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NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 7 Popular Resistance to the British Rule
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Popular Resistance to the British Rule
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS WITH THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.1
Q. 1. Explain the following items in one sentence each:
Ans: (a) Faqirs: Faqirs were a group of wandering Muslim religions mendicants.
(b) Mahajan: Mahajan was the term used for moneylenders.
(c) Mappilas: Mappilas were the Muslim cultivating tenants, landless laborers and fishermen of Malabar region.
Q. 2. In the space list three groups involved in the exploitation of the Indian peasantry.
Ans: The three groups of exploiters were
(a) Officials of British Government.
Q. 3. List three causes of popular resistance movements in the given space.
Ans: The four causes of popular resistance movements were:
(a) Exploitation by British.
(b) High revenue rates on the peasants.
(c) Compelled to growing commercial/cash crops.
(d) Interference in the religious practices of the people by the British.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.2
Q. 1. List two grievances of the Indian sepoys against the colonial rulers.
Ans: (a) Low pay and no bhatta, that is no extra payment for their duty overseas.
(b) Social discrimination in promotion, pension and in terms of service.
(c) Use of greased cartridges rumoured to contain the fat of cow and pig which hurt religious sentiments.
Q. 2. Name any three important leaders of the Revolt of 1857.
Ans: Rani Laxmi Bai, Tantia Tope, Begum Hazarat Mahal and Nana Sahib and Kunwar Singh of Arrah.
Q. 3. When and how was the East India Company’s rule abolished?
Ans: The East India Company’s rule was abolished in 1858 through a declaration of the Queen’s proclamation by the British Parliament.
Q. 4. Enlist any three major causes of the failure of the Revolt of 1857.
Ans: The three major causes of the failure of the Revolt of 1857 were:
(a) The revolt was a big event in the history of India. It had very little chance of success against an organized and powerful enemy.
(b) It remained confined to north and central India only.
(c) There was no unity of purpose among the rebels.
(d) The leadership of the movement was weak.
(e) The rebels were short of weapons and finances.
Q. 1. Explain two common features of the peasant and tribal revolts.
Ans: 1. British Government imposed heavy land revenue on agricultural land of peasants and the tribals. They were compelled to work on their own land as labourers.
2. Different types of taxes made them compell to lead pitiable livelihood.
Q. 2. How did the political and socio- religious factors led to the revolt of 1857?
Ans: (1) For the revolt of 1857 all the political, social, religious, economic and military causes were responsible. British Government puts the fat of cow and pig on the mouth and cover of bullets which are to be opened with the help of teeth. It was done to hurt the sentiments of the Hindus and Muslims. It was the main reason for the revolt.
(2) The government used to pay more salary to the British military persons than that to the Indian army persons for the same nature of work.
(3) The British army personnel were quickly promoted while the Indians of the same posts were not promoted.
Q. 3. Explain the significance of the revolt of 1857.
Ans: The revolt of 1857 was the first sign that the Indians wanted to end British rule and were ready to stand united for this cause. Even through they failed to achieve their objective they succeeded in sowing the seeds of nationalism among the Indians. Indian people became more aware of the heroes who sacrificed themselves in the revolt. However, it was the beginning of distrust between Hindus and Muslims which the British later exploited to continue their rule in India.
Q. 4. Make a table listing main leaders of the revolt of 1857 and the reasons for their joining it.
Ans: The main leaders of the revolt of 1857 are as follows:
Bakht Khan: He was a brave warrior who handled the army troop in Lucknow.
Nana Sahib: He was very brave but he was not a very good warrior. He saved himself.
Tantia Tope: He was very brave but was not a good army general. He was arrested when he was sleeping.
Azimullah: He commanded the army troop of Kanpur.
Maulvi Ahemadullah: He helped Hazarat Mahal in battle in Lucknow.
Begum Hazarat Mahal: She fought with the British in Lucknow.
Rani Laxmi Bai: She was the brave lady of Jhansi but was not perfect in commanding the army troops. She became the leader of army.
Khan Bahadur Khan: He became the captain of army troop in Bareilly.
Kunwar Singh: He was a brave warrior. He died in Bihar while fighting.
Mangal Pande: He shot two British officers in Barrackpore near Kolkata on 29 March 1857. Later he was sentenced to death.
Q. 5. Do you think the revolt of 1857 make any impact on the British and their rule in India? Analyse the situation and give your inference.
Ans: Yes, though the efforts of the rebels failed, the British government was pressurized to change their policy towards India. In August 1858 by the Act for the better Government of India both the Board of Control and the Board of Directors were abolished and the office of the Secretary of State for India was cheated with an Indian council of 15 members to assist the viceroy of India designation earlier known as Governor General in India. In August 1858 the British Crown assumed control of India from the East India Company and in 1877 Queen Victoria was crowned empress of India. This brought to an end the rule of East India Company. The Indian rulers were assured of their rights to succession after adoption. The crown promised to honour all the treaties and the agreements made by the Company with the rulers of Indian states.
The revolt played a pivotal role in Anglo- Indian history. The British became cautious and defensive about their empire while many Indians remained better and would never trust their rulers again. It was not until the emergence of Indian National Congress in 1885 and Mahatma Gandhi that Indians re- gathered their momentum for home. Now it was certain that in India their rule will not prolong.
Q. 6. History tells us that people normally protest when their means of livelihood are threatened. Do this holds true even today? Identify one you think incident that has happened recently published from the newspapers or magazines and make a report of about 50 words.
Ans: Yes. It is true that the common people protest only when their livelihood is threatened. It can be proved by an incident.
Example: Britishers destroyed the livelihood of peasants. The condition of peasants became pitiable.
It was because British Government imposed heavy taxes on peasants to which they were not in a position to pay easily. So they started revolts from all corners of the country.
Peasants used to take loan from the landlords to pay land tax at a heavy interest. They had to pay heavy interest. If they could not pay back the loan, they had to sell their cattle and even ornaments. Sometimes they had to sell their piece of land. When did not get food easily they had to work as laborers on their own land. In such conditions they had to revolt. Peasants did so before independence.
After independence in Maharashtra when the peasants could not pay lagaan and heavy interest on loan they had to face starvation and ultimately they committed suicide. It was because their livelihood was in danger.
Q. 7. (a) On the given outline map of India locate the regions of the following rebellions:
(i) Faqir and Sanyasis Rebellion
(ii) Santhal Rebellion
(iii) Munda Rebellion
(iv) Jaintia and Garo Rebellions
(b) Give one cause for each of the rebellion.
Ans: (a) Students locate the given regions on the map of India.
(b) The causes of the rebellions were:
(i) Faqir and Sanyasis Rebellion: This rebellion was started in Bengal after the control of British. Its main reason was heavy land tax and disrupting of peasants.
(ii) Santhal Rebellion: Santhal area is situated on the border line of south direction of Bhagalpur of Bihar upto Orissa. Britishers brought landlords, traders, Mahajans etc. with them and started to rob the peasants or santhals. When they were in need they borrowed loan from Mahajans on heavy interest. When they could not pay they had to sell the land, ornaments, cattle etc. Such pitiable conditions compelled them to revolt.
(iii) Munda Rebellion: They were the residents of Chotanagpur area. Their rebellion was the cause of taking their land in possession.
(iv) Jaintia and Garo Rebellion: Jaintia (in modern time Assam) was joint to Silhat (modern Bangladesh) by a road. The construction of that road was the main cause of rebellion. Jaintia and Garo people revolt against the Britishers.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Each questions has four possible answers out of them only one answer is correct. Mark (✔) the correct one:
1. The revolt of 1857 is famous by the name of:
(a) Munda Rebellion
(b) Faqir and Sanyasi Rebellion
(c) Bhils Rebellion
(d) Sepoy Rebellion
Ans: (d) Sepoy Rebellion.
2. On which place Munda Rebellion was held?
(a) Singhbhum of Chotanagpur
(b) Assam and Karnataka
(c) Gujarat and Maharashtra
(d) Malabar region
Ans: (a) Singhbhum of Chotanagpur.
3. What was the main reason for 1857 revolt?
(d) All the above
Ans: (d) All the above.
4. Who shot dead two British officers at Barrackpore near Calcutta (Kolkata)?
(a) Tantia Tope
(b) Mangal Pandey
(c) Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan
Ans: (b) Mangal Pandey.
5. India became the colony of Britain. Who announced it?
(a) Queen of Britain
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) People of that region
(d) State Governor
Ans: (a) Queen of Britain.
6. In the battle of 1857 who supported British people?
(a) Only Afghans
(b) Only Gorkhas
(c) Both (a) & (b)
(d) Only Rajputs
Ans: (c) Both (a) & (b).
7. In which year the Indian National Congress was established?
Ans: (b) 1885.
8. From where the revolt of 1857 was started?
(a) From Avadh
(b) From Madras
(c) From Maharashtra
(d) From Meerut
Ans: (d) From Meerut.
9. The main reason of 1857 revolt was:
(a) Not to promote Indian Sepoys
(b) Less salary and not bonus
(c) The cartridge incident bullets
(d) All the above
Ans: (d) All the above.
10. How many soldiers were given order for the use of bullets coated by fat of cow and pig?
Ans: (c) 85.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Who was Santhal?
Ans: Santhal was a group of people who lead their life at one place and worked in the forests to clean.
Q. 2. Where did Santhals live?
Ans: Santhals lived in the south part of Bhagalpur of Bihar in India. This region spreads up to Orissa from Hazari Bagh.
Q. 3. Who were Mundas?
Ans: Mundas were of a caste who used to clean the forests.
Q. 4. Who was the leader of Mundas revolt?
Ans: Birsa Munda was the leader of Mundas revolt.
Q. 5. What was the result of Mundas revolt?
Ans: The Munda leader defeated in the battle. So he was sent to jail where he died.
Q. 6. What was the period of Jaintia- Garo revolt?
Ans: The Jaintia-Garo revolt continued from 1860 A.D. to 1870 A.D.
Q. 7. Give the name of leader of Jaintia-Garo revolt.
Ans: Kigang Nang ban” was the leader of Jaintia-Garo revolt.
Q. 8. Write the name of the leader of Garoes.
Ans: Tosang Sangma was the leader of Garos who was defeated by the English army.
Q. 9. Where did Bhils live?
Ans: Mostly Bhils lived in Khandesh which is recently called Maharashtra and Gujarat.
Q. 10. In which year British ruled Khan?
Ans: In 1818 British ruled Khan country.
Q. 11. Where did Kol people live?
Ans: Kol people lived in Singhbhum in the Chota Nagpur plateau area.
Q. 12. Who were Mappilas?
Ans: Mappilas were landless people who worked on land on daily wages.
Q. 13. Who was the leader of Faray ji movement?
Ans: Sharaytullah Khan and Dadu did the leadership of Faray ji movement.
Q. 14. What was the aim of Faray ji movement?
Ans: The main aim of Faray ji movement was to oppose the taxes imposed by the British Government.
Q. 15. Who was the leader of Bahavi movement ?
Ans: The leaders of Bahavi movement was Abdul Bahav of Arab country who was country influenced by the teachings of saint Shah Waliullah of Delhi.