NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 9 Physiography of India Solutions

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NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 9 Physiography of India Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 9 Physiography of India and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 9 Physiography of India Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Social Science Notes Paper 213.

NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 9 Physiography of India

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 9 Physiography of India, NIOS Secondary Course Social Science Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Physiography of India

Chapter: 9




Q. 1. Look at the map 9.2 and answer the following questions:

(i) Find out the names of two countries lying to the eastern side of India.

Ans: 1. Bangladesh. and 

2. Myanmar. 

(ii) Mention the names of two seas located on the eastern and western side of India.

Ans: 1. Bay of Bengal. and 

2. Arabian Sea. 

(iii) Which country is connected to India by Pak Strait?

Ans: Sri Lanka..

(iv) Write the names of two countries having a common border with India. 

Ans: Nepal, Bhutan.


Q. 1. Look at the map 9.3 and answer the following questions:

(i) Write the name of two states of South India.

Ans: Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

(ii) Mention the names of two states sharing international boundary. 

Ans: Jammu and Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh.

(iii) Write the names of two countries sharing their boundaries with Sikkim.

Ans: Nepal, Bhutan.

(iv) Write the names of two union territories along Arabian Sea.

Ans: Daman and Diu, Dadara and Nagar Haveli.


Q. 1. Write the names of the three ranges of Himalayas.

Ans: The Himadri, The Himachal and the Siwaliks. 

Q. 2. Look at the map (fig. 9.5) and find out:

(i) In which state Nanga Parbat and Nanda Devi are located?

Ans: Jammu and Kashmir. 

(ii) Say yes or No

(a) Mt. Everest is located in India. 

Ans: No.

(b) Shipki La pass is located in Kailash Range.

Ans: No.

(c) Mansarovar lake is located in Kailash Range.

Ans: Yes.

Q. 3. Mention the names of three countries in which the Greater Himalayas are situated.

Ans: India, Nepal and Bhutan.

Q. 4. Identify two Purvanchal Hills. 

Ans: These are Patkoi and Mizo hills.


Q. 1. Answer the following questions briefly (Not more than two sentences):

(i) How was Deccan Trap formed? 

Ans: It was formed due to volcanic eruption.

(ii) State any two economic activities of coastal plains. 

Ans: Agriculture, fishing, trade and commerce.

(iii) Why does Andaman and Nicobar islands attract more tourists?

Ans: Because islands have developed attractive tourist activities of under water and water sports.

(iv) Write the names of the rivers which help to form the western plain.

Ans: Satluj, Beas, Ravi.


Answer the following questions:

Q. 1. Mention the name of the two tributaries joining Ganga from the north.

Ans: Gandak, Kosi.

Q. 2. Which lake is located near Mahanadi?

Ans: Lake Chilka.

Q. 3. Write the names of the states drained by river Godavari. 

Ans: Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh.

Q. 4. Which river is tributary of Tungabhadra?

Ans: Krishna.


Q. 1. Explain the location and extends of India.

Ans: India’s mainland is between 8°.4’N and 37°.6’N latitudes and from 68°.7’E and 97°.25’E longitudes. India is surrounded by water from three sides, Arabian Sea in west, Bay of Bengal in east and Indian Ocean in the south. Towards its north-west are Pakistan and Afghanistan, its north-east are China and Bhutan, Tibet and Nepal lies to its north. Bangladesh and Myanmar lies to its east. Sri Lanka and Maldives are located towards its south in Indian Ocean.

Q. 2. Describe any three character- istics of the Indian Desert. 

Ans: Characteristics of the Indian Desert: 

1. The Indian Desert is also called Thar Desert.

2. It remain dry most of the year. The moisture bearing winds goes parallel to Aravalli so receive scanty rainfall.

3. Cactus and thorny bushes are grown in this desert.

4. You will have to walk several kilo- meters to reach an oasis to find water. 

5. The rainfall is received less than 150 mm. per year.

Q. 3. Explain any two points each about the three parallel ranges of Himalayas.

Ans: Himalayas may be divided into three parallel ranges. These are: 

1. The Greater Himalayas or Himadri: The Greater Himalayas are also called Himadri.

(i) It has an average height of 6000 meters and width lies 120 to 190 kms. 

(ii) It is snow bound and many glaciers descend from this range. 

(iii) Mt. Everest the highest peak of the world lies in this range. 

(iv) High mountain passes also exist in this range.

2. The Lesser Himalayas: It is also called the Himachal Himalayas.

(i) Its average height is between 1000 and 4500 meters and average width is 50 kms. 

(ii) Many famous hill stations like Shimla, Dalhousie, Chakrata, Mussoorie etc. are lying in this range. 

(iii) It also comprises of famous valleys like Kullu, Kangra etc.

(iv) The prominent ranges such as Pir Panjal, Dhaula Dhar and Mahabharata are lies in this range.

3. The Outer Himalayas or the Siwaliks:

(i) It is the outermost range of the Himalayas. 

(ii) The altitude varies between 900 metre to 1100 meters. 

(iii) It is wide about 50 kms. and has low hills like Jammu hills.

(iv) Valleys lying in this range are called Duns such as Dehradun, Kotli Dun and Patlidun etc.

Q. 4. Differentiate between Himalayan and peninsular drainage systems by giving any four differences in each. 

Ans: Difference between Himalayan and Peninsular drainage systems.

Himalayan Drainage System

1. Himalayan river system has perennial rivers originating from glaciers.

2. Rivers form valleys by the process of erosion.

3. The rivers are ideal for irrigation purposes as they pass through plain fertile tracts. 

4. The rivers have meandering courses which shift over time.

5. These rivers form vast alluvial plains by depositing sediments.

6. These rivers have large basins and vast catchment areas. Therefore these have large volume of water. 

7. The main river systems are: Indus river system, Ganga and Brahmputra river system.

Peninsular Drainage System

1. The peninsular rivers are seasonal. They get supply of water from summer rainfall. 

2. These rivers have small basins and small catchment areas.

3. These rivers flow on rocky areas and are not used for irrigation. 

4. These rivers do not bring fertile alluvium and do not form alluvial plains.

5. They are good for generating hydro- power because these rivers form rapids and waterfalls.

6. These rivers flow on shallow river valleys and have straight course.

7. The major peninsular rivers are: Mahanadi, Godawari, Krishna and Kavari.

Q. 5. Give reasons:

(i) Northern plains have fertile alluvial soils.

Ans: The northern plains are very fertile due to alluvial sediments brought by the rivers from the Himalayas.

(ii) Indian deserts has very less vegetation cover.

Ans: Indian desert has very less vegetation because it receives less than 150 mm of rainfall per year. There is semi arid and arid weather conditions.



Q. 1. Give the degree of latitude of the northern extremity of India.

Ans: 37°.6’N.

Q. 2. Name the highest peak in the Himalayas.

Ans: Mt. Everest (Sagarmatha) 8848 m above the sea level). 

Q. 3. Name the highest peak in Himalayas in India.

Ans: Kanchenjunga (8598 m).

Q. 4. Name the highest peak in Peninsular India.

Ans: Anamudi (2695 m).

Q. 5. Name the highest peak in the Karakoram range.

Ans: Mt. K, or Godwin Austin (8611 m).

Q. 6. Name a pass located on the Tibet Himalayan range in Himachal Pradesh.

Ans: Shipki La.

Q. 7. Name the important pass in Arunachal Pradesh.

Ans: Bomdila.

Q. 8. Give examples of Dun.

Ans: Dehradun, Kotalidun and Patlidun.

Q. 9. Name an important peak in the east overlooking the Brahmaputra.

Ans: Namcha Barwa.

Q. 10. Which river flows between Ladakh and Zanskar ranges in Kashmir? 

Ans: River Indus.

Q. 11. Name the loftiest range in Himalayas.

Ans: Himadri or Greater Himalayas. 

Q. 12. Name two rivers of India that flow towards the west. 

Ans. Narmada and Tapi.

Q. 13. Name two rivers flowing through rift valleys but not making deltas.

Ans: Narmada and Tapi.

Q. 14. Name two tributaries of the river Yamuna. 

Ans: Chambal, Sind, Betwa, Ken.

Q. 15. Name a tributary of Ganga which drains the Chota Nagpur plateau.

Ans: Damodar.

Q. 16. Name a city situated on the water divide in India.

Ans: Ambala in Haryana.

Q. 17. Where does the Ganga join the Yamuna? 

Ans: At Allahabad in U.P.

Q. 18. What are slow moving rivers of snow and ice called?

Ans: Glaciers.

Q. 19. What is the geographical name given to a gap in a mountain range providing a natural route across.

Ans: Pass.

Q. 20. What do we call a river which joins a bigger river and adds to its volume?

Ans: Tributary.

Q. 21. Name India’s highest mountain peak.

Ans: K2.

Q. 22. Name one pass in Western Ghats.

Ans: Pal Ghat, Bhor Ghat and Thal Ghat.

Q. 23. What is the overfall in the slope of the plains of the Indus and Ganga basin in meters?

Ans: 300 m.

Q. 24. Name a hill station of the south located in Tamil Nadu.

Ans: Udagamandalam.

Q. 25. Name the lagoon lake on the Malabar coast.

Ans: Vembanad, Velli, Ashtamudi. 

Q. 26. Name the largest delta in the world.

Ans: Ganga-Brahmaputra or Sundarban Delta.

Q. 27. Name an island on which an active volcano is located in India.

Ans: Barren Island in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 

Q. 28. Name one lagoon lake on east coast.

Ans: Chilka lake in Orissa.

Q. 29. Which is the oldest landmass of the Indian Subcontinent?

Ans: Peninsular Plateau. 

Q. 30. What is the longitudinal value of the Standard Meridian of India?

Ans: 82°.30′ E.


Q. 1. State the reasons for selecting a Standard Meridian of India with an odd value of 82°.30’E.

Ans: The longitude 82°.30’E passes through the middle of the country. It is therefore 82°.30’E was selected as standard meridian of the country.

Q. 2. Why Arunachal Pradesh is a befitting name for our easternmost state?

Ans: The earth moves from west to east and Arunachal Pradesh is the first Indian state to get the rays of the sun. So it has been given a befitting name.

Q. 3. Give two advantages of India’s location at the head of the Indian Ocean.

Ans: Advantages of location are:

1. The Indian Ocean has been helpful to India in establishing both commercial and cultural contacts with the countries of east Africa, South West and South East Asia.

2. The Indian Ocean is connected with Europe, North America and South America through the Suez Canal and the Cape of Good Hope routes.

Q. 4. Give reasons why Siwalik range or Outer Himalayas is more prone to earthquakes?

Ans: The Siwalik range is made up of unconsolidated river deposits transported from the Greater and Middle Himalayas. So it is prone to earthquakes and landslides.

Q. 5. Is the Himalayan mountain perfect divide ? Give reasons.

Ans: No, because rivers originating beyond the Himalayas are able to cut through it. For example the rivers Indus, d Satluj and Brahmaputra.

Q. 6. How do you say that India occupies central location on the globe? 

Ans: India occupies central position on the globe for two reasons:

1. The longitudinal extent of India is 68.7′ E to 97°.25’E. It is the central location in the eastern hemisphere.

2. India occupies the south central. peninsula of the Asian continent. 

Q. 7. Which part of peninsular India is known as Central Highlands? State its composition.

Ans: The northern part of peninsular India is known as Central Highlands. t It consists of two parts demarketed by the west flowing rivers-Narmada and Tapi. Vindhyas bound the northern part. In the northwest it is made up of igneous rocks of f volcanic origin.

Q. 8. Name the geographical factor that has made Indus plain very fertile.

Ans: The geographical factor that has made Indus plain very fertile is:

The tributaries of Indus join together before ultimately joining Indus. This has helped in constructing a dense network of canals.


Q. 1. Describe the features of the islands groups of India.

Ans: Two islands groups included in the physiography of India. 

These are:

1. Lakshadweep Island.

2. Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Features of Lakshadweep: 

1. It is a group of 36 smaller coral islands with total area of 32 sq. km.

2. Formerly this island groups was known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi islands renamed as Lakshadweep in 1973. 

3. It lies at a distance of 300 km. from the west of Kerala coast. 

4. These islands are inaccessible and only eleven islands are inhabited. 

5. Headquarter of this Union Territory is located at Kavaratti famous for numerous species of flora and fauna. 

6. This group of island lies between 8°N – 12°N latitudes and 71°E-74°E longitude. 

Features of Andaman and Nicobar Islands:

1. This U.T. is located in Bay of Bengal. 

2. Two hundred islands of the groups are spread over an area of 350 km. There are 19 islands in Nicobar group.

3. Almost all islands of this group are inhabitable. 

4. Here exist densely forested land and abysmal sea.

5. These islands are like beads in a garland. 

6. Here is an equatorial climate, wildlife and ample quantity of natural resources. 

7. An active volcano is located in one of its Barren island, e.g., eruption was seen on 10 April 1991.

8. Headquarter of this island group is located at Port Blair.

9. These lie between 6°.45’N and 14°N latitudes and 92°E and 94°E longitudes.

Q. 2. Describe the salient features of the eastern coastal plains.

Ans: 1. It is wider strip of low lands as compared to western coastal plains.

2. It lies between the Bay of Bengal (east) and the Eastern Ghats (west) Expansion – West Bengal to Kanyakumari.

3. Its width varies between 60 to 100 km.

4. Northern Circar and Coromandel Coast

are its two sub divisions.

5. Four fertile deltas formed here by the rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri.

Q. 3. What is the main difference between tributary and a distributary? 


1. It is a small river joining the bigger river.1. It is a branch of the river.
2. It gives water to the main river.2. It takes away water from the main river.
3. It is mostly found in the middle course of the river.3. It is generally found in the lower course of the river.
4. A river has only few tributaries.4. There are many small distributaries.
5. The Yamuna is a tributary of the river Ganga.5. The Hoogly is a distributary of the river Ganga.

Q. 4. Describe the features and extension of the Western Ghats. 

Ans: Features and Extension:

1. It is a narrow strip of rocky land with the Arabian Sea on the west and Western Ghats on the east.

2. It extends from Gujarat to Kanya- kumari along the west coast. 

3. Its average width is about 40 km.

4. Konkan plain, Kannad plain and Malabar coast are described as its three divisions at north, at the center and at the tail respectively. 

5. The estuaries, lagoons, natural deep harbors, sandbars and spits are found in plains.

Q. 5. Distinguish between Delta and Estuary.


1. It is a triangular deposition of alluvium at the mouth of river at it falls into the sea.1. It is funnel shaped mouth of a river. High tidal actions form an estuary.
2. Excess deposition of silt and soil forms a delta.2. Tidal waves drudge the silt out and an estuary is formed.
3. It is most fertile land.3. Estuaries are useful for navigation.

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