NIOS Class 12 Mass Communication Chapter 7 Reporting And Editing, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 12 Mass Communication Chapter 7 Reporting And Editing and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Mass Communication Chapter 7 Reporting And Editing Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Mass Communication Notes Paper 335.
NIOS Class 12 Mass Communication Chapter 7 Reporting And Editing
Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Mass Communication Chapter 7 Reporting And Editing, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Mass Communication Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Reporting And Editing
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.1
1. Define the process of reporting and editing.
Ans. By reporting, we mean collection or gathering of facts about current events or background material required for a news story or feature.
Reporters do it through interviews, investigations and observation. Editing is a process by which a report is read, corrected, modified, value-added, polished, improved and made better for publication.
2. Name any five sources from where reporters get news stories.
Ans. (i) listening.
(ii) covering events.
(iii) press conferences.
(iv) reports and statements.
(v) parliament and assemblies.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.2
1. Mention two items of hard news which you have read in today’s newspaper.
Ans. Select from my newspaper.
2. Mention two soft stories you have read recently.
Ans. Select from recent newspaper reports.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.3
1. Mention five qualities required for a good reporter.
Ans. News sense, clarity, objectivity, accuracy and alertness.
2. What is a scoop? Give two examples.
Ans. A scoop or exclusive is a news report which one reporter reports and which is not reported by anybody else. It is considered to be a great journalistic achievement, a score of a reporter cover other. Examples to be taken from recent newspaper reports.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.4
1. You are reporting a cabinet reshuffle. What additional information do you require to better your stories.
Ans. In a Cabinet reshuffle main interest will be on new ministers inducted into the Cabinet. If any minister is dropped it is also news. Background of new minister, their photographs and any other sidelights will make the report more comprehensive. Portfolios of Ministers is another important aspect to be covered.
2. Mention three rules of good editing.
Ans. Edit the copy and improve the language, correct mistakes and give a good and attractive heading.
3. What are the tools required by a sub editor?
Ans. Dictionaries, reference books, internet accessibility and library.
1. Give an account of qualities of a good reporter.
Ans. There are 20 qualities required for the making of a good reporter. It does not mean that all reporters possess these qualities. It varies from person to person. But it is better if a journalist cultivates it because it pays him in the long run.
The following are the qualities: News sense, clarity, objectivity, alertness, inquisitiveness, time consciousness, patience, imagination, farsightedness, self-control, integrity, sincerity, fearlessness, tactfulness, mobility, enthusiasm, readiness to face challenges, reading habit.
2. What is editing? Explain the role of editors in a newspaper office.
Ans. A person who edits is called an editor. By editing, we mean preparing a news report for publication, telecast or broadcast. Editing is a process by which a report is read, corrected, modified, value-added, polished, improved and made better for publication. Condensation is also part of editing.
Every newspaper will have a set of editors, like reporters. All editors are not of the same category. Their position and role differ according to the work they do.
The editor is a person who edits. An editor supervises the reporters and improves his reports for publication. An editor also plans about what to report, how to cover and the relative importance to be given to each story.
In a newspaper, the top post is that of a Chief Editor. The Chief Editor or Editor heads all departments in a newspaper and is in charge of the overall supervision. Next to this post there are managing editor. For assisting him, there are assistant managing editors or deputy managing editors.
Then there are news editors. They are directly in charge of the news desks. The desk is the place where reports are edited and sent for printing.
Modern newspaper have editors for every section.
Short Type Questions Answer
1. What is hard news? Give an example of hard news.
Ans. Hard news: These are general in nature. Some can be breaking news. These are news items that require immediate publication. These cannot wait.
An example of hard news: Defence minister resigns after the expose of scandal in the defence deal.
2. What is soft news? Give an example of soft news.
Ans. Soft news: These are light stories. They are not urgent news stories. But soft stories can make interesting reading. Readers like such stories. These can be about a person, an event or. about a developing situation.
An example of soft news: Found in US: Rare Gandhi Recording.
3. What is human interest? Explain with a example.
Ans. Human interest: These are often stories about the plight of individuals or families. For eg., when tsunami waves struck the coastal areas, there were touching stories about people who lost their near and dear ones, houses etc.
4. Explain the meaning of backgrounders with a recent example.
Ans. Backgrounders: If a major event happens, reader are curious to know whether there is any precedent or background to that. In other words, they are eager to know the history of such incidents. Backgrounders provide such information.
5. What is a lead?
Ans. The lead, or opening sentence, is the most part of a news story. A good lead attracts readers’ attention to the story. The same is the case with listeners and viewers. A good lead will catch their attention and compel them to go through the story.
Like news stories, leads also can be hard or soft. A hard lead is suited for serious stories. A soft lead is ideal for human interest stories and feature type reports.
6. What is body? Why is it written in inverted pyramid style?
Ans. Once the lead is finalised and the angle decided, then comes the body of the story. It is the fleshy part. All the facts and figures comes in the body.
While writing the body, a reporter has to be fluent in the language. A good story requires an easy flow. By this, we mean the reader should be able to sustain interest till the last sentence.
For writing a story, the most commonly used method is of an inverted pyramid.
By inverted pyramid, we mean, while going to the bottom, the importance will narrow down. So when writing the story the reporter should put the crucial points in the opening paragraphs. The less important matters can come in the following paragraphs. Towards the end, the reporter should give least important details of the story which even if not published does not affect the overall impact of the story.
7. What qualities should be present in a good story or report?
Ans. A good news report should have the following qualities:
(a) Clarity: A report is read by many people in society. It should be in simple language and written with clarity. It should not be ambiguous. It should satisfy the reader’s inquisitiveness. Facts that are not clear to the readers should be avoided. It is said that when the reporter when is in doubt, he should leave it out.
(b) Focus: A report should focus on the main theme of the subject. What the reader expects in information and substance.
(c) Objectivity: The report must be objective. The writer should never take sides. Their personal bias should not be reflected in the story. If there are two sides to a story, both should be given adequate coverage.
(d) Credibility: A report should be credible. Before writing, the reporter should crosscheck the facts and figures. Mistakes can creep in when work is done in haste. It is always better to revise the copy before sending to the editor. If the story can be improved, it should be rewritten.
8. What are scoops?
Ans. These are terms that are commonly used in the media world. By breaking news, we mean a report of any sudden news development which was not known so far and which is of utmost importance to a large section of society. Nowadays, breaking news is a familiar term for those watching television channels.
Exclusives or scoops are news reports which are covered by only one reporter. Nobody else gets it. It is considered to be a great journalistic achievement, a ‘score’ of a reporter.
9. How editorial hierarchy function in newspaper’s offices?
Ans. In a newspaper, the top post is that of a Chief Editor. The Chief Editor or Editor heads all departments in a newspaper and is in charge of the overall supervision. Next to this post there are managing editor. For assisting him, there are assistant managing editors or deputy managing editors.
Then there are news editors. They are directly in charge of the news desks. The desk is the place where reports are edited and sent for printing.. Under the news editors are chief sub editors or desk chiefs. Once the news editor selects the reports to be published, the desk chief gives that. to sub editors under them to polish, correct, edit, put a headline, select the type phase and add pictures or graphs if required. This is the main process of editing.
Modern newspaper have editors for every section.
10. If any obscene picture is published in a newspaper who will be liable for it. Explain in light of Press and Registration of Books Act 1867.
Ans. The editor should check and verify that the news which he publishers is correct, accurate, and factual. He should not be publish anything that is misleading, inaccurate, defamatory, vulgar or obscene.
The government of India has passed from time to time several Acts connected with the press and press freedom. The Press and Registration of Books Act 1867 is the oldest among them. According to this Act, every newspaper or magazine printed in India shall print the name of the printer and publisher and the place of printing in the publication.
If a report published in the paper defames the reputation of a person, that individual can file a defamation case in the court of law. The editor, printer or publisher are liable to be punished either individually or jointly.
11. Give two examples each of hard and soft news.
Ans. Hard News
1. Prime minister’s plane narrowly escaped accident.
2. Afzal Guru is sentenced to death.
1. Mystery of Subhash Chandra’s Bose death.
2. A rare snake found in Rashtrapati Bhawan.
Long Type Questions Answer
1. How has computer affected the editorial department of newspaper office?
Ans. Newspaper production is one area where technological revolution has made sweeping changes. It is interesting to note that though the newspaper is printed on paper, most newspaper offices are becoming paperless places. Computer have replaced paper. Filing of stories, editing and photo editing are all done on a computer.
So it goes without saying that a reporter of editor in the present time should be familiar with the computer. Knowledge of computer is a basic requirement for a newspaper job. Nowadays cartoonists also prefer to draw on the computer. Graphs and charts can be created on a computer easily. Photographers use laptops for editing and filing photos.
Editing on the computer has its advantages. Words and sentences can be corrected on the screen. There are a wide range of type faces available. Pages can be set on the computer. The pages so set can directly go to the press. Regional languages have also developed their own keyboards.
2. What is process of preparing a layout of pages in a newspaper office?
Ans. Each newspaper has a different layout though all have eight columns in each page. Types or fonts used by newspapers also differ from paper to paper. Every sub editor has to learn the type faces available in the paper and the layout pattern adopted. Preparing the page of the newspaper is called page making. Earlier sub editors used to do it on dummy pages. Now a days they are doing it on the computer screen.
Photography is an integral part of the medi. Whether a newspaper or news weekly or news channel or a news portal, photography is essential to give it the visual impact, effect and authenticity.
All newspapers have photographers working in different places. They regularly file pictures. It is said that a good picture is worth a thousand words. When you see a photo in the newspaper you look for what is written under it. This writing under a photo is called the catchword or caption.
Picture editing also involves placing the picture in the correct position in the page. It is part of the page layout. Usually in the front page, only very important news’ picture will find a place. It is the news editor who finally decides on the number of pictures to be carried in each page.