NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 15 Environment Management

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 15 Environment Management Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 15 Environment Management and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 15 Environment Management Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 15 Environment Management

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 15 Environment Management, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Environment Management

Chapter: 15




Q. 1. Select (✓) the right answer: 

(i) Environment consists of:

(a) air that living things breathe.

(b) water, land and living things.

(c) all living and nonliving things.

(d) water, land and non-living things.

Ans: (c) all living and nonliving things.

(ii) Environmental degradation refers to unfavourable change of:

(a) human interactions.

(b) water pollution.

(c) land degradation.

(d) surroundings.

Ans: (d) surroundings.

Q. 2. Match the following items in column A with the corresponding items in column B:

Column AColumn B
(a) Overcrowdedness(i) fuels
(b) Automobiles(ii) vehicles
(c) Radio-active pollution(iii) chemical wastes
(d) Aeroplanes(iv) slum conditions
(e) Industries(v) air
(f) Construction(vi) smoke
(vii) nuclear weapons
(viii) deforestation


Column AColumn B
(a) Overcrowdedness(iv) slum conditions
(b) Automobiles(vi) smoke
(c) Radio-active pollution(vii) nuclear weapons
(d) Aeroplanes(v) air
(e) Industries(iii) chemical wastes
(f) Construction(viii) deforestation


Fill in the blanks:

(i) agricultural practices lead to soil ___________ and decreases the soil ___________.

Ans: erosion, fertility.

(ii) Earthquakes and volcanoes give rise to harmful ___________, smoke, ___________ and ___________.

Ans: dust, heat, harmful gases.

(iii) Overgrazing by cattle’ leads to ___________ of soil and ultimately to ___________ erosion.

Ans: hardening soil.

(iv) Poor personal habits like ___________ and ___________ can result in land degradation whereas habits like ___________ lead to air degradation. 

Ans: spitting, defecating in open, smoking.

(v) Floods, famine and strong winds are called ___________ disasters.

Ans: natural.


Q. 1. Complete the sentences of column A with the help of column B:

Column AColumn B
(a) Trees(i) global warming
(b) Chemical fertilisers(ii) change in temperatures
(c) Deforestation(iii) deplete soil fertility
(d) Refrigeration gases(iv) lead to landslides and floods
(v) prevent soil erosion


Column AColumn B
(a) Trees(v) prevent soil erosion
(b) Chemical fertilisers(iii) deplete soil fertility
(c) Deforestation(iv) lead to landslides and floods
(d) Refrigeration gases(i) global warming

Q. 2. Choose the right answer and fill in the blanks:

(a) __________ (ozone layer / acid rain / heat of sun) is responsible for destruction of life and erosion of buildings.

Ans: Acid rain.

(b) Depletion of ozone layer can lead to __________ (skin cancer / anaemia/respiratory disease) and problems of __________ (bones/ liver/eyes).

Ans: skin cancer, eyes.

(c) Global warming has resulted in increase in __________ (winds/temperature/ rainfall). 

Ans: temperature.

(d) Degradation of air is mainly responsible for diseases of __________ circulatory, digestive) system like __________ and __________ (jaundice/asthma/cholera bronchitis).

Ans: respiratory,asthma, bronchitis.

(e) Effect of nuclear explosions can be seen in __________ (normal weight/ handicapped/ happy) children born to mothers exposed to radiations after many years.

Ans: handicapped.

(f) Two diseases which occur due to improper sewage disposal in the water are __________ and __________ (jaundice, tuberculosis, malaria, typhoid) 

Ans: jaundice, malaria.

(g) Two diseases which occur due to chemical wastes of industries are __________ and __________. (leukemia, allergy, malaria, asthma).  

Ans: leukemia, allergy.


Q. 1. Choose the most appropriate answer: 

(i) Eco-friendly products mean things which are:

(a) very harmful to the environment.

(b) less harmful to the environment.

(c) not harmful to the environment.

(d) not very harmful to the environment.

Ans: (c) not harmful to the environment.

(ii) Eco-friendly products are given:

(a) FPO mark.


(c) ISI mark.

(d) ECO mark.

Ans: (d) ECO mark.

(iii) Products are termed eco-friendly on the basis of their:

(a) production, use and disposal.

(b) disposal, recycling and dumping.

(c) production, distributing and recycling.

(d) use, disposal and distributing.

Ans: (a) production, use and disposal.

Q. 2. Given below are some eco-friendly and non eco-friendly products. Categorise them under their appropriate headings:

polythene bags, water based paints, jute, nylon sari, unleaded petrol, solar cooker, earthen cups, crude motor oil, paper bag, canvas.

Ans: Eco-friendly: water based paints, jute, earthen cups, paper bags, canvas unleaded petrol.

Non-eco-friendly: polythene bags, nylon sari, crude motor oil.

Q. 3. Match list A with list B and follow the pattern given in the example below:

List A e.g. DeforestationList B Afforestation
(a) defecating in open(i) pollutants separated before letting out 
(b) household wastes(ii) recycling for industrial use
(c) industrial gases(iii) Sulabh Shauchalaya
(d) industrial wastes(iv) manure for garden
(e) municipal wastes(v) sewage treatment plants
(vi) land treatment plants


List A e.g. DeforestationList B Afforestation
(a) defecating in open(iii) Sulabh Shauchalaya
(b) household wastes(iv) manure for garden
(c) industrial gases(i) pollutants separated before letting out 
(d) industrial wastes(v) sewage treatment plants
(e) municipal wastes(ii) recycling for industrial use


Q. 1. Correct the following statements and give reasons: 

(i) It does not matter if people have large families.

Ans: People should have small families. Large families lead to many problems.

(ii) All the members of the society should not be involved in environmental management programmes.

Ans: All the members should be involved in environmental management programmes.

(iii) Household waste disposal is not important because final disposal of garbage will be done properly.

Ans: Household waste should be properly disposed. Otherwise it leads to environmental degradation.

(iv) Waste lands cannot be cultivated for agriculture.

Ans: Waste lands can be cultivated for agriculture.

(v) Healthy farming practices include overcropping and use of chemical fertilisers.

Ans: Healthy farm practices include mixed cropping and use of natural manures.

Q. 2. Rearrange the letters to indicate the correct terms for the following:

(i) Avoid cutting trees NTOSIFEAORTED.

Ans: Deforestation.

(ii) Pollutes the air ISGOMKN.

Ans: Smoking.

(iii) Melting of glass and metal for reuse GCEIRCYLN.

Ans: Recycling.

(iv) Eco-friendly fuel for cooking SGAOIB.

Ans: Biogas.

(v) Recycling of household waste EAMUNR.

Ans: Manure.


Q. 1. Define environmental degradation with two suitable examples from your day- to-day life.

Ans: When the environment becomes less valuable or damaged, environmental degradation is said to occur. There are many forms of environmental degradation. When habitats are destroyed, biodiversity is lost, or natural resources are depleted, the environment is hurt. Environmental degradation can occur naturally, or through human processes.

Q. 2. What do you understand by the term ‘eco-friendly’? List four examples each of eco-friendly products and eco-friendly practices.

Ans: Eco-friendly means not harmful to the environment; things intended or perceived to have no harmful effect on the natural environment and its inhabitants.

Eco-friendly Products

1. Hand-made papers don’t only reduce pollution by 70%, but also it helps in saving trees as it uses non-wood raw materials,

2. The use of eco-wheels, such as electric vehicles (EVs) can help greatly in reducing air pollution. Also it can be in great handy in decreasing the energy consumption by 20%.

3. Eco-friendly furniture are good alternative to wooden furniture. Eco-friendly furniture use less wood and more use of waste products and other products, the use of which are not a threat to our environment.

4. Eco-shoes are made of contents, such as recycled rubber, recycled plastics, textiles, and synthetic and waste products, which are recyclable.


1. In India, the ecotel certification has 13 hotels under its logo. Eco-tourism has provided a viable economic alternative to exploitation of the environment.

2. Farmers use spiders and preying mantises effectively in managing serious crops problems.

3. Friendly birds are good custodians of crops, and they help manage the number of serious insect pests in and around homes.

4. The provision of owl-perches in agricultural fields has significantly contributed in eliminating rodent menace.

Q. 3. Explain how forests help in conserving the environment. Analyse the effects of deforestation.

Ans: Trees improve the quality of the air that species breathe by trapping carbon and other particles produced by pollution. Trees determine rainfall and replenish the atmosphere. As more water gets put back in the atmosphere, clouds form and provide another way to block out the sun’s heat. Trees are what cool and regulates the earth’s climate in conjunction with other such valuable services as preventing erosion, landslides, and making the most infertile soil rich with life. Mother earth has given many responsibilities to trees.

Consequences of Deforestation

(a) The carbon cycle: Forests act as a major carbon store because carbon dioxide (CO₂) is taken up from the atmosphere and used to produce the carbohydrates, fats and proteins that make up the tree. When forests are cleared, and the trees are either burnt or rot, this carbon is released as CO₂. This leads to an increase in the atmospheric CO₂ concentration. CO₂ is the major contributor to the greenhouse effect. It is estimated that deforestation contributes one- third of all CO₂ releases caused by people.

(b) The water cycle: Trees draw ground water up through their roots and release it into the atmosphere (transpiration). If over half of all the water circulating through the area’s ecosystem remains within the plants the region cannot hold as much water. The effect of this could be a drier climate.

(c) Soil erosion: With the loss of a protective cover of vegetation more soil is lost. 

(d) Silting of water courses, lakes and dams: This occurs as a result of soil erosion.

(e) Extinction of species: Forests contain more than half of all species on our planet-as the habitat of these species is destroyed, so the number of species declines.

(f) Desertification: The causes of desertification are complex, but deforestation is one of the contributing factors.

Q. 4. How does technical advancement lead to environmental degradation?

Ans: CFCs or chlorofluorocarbons, are the primary cause of ozone depletion. When industrial processes release these chemicals, they rise into the stratosphere and degrade the ozone. Acid rain, smog and poor air quality have been the result of air pollution. Both industrial operations and automobiles have released gigantic amounts of emissions that have intensified these problems. Deforestation and the logging industry have destroyed many tropical rain forests around the world. This has destroyed many natural habitats, and the plants and animals native to the areas.

Q. 5. Briefly explain the effects of overpopulation on our environment.

Ans: Rising population growth can degrade our quality of life because it:

• destroys resources, such as water and forests, needed to sustain us.

• slows the dynamics of a healthy economy. 

• decreases the level of biodiversity upon which we depend.

Q. 6. Discuss the following effects of air degradation.

(a) acid rain.

Ans: Acid rain: Acid rain, one of the most important environmental problems of all, cannot be seen. The invisible gases that cause acid rain usually come from automobiles or coal- burning power plants. Acid rain moves easily, affecting locations far beyond those that let out the pollution. The primary causes of acid rain are sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. These chemicals are released by certain industrial processes, and as a result, the more industrialised nations. Acid rain comes down to the earth in the form of rain, snow, hail, fog, frost, or dew. Once it reaches the ground, the acidity in the substance can harm and even destroy both natural ecosystems and man-made products, such as car finishes.

(b) global warming.

Ans: Global warming: Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the earth’s near-surface air. In global warming everything gets superhot, animals and plants start to die, ocean water rises and we loose many coast lines and small islands such as Hawaii.

(c) depletion of ozone layer.

Ans: Depletion of ozone layer: The ozone layer protects the earth from the ultraviolet rays sent down by the sun. The environment will also be negatively affected by ozone depletion. The life cycles of plants will change, disrupting the food chain. Oceans will be hit hard as well. The most basic microscopic organisms such as plankton may not be able to survive. The planet’s climate could also be affected by depletion of the ozone layer. Wind patterns could change, resulting in climatic changes throughout the world.

Q. 7. Present your plan to conserve your environment.

Ans: Today’s societ y is placing high amounts of pressure on our environment – whether it be for transport, housing, food, entertainment, or work, we are constantly impacting on our natural environment. Some of the visible forms of negative impacts of humans are:

• pollution in our waterways and on our beaches.

• litter.

• destruction of our marine environment.

• rapidly decreasing water supplies.

• disappearance of native animals. and

• polluted atmosphere affecting our health. 

Here are some easy steps we can take to help look after the environment:

1. Ride a bike or walk: whenever go to the shops, to school, to work. Cars are one of the worst pollutants in today’s society, and petrol is from a non-renewable source and the exercise is good for me.

2. Save water: Install a water-saving shower head, use mulch in the garden, use a bucket when washing the car, use a broom or rake to remove leaves from the driveway, install a rainwater tank, and turn off the tap when cleaning your teeth.

3. Save energy: Install energy saving light bulbs, turn off lights when leave a room, purchase energy-efficient electrical goods. Remember to keep car well serviced to reduce fuel and oil needs, and greenhouse gas emissions.

4. Remove pest plants: Many garden plants have become pests which can escape the garden, and destroy useful living beings. We will remove any pest plants that are on our property.

Q. 8. Compare the living conditions of a person living in a city with that of a person living in a village.

Ans: Most of India’s people live in villages. Most villagers are farmers who work in nearby fields. A typical Indian village is a collection of mud-and-straw dwellings. Most Indian cities have a growing middle class, which includes government employees, office workers and shopkeepers. The population of Indian cities has increased tremendously since independence. Millions of people have moved from rural to urban areas in search of jobs. This rapid population growth has strained city resources. For example, the supply of water and electric power has not kept up with the needs of the increasing population.

Comparison between living conditions of rural and urban areas:

• It has been said village life encourages a greater sense of community and perspective on what is important.

• The health benefits of living out of the city, or even suburban areas are manifold, as well: clean air and an abundance of foliage are enough to convince many ‘urbanites’ that country living is beneficial for them.

• Services such as municipal water and sewage disposal are a rarity in rural areas. 

• Private services, such as wells and septic tanks, which require periodic maintenance, water and ground testing, and the possibility of a dry well in the summer months, come at what can be a greater cost.

• In the city areas it is fairly easy to find transportation, with city bus systems and taxis serving the populace. The opposite is the case in rural areas, without your own transportation, it is difficult to get around. With greater distances between houses and commercial outlets, even getting groceries becomes a difficulty. If a person loses their driving licence vehicle for any reason, it’s a real hardship in a rural area. People can lose their jobs as a consequence of not being able to drive. The whole family will suffer. 

• That said, when a family faces hardship, often those in a rural community are quick to help wherever they can. If there is a death in the family of a member of the community, neighbours are right there with condolences and casseroles. If a child of a community member falls ill, the community pulls together to raise money for the family. If fire takes your possessions, the community will hold fundraisers and give donations to ensure that the basics are covered, or even more.

• The reactions to these kinds of situations are much different in urban areas. Many urbanites don’t know their neighbours beyond a ‘hello’ as they pass each other in the hall. Some not even that much. Maybe they don’t need their neighbours, the way people in the rural areas have come to depend on theirs.

• Neighbours in rural areas organise more events together than urbanites. From church dinners to fairs, to the community’s summer barbecue, most members of the community have their fingers in the pie, in one way or another. It is those types of events that help to bring a community together, because those who attend can claim ownership of the event.

• In urban areas, special events are often competing against each other, since there are often many happening at any given time. Many people who attend urban events have no sense of pride in these events, as they are just that, patrons of the event, not co-ordinators.

• Although city life is more convenient, it’s not necessarily better.

Advantages of city life: All sorts of facilities, i.e. public transport, good education and health facilities, all sorts of entertainment, more economical opportunities, etc.

Disadvantages of city life: Noise and air pollution, hectic life schedule, expensive food, expensive property, high property rents / taxes, too much trafic, etc.

Advantages of village life: Clean atmosphere, no noise pollution, relaxed life style, property prices lower than cities. Therefore, one can buy a bigger house with some land. In an agricultural village vegetables, fruits, meat and dairy products will be fresher and cheaper, etc.
Disadvantages of village life: Insuffcient medical and education facilities, few opportunities to make money, little entertainment, no or little public transport, lacks many facilities which a big city offers.

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