NIOS Class 12 Mass Communication Chapter 8 Language Press in India, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 12 Mass Communication Chapter 8 Language Press in India and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Mass Communication Chapter 8 Language Press in India Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Mass Communication Notes Paper 335.
NIOS Class 12 Mass Communication Chapter 8 Language Press in India
Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Mass Communication Chapter 8 Language Press in India, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Mass Communication Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Language Press in India
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 8.1
1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate word/s:
(i) Three countries with highest circulation of newspapers are ………….., and ………….. .
Ans. China, India and Japan.
(ii) The growth of newspapers is calculated in two ways: ………… and …………. .
Ans. Circulation and readership.
(iii) In India, readership is more for …………. newspapers.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 8.2
1. Give three reasons for the newspaper boom in India.
Ans. (a) Rise in literacy rate.
(b) Expansion of the middle class.
(c) Untapped market.
2. Give three reasons for the growth of language newspapers in India.
Ans. (a) Because of rural economy of India.
(b) Starting of multiple press.
(c) The boom in advertising.
3. What are multiple editions?
Ans. Newspapers which are published from many centres on the same day.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 8.3
1. Name two books on growth of newspapers in India.
Ans. A history of Press in India by S. Natrajan, and ‘Journalism in Modern India by Ronald E Wolseley.
2. Name the organisations which regularly conduct studies on newspapers in India.
Ans. Registrar of newspapers of India (RNI) National Readership Council of India (NRC) and Audit Bureau of circulation (ABC).
3. In how many languages are Indian newspapers published?
Ans. More than 100 languages.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 8.4
1. Which is the largest circulated daily in your area?
Ans. The answer would vary from learner to learner.
2. In which language is the highest number of newspapers published in India?
3. Which state has the largest number of newspapers published in a single language?
Ans. Uttar Pradesh.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 8.5
1. Mention two unhealthy trends in the newspaper industry.
Ans. (a) Excessive dependence on advertisement.
(b) Cut threat competition is threat to journalistic norms and values.
2. Give two examples of price wars.
Ans. The answer will vary from region to region.
3. What is the future of language newspapers in India?
Ans. The rise in literacy, more educational opportunities, growth of industry, emergence of a new middle class, modern communication systems and enhanced purchasing power have all combined to help in increased circulation of language papers.
1. What are the differences between English papers and language papers.
Ans. Differences between English papers and Language papers are:
(a) English papers are published in one language only i.e. English, whereas language papers are published in different languages.
(b) English papers are mostly concentrated in big cities and major towns. Language papers are circulated all over the country.
(c) English newspapers cater mainly to the well- educated, middle class, upper middle class and higher income groups. Language papers are read by even lower middle class and even those below that.
(d) English dailies have less penetration in the rural public wheres language dailes have more penetration in the rural areas.
(e) English papers follow the British tradition while the language papers have evolved their own style and methods.
(f) More money is generated from advertisements in English papers as they circulate amongst people with better purchasing power. Language papers do not get the same amount of revenue from advertisements.
(g) English papers are more colourful and flamboyant. Language papers adopt a simple style.
2. Analyse the reasons for the newspaper boom in India.
Ans. India is one of the fastest growing media markets in the world. It is not only newspapers but other media forms which are also growing at a fast pace like radio, television channels and internet. Let us now look into some factors that have contributed to this boom of newspapers in India.
(a) Rise a literacy rate: There is a steady rise in the literacy rates in all the states of our country.
(b) Expansion of the middle class: As the Indian middle class expands, it leads to an increase in the circulation of newspapers.
(c) Untapped market: India still has an estimated 350 million people who can read and write but do not buy any newspaper.
(d) Education of women: It is often said that if you educate a woman you are educating the next generation.
(e) Technological advancement: In earlier days, starting a newspaper publication or establishment of new edition was a costly affair. As technology has improved, it became easier for newspapers to start news editions.
(f) Better purchasing power: Improvement in the purchasing power of the common man is another factor which helped in the growth of newspaper.
(g) Aggressive marketing: Newspapers and periodicals are adopting aggressive marketing strategies to attract more reader.
(h) Political awareness: As people become more and more aware about political developments, they show interest in reading newspapers.
3. What are the factors which helped the growth of language papers.
Ans. The reasons for the growth of newspaper in India that we have studied so far are equally applicable for the growth of language newspapers But there are some other factors that helped the rise of the latter. Indian economy is basically a rural economy.
Indian farmers, who were classified as born in debt, live in debt and die in debt, have become one of the most influential consumer groups in society now. Their income levels have increased and along with that, tastes and preferences have also shown changes. This advancement of the rural mass has resulted in the growth of language newspapers. A marked change in the coverage of local news by newspapers is another reason for the growth of language newspaper. Starting of multiple editions was another factor that resulted in the growth of the language press.
The boom in advertising also helped in the growth of the language press.
4. Give an account of recent trends in circulation of papers.
Ans. The annual report of RNI for 2005-06 gives a clear picture of the latest trend in newspaper circulation.
“During 2005-06, 2074 new newspapers were registered. As on 31st March 2006, there were 62,483 registered newspapers. The number of newspapers submitting annual statements also increased to 8512 from 7225 during the year.
As per the data from Annual Statements received, the highest number of newspapers were published in Hindi (4131), followed by English (864), Gujarati (775), Urdu (463) Bengali (45), and Marathi (328). The languages that published more than 100 daily newspapers were-Urdu, Telugu, Marathi and Gujarati.
5. Discuss about some unhealthy trends in the industry.
Ans. Though growth of language newspapers is a welcome sign there are also some areas of concern. This is because intense and fierce competition often results in unhealthy practices. One such practice is predatory price wars. One Newspaper reduces the price resulting in an increase of its circulation. But this will soon be retaliated by further price cut by rival papers. One good outcome about this price war is that readers benefit by reduced prices, but small and medium newspapers s suffer because they cannot afford to have price cuts to increase circulation.
Excessive dependence on advertisement revenue is also not good for newspaper. Government advertisements account for more than 50 per cent of all advertisements in India papers. This monetary incentive makes newspapers to limit criticism of the government policies. Cut-throat competition is also a threat to journalistic norms and values.
There are instances of media excesses and media trials, fake sting operations criminal trespassing of privacy, glamourization of criminals and mafia dons, promotion of hatred among communities and inflaming of raw emotions. Media houses also resort to mud slinging through advertisement to show that their publication is superior and the products of rivals are inferior.
Media houses sometimes try to woo more subscribers by offering gifts and concession coupons.
6. How do you see the future of language newspapers in India? Explain.
Ans. India is one of the fastest growing economics. One significant feature of this growth is the narrowing of the urban and rural divide. Globalisation also leads to this transition. The rise in literacy, more educational opportunities, growth of industry, emergence of a new middle class, modern communication systems and enhanced purchasing power have all combined to help in the increased circulation of language papers.
Short Type Questions Answer
1. Write a short note on growth of language newspapers in India.
Ans. At the time when India became independent, the country had only 3533 publication. Among them 330 were daily newspapers and 3203 were periodicals. After 50 years, there has been a 12-fold increase in the number of publications. In 1997, according to the data published by the Registrar of News Papers of India, there were 41705 publications among which the number of newspapers was 4719. In 2006, this has gone up to 45600 publications, in which 5600 are newspapers. At present, India has 398 major newspapers with an overall circulation of 30,772,000 copies.
India has the world’s largest newspapers market after China. While newspapers are struggling in Europe and USA, in India and China there is a boom. It is interesting to note that the world’s three top countries in newspaper circulation are China with 98.70 million copies, India with 88.90 million copies and Japan with 69.0 million.
Growth of newspapers is calculated in two ways, one is by circulation and the other is by readership. One copy of a newspaper may be read by several people. If a family subscribes to a newspaper it is likely to be read by four of six members. So if a newspaper has a circulation of one lakh, its readership may be four or five lakhs.
A close study of newspaper readership in India shows that there are more reader for language newspapers. This is mainly because English newspapers are confined to cities and towns whereas language newspapers are widely circulated in the rural areas.
2. Which organisations do studies about the press in India?
Ans. The Registrar of Newspapers of India (RNI), the National Readership Council of India (NRCI) and the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) are some of the organisations which regularly conduct studies on newspapers in India. They do it as an annual exercise and publish reports. The Government of India appointed two press commissions and they have also submitted reports on the Indian media.
Apart form this, researchers and authors have done extensive studies on the newspapers revolution in India and published books.
3. Why the RNI report be taken as comprehensive?
Ans. The publishers, under Section 19D of the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867, are required to submit annual statements to the Registrar of Newspapers for India.
These annual statements are the principal source of data for compilation of this report. All publishers do not submit their annual statements.. Hence, the report by the RNI cannot be taken as comprehensive. It can give only a broad overview on the general trend of the Indian press based on the number and circulation of the newspapers.
4. Write in brief about early growth period of language newspapers.
Ans. According to Naresh Khanna, who studied about the trends in circulation of regional language papers, four languages showed the fastest growth between 1998 and 2000. They are Malayalam, Bengali, Hindi and Marathi. During the same period, newspapers in seven languages showed either stagnation or decline. They are Telugu, Urdu, Tamil, Oriya and Kannada.
Malayala Manorama, a language daily in Malayalam, which was started in 1890, became the largest circulated daily in India by 1980s. Malayala Manorama continued to remain in that position for more than a decade. Ananda Bazar Patrika in Bengal continued as the largest circulated newspaper published from one centre, Kolkata. But when the Hindi newspapers started expanding in a big way, they surpassed all other language papers in circulation. Today Danik Jagran and Danink Bhaskar are the two largest circulated dailies with a readership of more than. 20 million.
Most language newspapers have shown remarkable recoveries in circulation in the late 1990s. The National Readership Survey of 2006 revealed that newspapers readership in rural areas has grown fast that it paralleled the readership in urban areas.
5. What is difference between subscription and circulation level?
Ans. One is the subscription or circulation of a newspaper. The second one is its readership. You must know that even if only one copy of a newspaper is subscribed in a house, it may be read by many people. Therefore, a newspaper having one lakh circulation may actually be read by about five lakh people.
Long Type Questions Answer
1. Write in brief about
Ans. (a) (RNI)
- The Registrar of Newspapers of India (RNI): The government of India established the RNI in 1956 on the recommendation of the first Press Commission. The RNI oversees the activities of the press in India. They annually publish Press in India reports which gives an idea of circulation as well as readership figures. As per the advertisement policy of the government of India for the release of government advertisements. A newspaper should have a minumum circulation of 2000 copies. RNI has a website http//rninic.in.from where all details are easily accessible.
- The Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC): is not a government organisation. It was established in 1948 by the association of publishers and advertisers. The Audit Bureau of Circulation has established the National Readership Studies Council (NRSC) which is constituted by the Advertising Association of India, ABC and Indian Newspapers Society. They conduct readership surveys of newspapers and weeklies in India every six months.b ABC has a website www.auditbureau.org.