity to make rational use of natural and human resources for socio-economic progress.
Q. 4. With which was the modernization associated ?
Ans : Modernization was associated with development. Modernization was linked with nations of growth, material progress and scientific nationality. It led the counties in grouping system has developed, developing and underdeveloped.
Q. 5. What was Bombay plan ?
Ans : A section of the big industries got together in 1944 and drafted a joint proposal for setting up a planned economy in the country. It was called Bombay plan. The Bombay plan wondered the state to make a major initiatives in Industrial and other economic investments.
Q. 6. Government budget is divided into two : name the two types of budgets ?
Ans : The government budget is divided into two.
These two types of budget are :
(i) Balanced Budget.
(ii) Unbalanced Budget.
Q. 7. In which year was the the first five year plan started ?
Ans : The first five year plan was started in the year 1951.
K.N. Raj, a young economist Asked India to hasten stonely.
Q. 8. Which special of subjects were focused prove that ‘Kerala model’ ?
Ans : Through the famous “Kerala model”, subject has been focused like- Education, Health, Land Reform, Effective Food Distribution, And Poverty Alleviation.
Q. 9. What is meant by ‘Mixed Economy’ ?
Ans : Mixed economy is an economy having elements of both capitalist and socialist economy. In this time full fledge importance is given to the public sector but limited importance is given to the private sector.
Q. 10. What type of policy will India adopt for ensuring food sufficiency ?
Ans : For ensuring food sufficiency, India adopted some policies like giving importance to most developed agricultural areas, offering high yielding variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and better irrigation at highly subsidised prices which was the beginning of “Green Revolution” era.
Q. 11. What is meant by planned development ?
Ans : Planned development means that development should focus not only the progress path but also eliminating the challenges of socio-economic issues.
Q. 12. From where the idea of planning in India was drawn ?
Ans : The idea of planning in India was drawn from the planning experiment started in Soviet Union since 1928.
Q. 13. Mention the main objectives of Second Five Year Plan ?
Ans : The main objective of Second Five Year Plan was heavy industrialisation.
Q. 14. How many five years plan has been completed so far ?
Ans : Altogether five year plan have already been completed.
Q. 15. Who is regarded as the hero of India’s Green Revolution ?
Ans : M.S. Swaminathan is regarded as the hero of India’s Green Revolution.
Q. 16. Why did India adopted planning ?
Ans : India adopted planning to give economic content to political freedom. It was taken up with the objective to resolve the contractions of an unequal.
Q. 17. Write the composition of the Planning Commission ?
Ans : The planning commission consists of the Prime Minister as its chairman some ministers who are in charge of economic portfolios and some other members. The members of the commission has an administrative and educational background.
Q. 18. Who was P.C. Mahalanobis ?
Ans : PC Mahalanobis was an economist and planner who drafted the Second Five Year Plan.
Q. 19. What is Kerala Model ?
Ans : The Kerala Model is the name given to the path of planning and development charted by the state of Kerala. This model was based on the decentralized planning. In the model Emphasis has been laid on education health, land Reform, effective food distribution and poverty alleviation.
Q. 20. What is plan holiday ? Why is the ears are called plan holidays ?
Ans : plan holidays is the gap between the two five year plan. During some years (1979 to 1980, 1990 to 1992) there were no five year plans but stop gap arrangement by way of annual plans.t was due to change in government, government’s lack of clarity about development goals, strategies etc. that five years plan were not formulated or even subject to review and changes by some succeeding government.
Q. 1. Explain the first five year plan ?
Ans : The First Five Year Plan in India started from 1st April 1951 and it covered the period up to 31st March 1956.
The first five year plan had two major objectives:
(i) To correct the disequilibrium in the economic caused by war and partition.
(ii) To bring balanced development which ensure increasing national income and improvement in living standards.
The major thrust of the First Five Year Plan was to lay a foundation for future economic development of the country, which ensure social justice, equality and progress. Therefore priority was given for agricultural development. However the second five year plan gave priority on industrialisation.
Q. 2. Who was the architect of the Second Five Year Plan ? discuss is goal.
Ans : P.C.Mahalanobis was the architect of the Second Five Year Plan.
The Second Five Year Plan wanted to bring about quick structural transformation by making changes simultaneously in all possible direction.
Its important goals are :
(i) To achieve a rapid economic development.
(ii) To establish a “Socialist Pattern Of Society”.
(iii) To increase the national income of the rate of 5% per annum or 25% over the plan period.
(iv) To expand employment opportunities.
Q. 3. What is private sector ? How does it differ from public sector ?
Ans : Private sector mean the economic sector where priority is given to private production. In private sector capitalist own the resources and means of production. But in public sector private property is abolished and means of production are owned by the state. In private sector there is competition, among different private parties. On the other hand in public sector there is no possibility or limited possibility of four competition and improvement of quality.
Efficiency can be maintained in private sector but the efficiency level goes down in public sector.
Corruption is generally low in private sector but due to departmental dominated war in public sector corruption is more prevalent.
Q. 4.What is Green Revolution? How did it begin ?
Ans : In 1960’s, India was factoring a food prices due to many reasons, India government decided to make India self sufficient in food. Hence the Mid 1960’s, the traditional variety seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation are simply called Green Revolution. As a result of Green revolution area and improved seeds it has gone from about 15 Million hectares during 1970 to 1971 to nearly 75 million hectares in 1995 to 1996. The major benefit of the Green Revolution where experience mainly in Northern and Northwest India. Unprecedented enthusiasm has prevailed among farmers in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan and western U.P. of the new wheat variety seeds and a situation developed in which the demand for seeds by farmers exceeded the supply.
Positive consequences of Green Revolution are :- The major achievement of the Green Revolution was to boost the production of major cereals viz wheat and rice and as a result of Green revolution the crop pattern in India has undergone significant changes.
Two negative consequences of Green Revolution are :- Green Revolution has led to the concentration of wealth in the hands of top 10% of the rural population. Green revolution had widened the gap between polar and small farmers and rich landlords and green revolution has proved beneficial to the medium category designs because they could receive advantage of mediation between small farmers and rich landlords.
Q. 5. Who was called the ‘Milkman of India’ ? Discuss the White Revolution ?
Ans : Mr. Verghese Kurien is known as the “Milkman of India.” Based in Anand, a town in Gujarat Amul is a diary Cooperative movement joined by about 2 and half million milk producers in Gujarat. The Amul pattern became a uniquely appropriate model for rural development and poverty alleviation spurring what has come to be known as the White Revolution. In 1970’s the rural development programme called operation flood was started. Operation Flood organised cooperatives of milk producers into a nationwide milk grid, with the purpose of increasing milk production on bringing the producer and consumer closer by eliminating middlemen, and assuring the producers a regular income throughout the year.
Q. 6. Discuss the differences between the Green Revolution and the White Revolution ?
Ans : Green Revolution and White Revolution are the two famous Revolution regarding the production of wheat and milk.
They can be differ in following points :
(i) Green Revolution is the record production of wheat according to the plan of new agricultural strategy.
While White Revolution is the record production of milk.
(ii) Green Revolution took place in some states like Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh.
But White Revolution took place in Anand, a town in Gujarat.
(iii) M.S. Swaminathan was the father of Green Revolution. On the other hand Verghese Kurien was the father of white revolution.
(iv) Green revolution enhanced agricultural productivity by use of high yielding variety seeds fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, power, etc.
White Revolution enhanced the production of milk production through organising milk cooperative societies.
Q. 7. Write the main objectives of planning in India ?
Ans : The main of objectives of planning in India :
(i) Raising national income and per capita income.
(ii) Bringing self-sufficiency in food.
(iii) Bringing rapid industrialisation.
(iv)Increasing agricultural production.
(v)Raising the standard of living.
Q. 8. What is the role of Planning Commission in the socio economic development of the country ?
Ans : Planning is the systematic regulation of a purposeful activity. It is an invaluable aid to policy and helps to achieve national goals and is a continuous process full stop planning is a rational process and concerns itself with the proposals for the future with the evolution of alternate proposals and the methods with which these proposals may be achieved.
The planning commission was setup in India in 1950. The functions of Planning Commission are listed below.
(a) To make an assessment of the material complete capital and human resources of the country including technical personnel and investigate the possibilities of augmenting such resources are found to be deficient in relation to the Nation’s requirement.
(b) To formulate a plan for the most effective and balanced utilisation the country’s resources.
(c) Determination of priorities define stage in which the plan should be carried out and propose the allocation of resources for the due completion of each stage.
(d) To indicate the factors which are turning to retired economic development and determine the conditions which in view of the current social and political situation should be established for the successful execution of the plan.
(e) To determine the nature of the machinery which will be necessary for securing the successful implementation of each stage of the plane in all its aspects.
(f) To appraise from time to time the progress achieved in the execution of each stage of the plan and recommend the adjustments of policy and measures that such appraisal may show to be necessary.
(g) To make such interim or ancillary recommendations as appear to it to be appropriate either for facilitating the discharge of the duties assigned to it; or on a consideration of the prevailing economic conditions, current policies, measures and development programmes; or on an examination of such specific problems as may be referred to it for advice by central or state government.
Q. 9. What did the cabinet resolution of 1950 state regarding the aim of mixed economy ?
Ans : The aim of mixed economy :
(i) Providing adequate means of livelihood to all citizens equally.
(ii) State control and ownership of material resources of the country and ensure common good.
(iii)Prohibit concentration of wealth and means of production in the hands of a few.
|PART – 1
|The Cold War Era
|The End of Bipolarity
|US Hegemony in World Politics
|Alternative Centres Of Power
|Contemporary South Asia
|Security In The Contemporary World
|Environment And Natural Resources
|PART – 2
|Era of One-Party Dominance
|Challenges of Nation Building
|Politics Of Planned Development
|India’s External Relations
|Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System
|The Crisis of Democratic Order
|Rise of Popular Movements
|Recent Developments in India Politics
Q. 10. How does the planning commission discharge is functions ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 8. (long answer)
Q. 11. Write the food crisis in Bihar ?
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 5. (Very long answer)
Q. 12. Mention two positive and two negative consequences of the Green Revolution ?
Ans : Two positive consequences of Green Revolution :
(i) Boosting the major cereals like wheat and rice.
(ii) The crop pattern undergone significant changes.
Two negative consequences of Green Revolution :
(i) Led the concentration of wealth in the hands of top 10% of rural population.
(ii) Widened the gap between poor and small factors.
Q. 13. Fill in the blanks :
(a) The Planning Commission was set in March___
Ans : In March 15,1950.
(b)The Planning Commission of India opted for ___ Years Plan.
Ans : Five.
(c) The Second Five Year Plan stressed on heavy___.
Ans : Industrialization.
(d) The Indian Planners found balancing industry and ___ rally difficult
Ans : Agriculture.
(e) The Seventh Five Year Plan was introduced in April___.
Ans : 1981.
(f) The Eleventh Five Year Plan started in ___.
Ans : 2012.
Q. 14.Write a note on the White Revolution in Gujarat.
Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 5. (Long answer)
Q. 15. Give a brief outline on the process of plan formulation ?
Ans : Plans are formulated by the planning commission on the basis of guideline given by the National Development Council.
A draft of the final plan is considered by the Union Cabinet and then submitted for approval to the NDC. After approval of the NDC in cabinet, the plan is presented before the Parliament. After its formulation the plan is divided into plans for convenient implementation and allocation of resources. The implementation of plans is not done by the planning commission but by the state and union government.
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