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NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 3 Modern World – I
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Modern World – I
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS WITH THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 3.1
Q. 1. Fill in the blanks:
(i) __________ expressed its belief in the creative potential of human beings.
Ans: Renaissance scholars
(b) Ignatius Loyal found the __________
Ans: Society of Jesus.
Q. 2. Define feudalism. Give at least two feature of feudalism.
Ans: Feudalism is a social system that existed in the Medieval Period (Age) Europe (900-1400 CE) in which people were given the land and protection by a noble man and had to work and tight for him in return.
Two features of Feudalism were:
(i) The workers had to tight for their noble or the lords.
(ii) The nobles were the most powerful chiefs.
Q. 3. What were the main ideas of feudalism?
Ans: The main ideas of feudalism were:
Q. 4. Enlist at least two teachings of Martin Luther which influenced reforms in the church.
Ans: Teachings of Martin Luther:
(i) He told the people not to blind faith in the church.
(ii) He advocated for salvation through faith on Jesus.
(iii) The Bible is the only source of religious authority.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 3.2
Q. 1. Choose the correct answers:
(a) Who discovered the sea route to India?
(ii) Vasco da Gama
(iv) None of these
Ans: (ii) Vasco-da-Gama
(b) Which of the following was not a result of the voyages and discovery?
(i) Setting up of colonies in Asia and Africa.
(ii) Expansion of European commerce.
(iii) Rise in the prosperity of the colonies.
(iv) Beginning of slave trade.
Ans: (iii) Rise in the prosperity of the colonies.
Q. 2. Name at least two contribution of the Renaissance in the field of science.
Ans: (i) Knowledge began to be used on the basis of observation and experiments.
(ii) Blind faiths in traditions were rejected and faith based on beliefs/facts were established.
Q. 3. Enlist at least three discoveries which helped in the Europeans to find new sea routes.
Ans: Following three discoveries helped the Europeans to find new sea routes:
(i) Discovery of compass.
(ii) Invention of map making
Q. 4. Identify the significant changes in the society due to the Industrial Revolution.
Ans: Due to the industrial revolution society divided into two groups.
These two groups were:
(i) Capitalists who were also known as bourgeoisie.
(ii) The workers the proletariat.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 3.3
Q. 1. Choose the correct answer:
(a) In how many colonies were America divided?
Ans: (i) 13
(b) The Third Estate in France comprised of the-
Ans: (iii) Commoners.
(c) German unification was successfully carried out under the leadership of:
Ans: (iii) Bismarck
Q. 2. “The Glorious Revolution of 1688 was a source of inspiration for the world.” Justify this statement within 30 words.
Ans: This revolution is a source of inspiration for the world because it achieved its aim without any bloodshed.
Q. 3. Enlist at least two similarities between the American War of Independence and the French Revolution.
Ans: Two similarities between American War of Independence and the French.
(i) Both these revolutions were against the exploitation.
(ii) Both popularize the idea of nationalism.
(iii) Both have legacy on human rights.
(iv) Both inspired democratic ideas.
Q. 4. The Russian Revolution was inspired by the ideology of socialism. Explain briefly.
Ans: Karl Marx was a great philosopher who expressed his idea in his book ‘Das Kapital’. He helped the idea of strengthening the socialism. He laid stress that all means of production must be controlled by state which would established economic equality in the society.
Q. 1. How did the rise of towns and. emergence of trade led to the decline of feudalism?
Ans: Rise of towns and emergence of trade led to the decline of feudalism in following ways:
(i) Middle class rose into the powers with the rise of towns and trade.
(ii) Trade led to the emergence of powerful merchant class, which challenge the authority of the feudal society.
(iii) New institutions and ideas leads to awakening among the common people.
Q. 2. Why do you think Renaissance marks a break from earlier pattern of thought and existence ? Write in about 100 words.
Ans: The Renaissance marked a break from earlier patterns of thought and existence:
1. New ideas, rational outlook and scientific beliefs ended the age old superstitions.
2. Renaissance preached Humanism which inspired the contemporary philosophers, scholars, artists and writers to take up man as their principal subject.
3. People discarded old values and adopted scientific outlook. It encouraged national thinking, spirit of enquiry and scientific investigation in all the spheres of life.
4. Many schools and colleges were opened at various places and education spread rapidly. The new literature, arts and sciences were so closely related to the ordinary life of the common man that the people were inspired to receive education.
5. It was marked by the origin of the Nation-States. These were fully sovereign, free from any kind of interference, political or religious.
6. Renaissance gave birth to another movement, called the Reformation Movement which split Christianity into two branches- the Protestants and the Roman Catholics.
7. Extensive voyages to explore new trade-routes were undertaken. These voyages led to the discovery of not only new routes but also new lands.
8. Interest in the Greek and Roman cultures as well as their art and literature grew up during this period.
Q. 3. How did Reformation impact Europe and rest of the world?
Ans: (i) Reformation movement reduced the corruption in the church and improved the strength of Catholic church.
(ii) This movement not only limited to European countries but also spread to other parts of the world.
(iii) It religiously awakened the people not to have blind faith in church authority.
Q. 4. How did the discoveries of new lands changes the economy and society in modern ways?
Ans: The discoveries of new lands changes the economy and society in following ways:
1. The geographical discoveries helped the growth of trade. In the eastern sea routes Europeans began to import cloth, tobacco, rice, tea, indigo etc. from eastern countries.
2. These discoveries led to the foundation of colonies which made the European countries prosperous. European countries found gold mines.
3. These discoveries resulted in the discovery of many new lands like America, Canada, Pacific, Philippines island etc.
4. A new sea-route to India was discovered.
5. These voyages encouraged the slave trade, colonization and spread of European civilization and Christianity.
Q. 5. Enlist the main ideas given in the Declaration of American Independence.
Ans: The main ideas given in the Declaration of American war of Independence were:
(i) Freedom of speech
(ii) Freedom of press and religion
(iii) Citizen must justice under law.
(iv) Right to equality to all
(v) Liberty to pursuit happiness.
Q. 6. Which ideas of the French Revolution had an impact on the world order?
Ans: (i) Equality
These three ideas of French Revolution had deep impact on the world order.
Q. 7. Discuss the strategies used by German and Italian leaders for their unification.
Ans: Strategies used by German Leaders: In the 18th century, Germany was divided into a number of states namely Bavaria, Prussia, Saxony, etc. As such, the pace of economic growth was very slow. With the rise of national consciousness the demand for a unified country of Germany became stronger in several states. In 1815 A.D. the German confederation alongwith Austria tried to organize themselves into a German state and their rulers were forced to grant democratic constitutions. To unite Germany and to frame constitution for the United Germany a Constituent Assembly met at Frankfurt. This assembly proposed the unification of Germany under the King of Prussia. The King of Prussia, however, opposed the idea of becoming a constitutional monarch and declined the offer. Repression soon followed and thousands of German revolutionaries fled to live in exile. Thus ended the first phase of the unification of Germany.
Now, Germany was to be unified by the policy of blood and iron as was pursued by Bismarck, the Prussian Chancellor. Bismarck tried to achieve his aim by dint of his military power and astute diplomacy. In 1864 A.D. he fought a war against Denmark and took control of Schleswig. In 1866 A.D., Prussia defeated Austria and annexed the territories of Hanover, Holstein, Luxembourg, Frankfurt etc. thereby dissolving the German confederation once for all. It paved the way for the subsequent unification of Germany.
In 1870 A.D., Prussia defeated France in another war and occupied Alsace and Lorraine. The impact of Prussia’s impressive victories was so great that the other German states also joined the German confederation which recognised the Prussian King as its hereditary head.
Thus, as is clear from the above description, it was due to the dedicated efforts and shrewd policy of Bismarck that the unification of Germany was completed in 1870 A.D.
Strategies used by Italian Leader:
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini: He was a great revolutionary of Italy and he wanted unification of Italy through the movement. Young Italy was a revolutionary party, founded in 1832. Giusepee Mazzini enrolled more than fifty thousands dedicated members in this party. Its branches were set-up all over Italy. The main objectives of Young Italy was unification of Italy.
(b) Garibaldi: He was a great patriot, organizer and liberal of Italy. He organized a force named “Red Shirts”. His forces defeated the powerful Austrian forces and liberated Naples and Sicily. After achieving his mission of Italy’s liberation and unification, this selfless patriot took to the peaceful life of a peasant.
(c) Count Cavour: He was the Prime Minister of the King of Italy. He was a great administrator and able reformer. He made commercial treaties with other countries, promoted trade, agriculture and industry.
Cavour is popular in history for his praiseworthy work of the unification of Italy. In policy formation, he is known as “Bismarck (a great diplomat and makers of Germany) of Italy”.
(d) Victor Emmanuel: Victor Emmanuel was the son of Charles Albert who belonged to the royal family of Savoy. He was regarded as the body of Italy. He annexed Venetia and Rome (The Papal territories). Thus, he completed the task of unification of Italy which was left incomplete by Cavour.
Q. 8. Describe the condition of the industrial workers which influenced the Russian Revolution.
Ans: Conditions of workers: (i) The Industrial Revolution shattered the rural life by turning the farmers into landless laborers.
(ii) Rural unemployment forced the unemployed farmers to migrate to cities in search of jobs. Thus, the cities became overcrowded and many problems of insanitation and housing arose.
(iii) The workers life became quite miserable. They had to live in slums around the factories where they fell a prey to different diseases and epidemics due to the lack of sanitation and other health facilities.
(iv) The conditions inside the factories were still worse. There, the slippery area, noise and poisonous gases affected the workers health so much that they soon became physically and mentally sick.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Tick the correct option:
1. Which of the literal meaning of Renaissance?
Ans: (b) Rebirth.
2. Where did Renaissance movement started?
Ans: (c) Italy.
3. Renaissance around started ___________
(a) 13th century AD
(b) 13th century BC
(c) 14th century BC
(d) 14th century AD
Ans: (d) 14th century AD.
4. Which of the following is not responsible for generating new ideas in Renaissance?
(a) Traditional faith
(d) The spirit of inquiry
Ans: (a) Traditional faith.
5. Which new languages emerged in Europe or gained importance during Renaissance?
(d) All of these
Ans: (d) All of these.
6. Who is the author of ‘In Praise of Folly’?
(d) Don Quixote
Ans: (b) Erasmus.
7. Who was the first to challenge the authority of Roman Catholic Church?
(c) Martin Luther
Ans: (c) Martin Luther.
8. When was first of all the authority of Roman Catholic Church challenged?
Ans: (a) 1517.
9. When was Luther excommunicated by Pope Leo X after he refused to stop writing against the church?
(a) 23 Jan. 1521
(b) 13 Jan. 1521
(c) 3 Jan 1521
(d) 31 Jan. 1521
Ans: (c) 3 Jan 1521.
10. Who was the founder of the Society of Jesus?
(b) Ignatius Loyal
(c) John Calvin
(d) Martin Luther
Ans: (b) Ignatious Loyal.
11. Who made observational drawings of anatomy and nature which were a unique blend of science and art?
(a) Leonardo da Vinci
(b) William Harvey
(c) Micheal Kaunal
(d) Gorudarshan Khamba
Ans: (a) Leonardo da Vinci.
12. Which of these is a great astrologer?
(d) All of these
Ans: (d) All of these.
13. What was not the main motive behind discovery of new land?
(a) God, glory and expenditure
(b) God, glory and income
(c) God, glory and gold
(d) God, glamor and Gold.
Ans: (c) God, glory and gold.
14. Who discovered America?
(a) Vasco da Gama
(d) Bartholomew Diaz
Ans: (b) Columbus.
15. Industrialisation first occurred in ___________
Ans: (b) England.
VERT SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Name any five languages which developed during the period of Renaissance.
Ans: The languages which developed during the period of Renaissance were:
Q. 2. Which two major developments took place during the Renaissance?
Ans: (i) It resulted in the split of Christianity.
(ii) It led to the emergence of the modern world.
Q. 3. Why is Glorious Revolution is also referred to as Bloodless Revolution?
Ans: Glorious Revolution is also referred to as Bloodless Revolution because during this Revolution in England no blood was shed to achieve the aim of revolution. The autocratic rule of James II was replaced with constitutional form of government.
Q. 4. Explain the term ‘Third Estate’.
Ans: In 1789, at the time of the outbreak of the French Revolution, the French society was divided into the privileged and unprivileged classes. The unprivileged classes were known as the “Third Estate’. The Third Estate was comprised of the peasants, artisans and city workers.
Q. 5. Who were ‘Proletariat’.
Ans: That class of workers which works in the factories and puts in hard labor in the production of different articles is called the proletariat. This class does not possess enough capital to run the factories nor does it have any control on the means of production.
Q. 6. Explain the term ‘Bourgeoisie’.
Ans: The class which controls the factories and the different means of production is known as the bourgeoisie class. This class had got enough capital to buy machines, and tools and to instal factories. They have also full control over the market and the raw material.
Q. 7. What do you meant the term ‘socialism’?
Ans: Socialism is a political system. It grew against the evils of capitalism. It refers to a system in which the interests of the society are given preference. It preaches that all people should have equal economic, political and social rights. The capitalist class should be abolished, as this section exploits the society.
Q. 8. Explain ‘The Stamp Act’. (Imp.)
Ans: 1. This Act was passed by the British Parliament to raise taxes in the American Colonies of Britain in 1765.
2. By this Act, the American colonists had to affix revenue stamps on all legal documents and commercial transactions. Later on, this tax was withdrawn in face of the fierce opposition of the American people.
Q. 9. Explain the term ‘Utopian Socialists’.
Ans: Saint Simon, Charles Fourier and Robert Owen, are generally known as the Utopian Socialists’. They, no doubt. recognized the evils of capitalism and proposed the establishment of a new and better system of society in its place, but the methods they advocated for the establishment of such a society were impracticable and ineffective. Hence, they came to be known as the Utopian Socialists’.
Q. 10. Explain the meaning of the term ‘capitalism’.
Ans: It is a system of production in which all means of production, machines, tools and raw material, etc. belong to the capitalist, owners, who hire labor to work on them. It is quite opposite to socialism.