Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The Cold War Era

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The Cold War Era The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapter Assam Board HS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The Cold War Era and select needs one.

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The Cold War Era

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board HS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The Cold War Era Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here…

Very Long Answer

Q.1. Write a note on Cuban Missile Crisis?What is its significance ? 

Ans : The Cuban Missile Crisis occured in 1962. The following points for its rise can be described as under : 

(i) Installation of nuclear missiles in Cuban was one of the most serious crisis in the history of the post Second World War. When nuclear weapons were developed, with the development of new systems of delivery, that is means of dropping these weapons, with nuclear warheads could be directed to hit accurately targets, thousands of kilometres away, anywhere in the world. US had set these missiles, aimed at Soviet targets at the base which she had set up in the world. 

(ii) In January 1959 there was a revolution in Cuba. When USA became hostile to the new Cuban Government which started to adopt social, economic and radical change, the new government became friendly with china and USSR but USA tried her level best to topple the new Cuban government. In 1962 USSR was building missile sites in Cuba which was around 150 kms only from the Southern borders of America. 

(iii) When the missile station was installed, America could be easily attacked by USSR. This was the first time Soviet Union had established military base although USA was doing all along in other countries and created tension and a danger of war between two countries. 

(iv) On 22nd October 1962 President John F. Kennedy announced a naval and air blockade around Cuba to stop any ship or aircraft moving towards Cuba. The US also prepared to launch an attack on the missile bases of Cuba which brought the world to disaster. Crisis in Cuba ended on October 26. On this day the Prime Minister told the president of America that Soviet Union would remove her missiles from Cuba if the US pledged not to attack Cuba. When USA agreed the crisis was over. 

Q.2. Do you think non-alignment is isolationism or neutrality ? Why? 

Ans : The following clear cut differences are seen between non-aligned movement and neutrality. 

Neutrality : 

(i) Neutrality is a situation in which state does not take any side in war. 

(ii) It is a concept opposed to Belligerency. 

(iii) Neutrality is a concept for international law. 

(iv) It is relevant only in the war like situation. 

(v) The concept of neutrality emerged in 18th and 19th century. 

NAM : 

(i) NAM is a concept aiming at an independent foreign policy and peaceful co-existence. 

(ii) NAM is relevant at the time of war as well as peace. 

(iii) NAM is related to international relations. 

(iv) It believes in non-involvement in any type of difference between the two power blocs. 

(v) NAM came into existence in the middle of 20th century. 

Q.3. Discuss the role of India as a leader of NAM during the cold war era. 

Ans : The main features of the policy of non-alignment pursued by India during the early period were as follows: 

(i) India tried to keep away from the power politics of two blocks due to fear that it could lead to disaster on vast scale. Instead India tried to follow policy of peaceful co-existence, co-operation and friendship. 

(ii) The policy of non-alignment was not based on the principle of isolationism or inaction. On the contrary it was a positive policy designed to promote   national security and international peace. 

(iii) The policy of non-alignment sought to promote peace and laid emphasis on peaceful settlement of disputes by the states. 

(iv) India opposed military and security alliances and refused to get drawn into these alliances because it restricted the freedom of the country to act independently. Further these alliances generated hatred and distrust in the international sphere and posed a serious threat to world peace. 

Q.4. Do you think that NAM has lost its relevance after the end of the cold war? Justify your answer. 

Ans : Non-Aligned Movement was originated in 1961. The World was divided into two hostile blocs. The capitalist bloc led by America and the  communist bloc led by Russia (erstwhile USSR). These two blocs were engaged in a cold war. The non-aligned countries adopted the policy of non-alignments i.e. the policy of Opposing the politics based upon groupism. The main aim of Non-Alignment was to keep distance from both the blocs. But now the world is unipolar after disintegration of Soviet Union in different 15 independent states. From the period of the formation of its vision at Bandung in 1955 and first summit at Belgrade in 1961 during more than 40 years of its existence, NAM has played an eventful role and travelled a long path. In this new global solution it’s role has changed and most of the developed and developing countries have adopted an open market policy. The European Union, the Association of South East Asia Nations (ASEAN), NAFTA ( North American Free Trade Agreement) and the Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) etc have been progressing. By beginning of 1992 there existed only one super power USA. Now the question arise about the relevance of non-aligned movement when there was no hostile power blocs. Before the Jakarta Summit of sept. 

1992 this was also discussed in the meeting of foreign ministers of Non-Aligned states. Egypt has suggested that NAM should be dissolved and it should merge with group of 77.The foreign ministers described what should be the role of NAM in future and in the 10th summit at Jakarta it was decided to continue the NAM. It should focus attention to curb the poverty, hunger and disease from the non-aligned states. Thus the relevances of NAM seems to be as strong today as it was at the time of its origin. Now USA is the only super power so that importance of NAM is more essential. 

USA  wants that United Nations should act as her spokesman and it could be checked only by a strong and united Non-Aligned group. If NAM countries act as a strong forum in the United Nations then the self respect of each country, national freedom and the development of these countries would be completed easily. It can help their socio economic development. Thus relevance of NAM these days has rather increased. 

Q.5. Suppose the cold war had not taken place and there were several major powers at the end of the Second World War. How would that situation have affected India’s Foreign policy? Identify any three aspects or regions and imagine the difference. 

Ans : Suppose the cold war had not taken place and there were several major power at the end of the Second World War, it can certainly be said that this would have affected India’s Foreign policy. This would be more clear from the three aspects explained below–

(i) Relationship With other Countries :- During the cold war India kept relationship with various Western and African countries and also with countries having different economic and political system. But if the cold war would have been absent then India’s relationship with many countries would have been different. For example India did not have a sound relationship with the western capitalist societies as these countries were part of Western alliance. But if the cold war would not take ace then India’s relations with those countries would have been a friendly one. 

(ii) Kashmir Issue :- The cold war created complexities for India to resolve the Kashmir issue. The supporters of western block denied to recognise Kashmir as a integral part  of India because Pakistan have favourable relationship with U.S., but absence of the cold war might have resolved the Kashmir deadlock and better relationship would have prevailed between India and Pakistan. 

(iii) Non-Alignment Policy :- The policy of NAM is the resultant of the world bifurcated into eastern and western alliance. The newly born African and Asian nations didn’t want to taste, expansionist policies like imperialism and colonialism again. Therefore, these countries gave birth to a new foreign policy called NAM which maintained equidistance from both the power blocs. If the cold war would not have taken place then the policy of NAM would not have been originated and India’s foreign policy would have been much different. 

Q.6. Briefly analyze NAM’S new role on post war period ? 

Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 4.(Long Answer) 

Q.7. Write a note on Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty ? 

Ans : Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed in 1968 by fire big countries which possessed nuclear weapons such as U.S.A., U.S.S.R., Britain, France and people’s Republic of China. Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty was signed with the objective to prevent further proliferation of nuclear weapons In the world. This treaty Came into effect on 3 October, 1972.

Q.8. What was the realisation behind the origination of New International Economic Order (NIEO) ? 

Ans : New International Economic order refers to an economic system to reduce the gap between developed countries and under-developed countries of the world. 

The idea of New International Economic Order originated for sustainable and equal economic development of the least developed countries. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development brought out of report in 1972 to answer New International Economic Order. 

New International Economic Order is a means of attaining economic development and political independence for the least developed countries. This motive of Non-Alignment gradually changed the nature of NAM and by 1970’s Non-Alignment become an economic pressure group. 

Q.9. What was the report of CONTACT regarding reform of the global trading system ? 

Ans : The challenge for most of the non-aligned countries–a majority of them which were categorised as the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) was to be more developed economically and to lift their people out of the poverty. Economic development was also vital for the independence of the new countries. Without sustained development, a country could not be truly free. It would remain dependent on the rich countries including the colonial powers from which political freedom had been achieved. The idea of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) originated with this realization. 

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) brought out a report in 1972 entitled towards a “New Trade Policy for Development.” The report proposed a reform of the global trading system so as to : 

(i) Give the LDC’s  control over their natural resources, exploited by the developed western countries. 

(ii) Obtain access to western market do that the LDC’s could sell their products and therefore make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries. 

(iii) Reduce the cost of technology from the western countries. 

(iv) Provide the LDC’s with a greater role in international economic institutions. 

Gradually, the nature of non-alignment changed to give greater importance to economic issues. In 1961, at the first summit Belgrade, economic issues had not been very important. By mid 1970’s, they had become the most important issues. As a result,NAM became an economic pressure group. By the late 1980’s however, the NIEO initiative had faded, mainly because of the stiff opposition from the developed countries who acted as a United group while the non-aligned countries struggled to maintain their unity in the face of this opposition. 

Q.10. What was India’s foreign policy towards the US and USSR during the Cold war Era? Is this policy helped India’s interest ? 

Ans : The whole idea of Non-Alignment Movement initiated by Jawaharlal Nehru not only served international interest but also served India’s interest directly through the following ways : 

(i) First, non-alignment allowed India to take international decisions and stances that served it’s interests rather than the interests of the super powers and their allies. 

(ii) Second, India was often able to balance one super power against the other. If India felt ignored or unduly pressurized by one super power, it could tilt towards the other. Neither alliance system could take India for granted or bully it. 

However, the policy of NAM was criticized on a number of counts. 

They are : 

(i) First, India’s non-alignment was said to be unprincipled. In the name of pursuing it’s national interest, India often refused to take a firm stand on crucial international issues. 

(ii) Second, it suggested that India was inconsistent and took contradictory postures. Having criticized others for joining alliances, India signed the Treaty of Friendship in August 1971 with the USSR for 20 years. This was criticized by outsiders as India virtually joined the Soviet Bloc. 

Q.11. Why dis this superpowers have military alliances with smaller countries? Give three reasons ?

Ans : Same as Ans of Q. No. 5. (Very Long Answer) 

Q.12. Explain the three agreements that were signed between the USA and the USSA for maintenance of arms control ? 

Ans : START – I :- The strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I is a treaty signed by the USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev and U.S. president George Bush on the reduction ane limitation of strategic offensive arms. 

START – II :- The strategic Arms Reduction Treaty II was signed by the Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the U.S.A. President George Bush on reduction of strategic offensive arms. 

Q.13. The Cold War has produced an arms race as well as arms control. What were the reasons for both these developments ? 

Ans : It is a hard fact that the cold war produced an arms race as well as arms control. Mutual suspicious between the two super powers led them to arm themselves to the tests and to constantly prepare for war. Both the super powers considered huge stocks of arms necessary to prevent wars from taking place. However, both the super powers understood that war might occur in spite of restraint. Either side might miscalculate the stock of arms in the possession of the other side. Moreover, super power might misunderstood the intentions of the other side. Besides, there can be a nuclear accident. Hence both the super powers i.e. 

U.S.A., U.S.S.R. and U.K. In 1968 the Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed. But India refused to sign thin treaty on the ground that it was discriminatory in nature. The Threshold Test Ban Treaty was signed on 3rd July 1974 by the two super powers. After these treaties many more treaties were signed by the two super powers to limit their arms. 

Q.14. It is said that the Cold War was a simple struggle for power and that ideology had nothing to do with it.Do you agree with this? Support your position with example ? 

Ans : No, I do not agree with this. The cold War was not simply a matter of power rivalries, of military alliances, and of the balance of power. These were accompanied by a real ideological conflicts as well as difference  over the best and the most appropriate way of organizing political economic, and social life all over the world. For example, the Western alliances, headed by the US represented the ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while the eastern alliances headed by the Soviet Union, was committed to the ideology of socialism and communism.

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