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NIOS Class 12 Mass Communication Chapter 5 Introduction to Print Media
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Introduction to Print Media
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.1
1. Write the names of any three national dailies.
(i) . …………………………………………………..
Ans. The Times of India.
(ii) . ………………………………………………….
Ans. Hindustan Times.
(iii) . ………………………………………………….
Ans. Indian Express.
2. Who invented the art of printing? What did they use for printing?
Ans. The Chinese were the first to invent the art of printing. They used wooden blocks to print letters.
3. When and where was the first paper mill started?
Ans. The first paper mill was started in Europe in 1120.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.2
1. Which were the early newspapers in USA and UK?
Ans. The Public Occurrences in USA and The Weekly News in UK.
2. What is the importance of the city of Kolkata in Indian newspaper history.
Ans. The first of newspaper India started from this city.
3. When was the Bengal Gazette launched? What was it otherwise called?
Ans. It was launched from Calcutta on 29 January 1780. It was popularly known as Hickey’s Gazette.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.3
1. Name three English newspapers launched at the end of 19th century in India.
Ans. (i) The Times of India.
(ii) The Pioneer.
(iii) The Statesman.
(iv) Any other newspaper that you can think of.
2. Which is the oldest existing newspaper in India?
Ans. The Gujarati Daily Mumbai Samachar published from Mumbai.
3. Name two publications started by Gandhiji.
Ans. Nava Jeevan and Harijan.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.4
1. Write the names of five broadsheet newspapers.
Ans. (i) The Times of India.
(ii) Hindustan Times.
(iii) Indian Express.
(iv) The Hindu.
(v) The Pioneer.
(vi) any other newspaper.
2. Name three tabloid newspapers.
Ans. (i) The Mail Today.
(ii) The Mint.
(iii) The Sun.
(iv) any other.
3. Name three internet newspaper sites.
Ans. (i) www.timesofindia.com.
(ii) www.thehindu.com .
INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.5
1. Name five weeklies published from our country.
Ans. (i) India Today.
(ii) The Week.
(vi) any other.
2. Name two monthlies published from our country.
Ans. (i) Readers Digest.
(iii) any other.
3. Name two fortnightlies published from our country.
Ans. (i) Front line.
(ii) Business Today.
(iii) any other.
1. Give a detailed description of early newspapers in the world.
Ans. During the Maurya period, kings used to circulate news to the people as proclamations. In ancient Rome, Acta Diurna, or government announcements, were published regularly. They were inscribed in metal or stone. These can be considered as the earliest form of newspapers. In China also, the government produced such news sheets called tipao.
Many researchers consider “The Peking Gazette”, published from China, as the first newspaper. It was started in 618.
According to the World Association of Newspapers, the first newspaper in the modern sense was published by Johann Carolus in 1605.
But many such earlier newspapers could not survive for long. The rulers were not happy with these publications as some of them started criticising their rule. So many papers were forced to close down.
Newspapers underwent a lot of changes in their form and content after that. The first newspaper in the modern concept was published in Oxford in 1655. It was the “Oxford Gazette”. The first newspaper to be published from London was the Daily Courant.
In USA, the first newspaper was “Public Occurrences”, which was launched in 1690.
The largest circulated newspaper is the “Yomi Yuri Shimbun” published from Japan. It has a circulation of 1, 45, 57, 000 copies per day.
2. Describe the history of early printing of newspapers in India.
Ans. On January 29, 1780 James Augustus Hickey launched the “Bengal Gazette”. It has another title “Calcutta Advertiser”. It was popularly known as “Hickey’s Gazette”.
The British East India Company did not consider freedom of the press as good for society. They tried to suppress publication of newspapers.
Following in Hickey’s footsteps in 1780, the second newspaper was launched from Calcutta “The Indian Gazette”.
Slowly newspapers started coming out from other parts of the country also. The press regulations and censorship imposed by the British stood in the way of starting more newspapers in India. In 1818, Lord Hastings removed the strict censorship measures for a milder set of policies, This led to the emergence of many new newspapers, including many in Indian languages. Raja Ram Mohan Roy who is known to have fought for the freedom of the press edited a Persian weekly called ‘Mirat-ul- Akhbar’.
The first language newspaper in India was started in Kannada language, the “Kannada Samachar”.
The Gujarati daily “Mumbai Samachar” published from Mumbai is the oldest existing newspaper not only in India but also in Asia.
3. Give an account of the growth of the print media in India during and after freedom movement.
Ans. Towards the end of the 19th century, many social reformers began actively campaigning for radical changes in Indian society. The reformation of Hinduism, the move for abolition of sati and efforts to encourage widow remarriage were some of the major reforms.
Some of the leading English newspapers were also launched during this time. “The Times of India” (1861) was started as a paper supporting the British.
“The Pioneer” in 1866 from Allhabad and “The Amrita Bazar Patrika” (1880) were also started during this period. “The Hindustan Times” was started later, in 1923.
When Mahatma Gandhi returned to India, he gave a great impetus to the freedom movement. He was also a great editor. He took over “Young India”, the weekly started by the Home Rule Party in 1918. Gandhiji also launched another weekly, called the “Navjeevan”.
Many newspapers in India have crossed 100 years of publication and are still in circulation. There are 41 such newspapers in the country and are called centenarian newspapers. Among. -English dailies, four have crossed this mark: The Times of India, The Hindu, The Tribune and The Statesman. Among language newspapers, Mumbai Samachar, Amrita Bazaar Patrika, Malayala Manorama and Deepika are among the centenarians.
4. Give an account of internet papers and describe their advantages.
Ans. Recently almost all newspapers have internet edition. For example, the Hindustan Times or Indian Express or The Times of India can be read on the internet through their net editions. Each paper has a dotcom name for their site, like www.hindustantimes.com or www.times or india.com. While you have to pay for buying a newspaper, the internet edition of that newspaper is free of charge and is accessible if you have a computer and internet connection.
5. What are the differences between the print media and the electronic media?
Ans. Print Media
1. Literacy is a basic requirement for the love print media. Only a literate person can read it.
2. Print media works according to a deadline. Usually a morning paper carries news received up to the midnight of the previous day.
3. In print media readers have the choice to go back and recheck what they have read.
4. Print media provides more scope for indepth analysis of events.
5. Print media does not provide scope a live discussion. for
6. Language is more literary and flowery and reader friendly.
7. Frequent update of news is not possible.
1. Even an illiterate person can watch a news bulletin and grasp its contents though the written matter on the screen cannot be read.
2. There is no deadline for the electronic media. News can be updated anytime.
3. Viewers cannot go back and recheck what they have seen.
4. Less scope for such long in depth analysis.
5. Live discussions are possible.
6. Language used is spoken and more viewer-friendly.
7. Even a minute-to-minute update is possible.
Very Short Type Questions Answer
1. What does print media refer to?
Ans. Print media generally refers to newspaper.
2. What does do newspapers do?
Ans. Newspapers collect, edit and print new reports and articles.
3. What are eveningers?
Ans. Newspapers published in the evening are called eveningers.
4. For which three reasons we read newspaper?
Ans. For news, entertainment and information.
5. Which material was used to write before invention of paper?
Ans. Palm leaves.
6. Who invented the art of printing?
Ans. The Chinese.
7. Which is the oldest printed work?
Ans. The “Diamond Sutra”.
8. Which technology was developed by Guttenburg in 1439?
Ans. Printing technology.
9. What did Guttenberg use to print the first book?
Ans. Guttenberg used movable printing blocks for the book.
10. Which was the first newspaper of India?
Ans. Calcutta Gazette and General Advertiser.
11. What was other name of Calcutta Gazette and General Advertiser?
Ans. Hicky’s Gazette.
12. Which was the first language newspaper of India?
Ans. Kannada Samachar.
13. Who started ‘The Pioneer’?
Ans. Rudyard Kipling.
14. Name two weeklies edited by Mahatma Gandhi.
Ans. Navjeevan and Young India.
15. What are different size of newspapers?
Ans. They are broadsheets, tabloids and Berliners or Midis.
16. What is a weekly?
Ans. A weekly is published once a week.
Short Type Questions Answer
1. Write a short note on history of printing.
Ans. The Chinese were the first to invent the art of printing. They made wooden blocks to print letters. This was started during the period of the Tang Dynasty in 600 AD. The oldest known surviving printed work in a woodblock is a Buddhist scripture of 684 AD.
The first printed book published in China was the Buddist text, the “Diamond Sutra” by Wang Chick in 868 AD.
Though the Egyptians made paper by 3500 BC, it came to Europe only by the 11th century. The first paper mill in Europe was set up in Spain in 1120.
Block printing came to Europe by 1300. It is believed that Johannes Gutenburg of Germany had developed printing technology around 1439. He printed the Bible in 1450. He used movable printing blocks for the book.
2. Write in brief about newspapers published from England.
Ans. Newspapers underwent a lot of change in their form and content after that. In England, “The Weekly News” was launched in 1622. The first newspaper in the modern concept was published in Oxford in 1655. It was the “Oxford Gazette”. The first newspaper to be published from London was the Daily Courant. It was edited by E. Mallet. In 1784, John Walter launched the “Daily Universal Register” from London which later adopted a new name ” The Times”. It is known to be one of the greatest newspapers in the world.
3. Write in brief about newspapers published from USA.
Ans. In USA, the first newspaper was “Public Occurrences”, which was launched in 1690. Postmaster John Campbell started another paper in 1704, “The Boston Newsletter”. In 1783, “Pennsylvania Evening Post” was started in USA that had all the features and content of a modern newspaper. Later in 1851 came “The New York Times”.
4. What do you understand by confiscation of newspaper?
Ans. Confiscation of a newspaper is a rare action taken by the authorities if that paper publishes some news report or article that they think is highly objectionable. Through confiscation, the government transfers the press and other materials of the publication to the treasury. Thereby, the office of the paper is sealed and the publication stopped.
5. Write in brief about size of newspapers.
Ans. Newspapers are classified into three categories according to their size. They are broadsheets, tabloids and Berliners or Midis.
Morning newspapers are generally broadsheets. Tabloids are only half the size of broadsheets. In India most of the evening papers are tabloids.
6. Besides dailies what are other formats of print media.
Ans. Magazines and weekilles are other formats of print media.
They are published at regular intervals. A weekly is published once a week and a monthly once a month. A fortnight is published once in two weeks. A bi-weekly is published twice every week. A tri-monthly is one which is published every three months. These are also known as quarterlies.
Long Type Questions Answer
1. How modern technology affected. newspaper industry?
Ans. From the days of wooden block printing, newspapers have undergone a sea change. Technological revolution has modernised the print media. For a long time, these were produced by hand composing. Later, these were replaced by monotype and linotype. In this process, a machine operated by a key board was used to compose letters. This has also become obsolete now. Typesetting in computers, offset printing and laser printing have taken over. Desktop publishing has become quite common now
In earlier days, newspapers were printed only in black and white. Colour printing was not possible at that time. But now almost all the newspaper print colour pages. Some papers print colour only in supplements and special pages. Colour print have made the pages look brighter and attractive.
2. How newspapers helped in cultural awakening and freedom movements in India?
Ans. Towards the end of the 19th century, many social reformers began actively campaigning for radical changes in Indian society. The reformation of Hinduism, the move for abolition of sati and efforts to encourage widow remarriage were some of the major reforms. Inspired by these great leader, many newspapers were started in different parts of the country. All this led to a boom in the newspaper industry in India.
Some of the leading English newspapers were also launched during this time. “The Times of India” (1861) was started as a paper supporting the British. The author of “The Jungle Book”, Rudyard Kipling, started “The Pioneer” in 1866 from Allahabad. “The Amrita Bazar Patrika” (1868) “The Statesman” (1875), “The Hindu” (1887) and “The Tribune) (1880) were also started during this period. “The Hindustan Times” was started later, in 1923. In the regional languages, some papers that were launched
during that period continue even now as leading papers like “Malayala Manorama” (1888).
When Mahatma Gandhi returned to he gave a great impetus to the freedom movement. He was also a great editor. He took over “Young India”, the weekly started by the Home Rule Party in 1918. Gandhiji also launched another weekly, called the “Navjeevan”, in Gujarati. Later, Gandhiji started the “Harijan” under the editorship of Mahadev Desai. Gandhiji insisted that his papers will not carry any advertisements. But all his publications had wide circulation among readers.
All these newspapers encouraged people for social reforms and participate in freedom movements.