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Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity
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The End of Bipolarity
PART – 1
VERY SHORT ANSWER
Q.1. When did USSR come into being ?
Ans : USSR come into being in 1917.
Q.2. When did the bipolar structure of world politics come into an end ?
Ans : The bipolar structure of world politics come to an end in 1991.
Q.3. Who was Mikhail Gorbachev ?
Ans : Mikhail Gorbachev was the General Secretary of COmmunist Party of USSR.He initiated two economic reforms in USSR namely Perestroika and Glasnost as economic liberalisation policies.
Q.4. Which state is the successor of the Soviet Union ?
Ans : Russia was the successor of the Soviet Union.
Q.5. Correct the statement : Stalin introduced reforms in the Soviet Union.
Ans : Gorbachev introduced reforms in the Soviet Union.
Q.6. Which party ruled the USSR ?
Ans : Communist party ruled the USSR.
Q.7. What was the final and the most immediate cause for the disintegration of the USSR ?
Ans : The final and the most immediate cause for the disintegration of the USSR was the rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic Republics, Ukraine, Georgia and others.
Q.8. Who became the sole superpower after the disintegration of the Soviet Union ?
Ans : US became the role super power after the disintegration of the Soviet Union.
Q.9. Write the full form of CIS ?
Ans : The full form of CIS is Commonwealth of Independent state.
Q.10. On what ideology Soviet Union was based ?
Ans : Soviet Union was based on the ideology of socialism.
Q.11. In which year Warsaw Pact was disbanded ?
Ans : In 1991.
Q.12 The Collapse of which country is known as collapse of “second world” ?
Ans : United States of Soviet Russia.
Q.13. With the collapse of which country cold war came to an end ?
Ans : With the collapse of USSR,cold war came to an end.
Q.14. In which year Russia took over the USSR seat in UN ?
Ans : In 1991 Russia took over USSR seat in UN.
Q.15. How many union republics were there in USSR ?
Ans : There are 15 union republics in USSR.
Q.16. Who was the founder of Bolshevik Communist Party ?
Ans : Vladimir Lenin was the founder of Bolshevik Communist Party.
Q.17. Who was the first elected President of Russia ?
Ans : Boris Yeltsin was the first elected President of Russia.
Q.18. What is the shock therapy ?
Ans : shock therapy was a model of aid to Soviet Union for the economic development helped by world Bank and IMF.
Q.19. When Soviet Union became a great power ?
Ans : After the 2nd world war Soviet Union become a great power.
Q.20. Who started political and economic reforms in USSR ?
Ans : Mikhail Gorbachev started political and economic reforms in USSR.
Q.21. On what ideology the Soviet Union was based ?
Ans : Socialist.
Q.1. What is meant by ‘second world’ ?
Ans : The Socialist countries of Eastern Europe and the nation’s which were part of Warsaw pact was known as second world
Q.2. Mention two reforms which Gorbachev initiated in the USSR ?
Ans : The two reforms which Gorbachev initiated in the USSR are÷
(i) He reform the economy,catch up with the west and loosen the administrative system
(ii) Gerbachev initiated the policies of economic and political reform and democratisation within the country.
Q.3. Who made the declaration on the disintegration of the USSR and when ?
Ans : In December 1991, Boris Yeltsin made the declaration on the disintegration of the USSR.
Q.4. Mention any two features that distinguish the Soviet Economy from the capitalist country.
Ans : Soviet economy was basically different from
American economy in the following ways:
The Soviet economy was opposed to capitalism because the essence of capitalism is the concentration of economic power in the hands of a few and the consequent exploitation of the rest.But American economy is based on capitalism. U.S.A. is the biggest capitalist country in the world.Soviet economy was fully controlled by the state.In U.S.S.R.
all means of production were owned and controlled by the state.Soviet system of Economy was based on planned economy.The economy was managed on the basis of state plans for economic and social development.There was integrated planning for the whole of the country.Industries,Banks, financial institutions,trade and commerce and even farming was controlled by the state.In U.S.S.R. there were no private industry.But in U.S.A.means of production are mostly in private hands.There is free economy and economy of U.S.A is controlled and guided by market forces.In Soviet economy there was no existence of private property and no multi millionaire.However,in U.S.S.R the citizens were allowed to own small houses for living and small shops for earnings.But in U.S.A. private ownership and private property is the basic element of American economy.
Q.5. Write the names of two countries which emerged after Soviet disintegration.
Ans : Russia and Kazakhstan had emerged after Soviet disintegration.
Q.6. What is meant by shock therapy in post communist regime ?
Ans : The collapse of Communism is the most of second world countries was followed by painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system.
The model transition in Russia,Central Asia and East Europe that was influenced by the World Bank and the
International Monetary Fund,came to be known as Shock Therapy.
Q.7. How did the power relations in world politics change after the Soviet disintegration ?
Ans : After the collapse of the Soviet Union power relations in world politics changed and therefore the relative influence of ideas and institutions also changed.The end of the cold war left open only two possibilities.They are either the remaining superpower would dominate and create a unipolar system or different countries or group of countries could become important players in the international system, thereby bringing in a multipolar system where no one power could dominate.
The USA became the sole superpower.Backed by the power and prestige of the USA,the capitalist economy was now the dominant economic system internationally. Institutions like the World Bank and IMF became powerful advisors to all these countries since they gave them loans for their transition to capitalism. Politically, the nation of liberal democracy emerged as the best way to organise political life.
Q.8. How did the Soviet disintegration lead to the end of cold war confrontation ?
Ans : The ideological dispute over whether the socialist system would beat the capitalist system was not an issue anymore leading to the end of cold war confrontation since US emerged as the role super power after the Soviet disintegration.
Q.9. What is the largest garbage sale in history ?
Ans : Due to shock therapy,many industries were undervalued and sold to private players.It led to sale of industries at throw away prices, for which some analysts describe it as the “largest garbage”sale in history.
Q.10. How did communist regime collapse one after another ?
Ans : During the period of reforms initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in USSR, the people of East European countries started to protest against their own government. They also protested against Soviet control.thus the communist regimes collapsed one after another.
Q.11. Mention the reasons for the suddenly collapse of the Soviet Union ?
Ans : The political and economic reforms introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev was the foremost reason for the collapse of Soviet Union. similarly the bureaucratic and authoritarian character of Soviet system was another reason for the collapse of Soviet Union.
Q.12. Write two characteristics of Soviet political system ?
Ans : (i) Soviet political system was very bureaucratic as well as authoritarian in character.
(ii) Soviet system was represented by single party.Communist party had a tight control over the administrative affairs of the country.
Q.13. Write any two negative effects of Shock Therapy ?
Ans : (i) Industrial sectors were down and it led to virtual disappearance of large industries.
(ii) it declined the value of Russian currency.
Q.14. Explain the meaning of ‘Glasnost’.
Ans : Glasnost means openness.
Q.15. what do you mean by ‘Near Abroad’ ?
Ans : It means Russia’s right to have major influence, political or economic,in regions which were under Soviet control,Near Abroad was a policy of Russia and it perceived the countries of East Europe as its backyard.
Q.16. What is the ‘Great Game’ ?
Ans : The political, economic and military competition amongst Russia,china,and the United States of America to control central Asia’s energy resources is in effect a new great game.
Q.17. When Berlin Wall was toppled ?
Ans : The Berlin Wall was toppled in 1990.
Q.18. Examine the political consequences of Shock Therapy ?
Ans : Democratic foundation of Russia become weak and the legislative institutions like parliament become very weak.
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