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NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 6 Religious and Social Awakening in Colonial India
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Religious and Social Awakening in Colonial India
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS WITH THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 6.1
Q. 1. List any two social practices against which the reforms movement began.
Ans: Sati, caste system, child marriage, plight of widows.
Q. 2. Why the caste system was considered irrational and unscientific?
Ans: It is because it was against the basic tenets of humanity.
Q. 3. What was the basis of the reformers criticism of rigidity in religions?
Ans: Courage, determination, motivation. and a vision to achieve goals.
Q. 4. Read the excerpt below and answer the given questions:
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar belonged to a poor Mahar family considered an untouchable caste. He had his college education in India and later earned degrees and doctorates for his study and research from Columbia University and the London School of Economics. Dr. Ambedkar was the chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution. Despite facing social and financial hardship Dr. Ambedkar spent his whole life fighting against social discrimination and was awarded the Bharat Ratna posthumously in 1990.
1. In addition to education which other attributes (qualities) enabled Dr. Ambedkar to withstand the discrimination and contribute to the society.
Ans: They found that the scriptures do not sanction rigidity and superstitions.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 6.2
Q. 1. Fill in the blanks with correct answer:
(i) He did not represent the Synthesis of the thought of East and West.
(a) Swami Vivekananda
(b) Rammohan Roy
(c) Dayanand Saraswati
(d) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
Ans: (c) Dayanand Saraswati.
(ii) He did not emphasize the infallibility of the Vedas.
(a) Swami Vivekananda
(b) Ramakrishna Paramhansa
(c) Dayanand Saraswati
(d) Syed Ahmed Khan.
Ans: (d) Syed Ahmed Khan.
(iii) The movement started to free the sacred places from the control and domination of corrupt Mahants.
(a) Akali Movement
(b) Caste reform movement
(c) Shuddhi Movement
(d) Satyagraha movement.
Ans: (a) Akali Movement.
Q. 2. Match the following:
|(i) Brahmo Samaj||(a) Swami Vivekanand|
|(ii) Arya Samaj||(b) Annie Besant|
|(iii) Ramakrishna Mission||(c) Swami Dayananda Saraswati|
|(iv) Theosophical Society||(d) Jyotiba Phule|
|(v) Akali Movement||(e) Pandita Rama Bai|
|(vi) Satya Shodhak Samaj||(f) Raja Ram Mohan Rai|
|(vii) Aligarh Movement||(g) Sikhs|
|(viii) Arya Mahila Samaj||(h) Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade|
|(i) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan|
|(j) Dadabhai Naoroji|
|(i) Brahmo Samaj||(f) Raja Ram Mohan Rai|
|(ii) Arya Samaj||(c) Swami Dayananda Saraswati|
|(iii) Ramakrishna Mission||(a) Swami Vivekanand|
|(iv) Theosophical Society||(b) Annie Besant|
|(v) Akali Movement||(g) Sikhs|
|(vi) Satya Shodhak Samaj||(d) Jyotiba Phule|
|(vii) Aligarh Movement||(i) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan|
|(viii) Arya Mahila Samaj||(e) Pandita Rama Bai|
Q. 3. Write any two limitations of the reform movements.
Ans: (a) These affected very small percentage of the population mostly the educated class.
(b) They did not reach the masses.
Q. 4. Read the excerpt below and answer the given questions:
Ramwati is working as a peon in NIOS office. She got married at the age of 21 but unfortunately her husband passed away when she was 28. She was offer her husband’s job at NIOS because she had completed her secondary school education. With this job Ramvati is not able to look after her children and herself. She leads a signified life and her children are proud of their mother.
(a) What could have happened if Ramvati had got married as a child?
(b) If Ramvati was not allowed to work. outside home, what could have happened to her and her family?
Ans. (a) She would have been illiterate would have been married at an early age, would have many children and possibly had been suffering to ill health as a result of child birth at a very early age. She would probably have been dependent on her parents or in- laws for her survival.
(b) She would be dependent on other resulting in low socio-economic status.
Q. 1. Explain the social practices that existed in 19th century India.
Ans: The Indian society of 2012 is very different from the one in the first half of the 19th century. Two major social causes prevented the society’s progress.
(1) Lack of education.
(2) Subordination of women.
1. Lack of Education: Major part of the society was illiterate. Few persons of the society were rich. They were literate. The high class of society was literate. Brahmins could understand Sanskrit. They had dominance over religious Granths. Brahmins interpreted the customs after death, birth and other rituals of life. So they used to tell the public about the belief of a better life after death and collected too much money, gold etc. In the same way in Europe Bible was written in Greek language. The only Father/Pope could read and explain the Bible.
2. Subordination of Women: In that time the condition of girls and women was very pitiable. They did not have any opportunity to go to school for education. Certain social practices like female infanticide, child marriage, sati pratha and polygamy were prevalent in some sections of Indian society. The women had a subordinate position in the society. The fear of the invader and loss of family honor was major concern.
Q. 2. Why do you think reforms were needed to awaken our society?
Ans: There were some rituals and orthodox which were the hurdles before our society not to progress, There were many reasons that led to the awakening of the people against discrimination and inequality. Reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Jyotiba Phule, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Pandita Rama Bai, etc. understood that ignorance and backwardness in the society was responsible for hindering its progress and development.
Q. 3. Why do you think that the social reform movements had no meaning without religious reforms?
Ans: Our Indian society was innocent and had blind faith on religious customs. The reformers could understand that our society cannot progress until and unless they would not be reformed. This realization was reinforced when they came in contact with the Europeans and found that life was very different in other parts of the world. British missionaries started spreading Christianity. The reformers questioned and now they over ready to face challenges as well as resistance from the orthodox Indians. They thought that the social reform movements had no meaning without religious reforms.
Q. 4. Do you think the reformers were able to bring change in the Indian society?
Ans: Yes, the reformers could be able to bring changes indirectly in the Indian society. They preached the different groups of sections of society and provoked the people for equality. Some reformers compelled the government to make laws for such change.
Article 14 of the Constitution states that, it shall not discriminate against any citizen on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them. This constitutional provision has facilitated the participation of the marginalized section in the social political and economic development of the country.
Q. 5. How did the socio-religious reform movements lead to the National movement?
Ans: Only by the spread of modern and scientific education especially among the women. These movements came to be called socio-religious movement because the reformers felt that no changes is possible in a society without reforming the religion.
Most of the social practices were done in the name of religion. Social reforms had no meaning without religious reforms. Our reformers knew the tradition and philosophy of Indians. They were able to blend positive Indian values with western ideas and the principles of democracy and equality. On the basis of understanding they challenged the rigidity and superstition practices in religion.
Q. 6. Explain the role of following reformers in challenging caste system and advocating widow remarriage.
(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
(b) Ishwar Chandra Vidya Sagar.
(c) Jyotiba Phule.
Ans: (a) Role of Raja Ram Mohan Roy: He was born in a Bengali family. He knew several languages and had read Quran, Bible and the New Testament along with the Hindu scriptures in great depth. When his brother died, his widow was compelled to commit Sati. He was determined to uproot this social practice. This led him to challenge other unfair social and religious practices prevalent at that time. He founded Brahmo Samaj in 1828. He was the first person to take an initiative to challenge the practice of Sati and it soon became his life long crusade. His efforts were supported by the then Governor General of India, Sir William Bentinck. A law was passed in 1829 making Sati illegal and punishable and advocated remarriage of widow and condemned child marriage.
(b) Ishwar Chandra Vidya Sagar: He dedicated his entire life to the cause of social reforms. The first Hindu Widow Remarriage Act was introduced in 1856 owing to his relentless efforts. He also protested against child marriage and campaigned against polygamy.
(c) Jyotirao Govindrao Phule: He worked to attain equal rights for peasants and the lower caste. In August 1848 he took up the cause of women and started a girl school in Poona (Pune) in 1851. In September 1873 Jyotirao along with his followers formed the Satya Shodhak Samaj with the main objective of liberating the lower castes and protecting them from exploitation and atrocities.
Q. 7. Identify the common features amongst the following reformers:
(a) Theosophical Society and Rama Krishna Mission.
(b) Akali Movement and Arya Samaj.
Ans: (a) Theosophical Society and Rama Krishna Mission: Both gave importance to believe in one God though they believed that the different religions of the world are only different ways. Both have the same view that the person should have faith in themselves. That faith calls out the divinity within.
(b) Akali Movement and Arya Samaj: The main aim of both the movements was to awaken self belief in the heart of each person. Akali movement started religious reform movement. Government passed a new ordinance of Gurudwara in 1925 which was against the Mahants. With the aid of this act and by direct action, they freed the sacred places from the control and domination of corrupt Mahants. Both Akali Movement and Arya Samaj tried to create self confidence in the Sikhs as well as in other people.
Q. 8. Explain the hindrances in the growth of women’s education in the 19th century India.
Ans: In the 19th century in India the girls were not allowed to go to school for education. Education was given mainly in traditional schools, Madrasa, mosques and Gurukuls. Many blind beliefs were in existence in the society. Some sections of the society did not permit girls to take education. It was presumed that the educated girls would be widow soon but in real sense the lack of education and awareness were the not causes of socio-religious backwardness in Indians. Therefore education should be promoted.
Q. 9. Who introduced English education among the Muslims? Explain his/her contribution in this area.
Ans: Abdul Latif in 1863 founded the Mohammedan Literacy Society of Calcutta. His main aim was to enhance the education in Muslims and promoted modern education among the upper and middle class Muslims and to promote Hindu-Muslim unity. There were several other socio-religious movements which helped the national awakening of the Muslims. Mirza Ghulam Ahmed had founded the Ahmadiyya Movement in 1899. A number of schools and colleges were opened in that movement. They favored the unity among Hindus and Muslims.
Q. 10. Study the map carefully and answer the questions that follow:
(a) Name the places where Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Prarthna Samaj and MAO College became popular.
(b) Name the social reformers who were active in Western India and also mark the places where they were active.
|(a) (i) Brahmo Samaj||Bengal|
|(ii) Arya Samaj||North-West India|
|(iii) Prarthana Samaj||Maharashtra|
|(iv) MAO College||Aligarh (U.P.)|
|(b) (i) Mahadev Gobind Ranade||Bombay|
|(ii) Pandita Ramabai||Maharashtra|
|(iii) Jyotiba Phule||Pune (Maharashtra)|
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Each questions has four possible answers. Choose only one appropriate answer and mark (✔) on it.
1. Satyarath Prakash book was written by:
(a) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
(b) Swami Vivekanand
(c) Ram Krishna Paramhansa
(d) Annie Besant
Ans: (a) Swami Dayanand Saraswati.
2. The founder of Aligarh Muslim University was:
(a) Joytirao Gobindrao Phule
(b) Mahadev Gobind Ranade
(c) Pandita Ramabai
(d) Sir Syad Ahmed Khan
Ans: (d) Sir Syad Ahmed Khan.
3. The founder of Satya Sodhak Samaj was:
(a) Justice Mahadev Gobind Ranade
(b) Jyotirao Gobind Rao Phule
(c) Annie Basant
(d) Mohammad Iqbal
Ans: (b) Jyotirao Gobind Rao Phule.
4. The founder of Rehnumai Mazdayasan Sabha was:
(a) Dada Bhai Naoroji
(b) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
(c) Jyotirao Gobindrao Phule
(d) Annie Besant
Ans: (a) Dada Bhai Naoroji
5. Who was the writer of ‘Sare Jahan Se Achcha Hindustan Hamara’ song?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Mohammad Iqbal
(c) Subhash Chandra Bose
(d) Jawahar Lal Nehru
Ans: (b) Mohammad Iqbal.
6. When did a new Gurdwara Act pass by the government?
Ans: (d) 1925.
7. Who was the founder of ‘Arya Mahila Samaj’?
(a) Swami Vivekanand
(b) Swami Dayanand
(c) Pandita Ramabai
(d) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Ans: (c) Pandita Ramabai.
8. Who started Akali Movement?
(a) Guru Gobind Singh
(b) Guru Nanak
(c) Sikh Community
(d) Guru Teg Bahadur
Ans: (c) Sikh Community.
9. The founder of Ram Krishna Mission was:
(a) Ram Krishna Paramhansa
(b) Swami Vivekanand
(c) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
(d) Pandita Rama Bai
Ans: (b) Swami Vivekanand.
10. Who was at the highest post of Theosophical Society?
(a) Jyotiba Phule
(b) Pandita Rama bai
(c) Annie Besant
(d) Dada Bhai Naoroji
Ans: (c) Annie Besant.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Write the name of any two blind faith system of Indian society which are still continuing even today.
Ans: The blind faith systems still continuing in Indian society even today are:
(ii) Child abuse.
(ii) Female embryo abortion.
Q. 2. Why was Mohammad Iqbal famous?
Ans: Mohammad Iqbal was the greatest poet of modern India. He wrote a famous National Song “Sare Jahaan Se Achcha Hindustan Hamara”.
Q. 3. Explain the wordings given in Article 14 of the Constitution.
Ans: Article 14 of the Constitution states that, “It shall not discriminate against any citizen on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them,” This constitutional provision has facilitated the participation of the marginalized in the social, political and economic development of the country.
Q. 4. What do you understand by child embryo abortion?
Ans: The pregnant lady if miscarriages the developing embryo of her womb, this process is called child embryo abortion.
Q. 5. What do you mean by child sex ratio?
Ans: The number of girls per 1000 boys in the 0-6 years age group. In India the ratio has shown a sharp decline from 976 girls to 1000 boys in 1961 to 914 girls to 1000 boys per the 2011 census. As per global terms the normal child sex ratio should be above 950.
Q. 6. According to the census 2011 which state of India has maximum sex link ratio?
Ans: According to the census 2011, the maximum sex linked ratio is in Kerala where there are 1084 girls after 1000 boys.
Q. 8. What was the main reason for the backwardness of Indian society in 19th century?
Ans: In the 19th century two major social causes prevented the society’s progress. These were lack of education and subordination of women. Many sections of the Indian society were rigid and followed certain practices which were not in keeping with humanitarian values.
Q. 9. The law was made in 1872 to which was it related?
Ans: In India a law passed in 1872 sanctioned intercast and intercommunal marriage. Marriageable age of girls was raised to ten by a law passed in 1860.
Q. 10. What was Sharda Act ‘which was passed in 1929 ?
Ans: In 1929 Sharda Act was passed to prevent child marriage. According to it a girl below 14 and a boy below 18 cannot be married.
Q. 11. In which years a new Gurdwara Act was passed?
Ans: The Government of India passed a New Gurdwara Act in 1925.
Q. 12. Who was the chairman of Constitution Framing Committee?
Ans: Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar was the Chairman of Indian Constitution framing committee.