NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 4 Modern World – II

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NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 4 Modern World – II

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Modern World – II

Chapter: 4




Q. 1. Which two natural resources played an important role in bringing the Industrial Revolution in England? 

Ans: Two natural resources which played an important role in bringing the industrial revolution in England were:

(i) Coal. and 

(ii) Iron

Q. 2. How did the development of means of transport and communication assisted the merchants?

Ans: They assisted the merchants by providing or bringing various kinds of raw materials from far of places very quickly and speeding up their business transactions.

Q. 3. What were the reasons to employ children in coal mines and factories? 

Ans: (i) The small size of the children helped them move better in small and narrow size coal mines.

(ii) They had to pay low wages as compared to elder age. 

Q. 4. Match the columns:

(a) James Watt

(b) Samuel Crompton

(c) Henry Court 

(d) Michael Faraday

(i) Iron Industry 

(ii) Electric Motor

(iii) Steam Engine

(iv) Spinning Jenny

(v) Spinning Mule

(vi) Flying Shuttle

Ans: (a) James Watt

(b) Samuel Crompton

(c) Henry Court 

(d) Michael Faraday

(i) Steam Engine

(v) Spinning Mule

(i) Iron Industry

(ii) Electric Motor


Q. 1. Define imperialism

Ans: Imperialism refers to a desire or tendency to acquire land or territory outside the boundary of the homeland.

Q. 2. Mention two advantages of growth of transportation for the spread of imperialism.

Ans: Two advantages of growth of transportation for the spread of imperialism were:

(i) Raw material and finished goods could be carried to and from colonies.

(ii) People and labourers to imperial country and from imperial country to the colonies could be carried whenever and where they were required.

Q. 3. What was Slave Trade?

Ans: The African people brought and imported to the European countries by big landlords or merchants to work on their plantations is known as slave trade.


Q. 1. Name at least four Balkan States.

Ans: The four Balkan States were:

(i) Serbia

(ii) Montenegro

(iii) Romania

(iv) Greece

Q. 2. Which countries formed the Triple Alliance?

Ans: Triple Alliance was formed by Germany, Austria and Italy.

Q. 3. Give at least three causes of World War-I.

Ans: Causes of World War-I.

(i) Imperialist rivalry for colonies began with the development of industrial process in Germany. As a result Germany too involved in acquiring more and more colonies like England and France.

(ii) The system of alliances divided the world into two power blocks. 

(iii) People all over the world wanted to be independent from the colonial powers. 

Q. 4. Name two countries which adopted dictatorial government after 1920.

Ans: The two countries which adopted dictatorial government after 1920 were- Germany and Italy.

Q. 5. What was the main cause of the Great Depression of 1929?

Ans: Main causes of the Great Depression:

(i) Over production.

(ii) Downfall in prices and fall in share market.

(iii) Collapse of banks.

Q. 6. When and where was the UN was formally constituted? 

Ans: On 24th October 1945 at San Francisco, USA.


Q. 1. How the inventions in the textile industry revolutionized the production of cotton cloth?

Ans: The inventions in the textile industry speeded up the processing and production of cotton cloth. Now the cotton cloth began to be woven at faster speed then earlier. The machine made cotton clothes were also much better quality and in design than hand woven cotton cloth.

Q. 2. What were the various factors- political, economic, geographical and technological-which contributed to industrialization in England?

Ans: Political condition of England helped in the growth of industrialization. British policy of mercantilism was based on the theory of national strength indicated by more exports and less imports.

Many new technological inventions also took place in the field of agriculture and industries which booted up the process of industrialization.

Q. 3. State both advantages and disadvantages in the society with the coming of the Industrial Revolution.

Ans: Advantages:

(i) Life of the people became luxurious.

(ii) Goods become to available easily.

(iii) Employment opportunity encourages.


(i) The labour began to exploited. Now they had to work at least 10-14 hours per day. 

(ii) Women and children began to be employed in factory at very low wages.

Q. 4. Why did the industrialized countries started fighting amongst themselves for the control of the areas where Industrial Revolution had not take place?

Ans: It was because they wanted to consume their readymade goods and wanted to gain economic profit.

Q. 5. What made Japan join the race for colonies?

Ans: Japan had made a formidable, industrial and military nation by the 1905 under the slogan ‘Enrich the country’. This made Japan to join the race for colonies along with other European nations.

Q. 6. Mention both positive and negative effects of imperialism on colonies.

Ans: Positive Impacts:

(i) The imperialistic countries introduced means of transport and communication in their colonies.

(ii) It also led to the growth of political consciousness. 

(iii) It also led the development of modern education and science. 

Negative Points:

(i) Imperialist countries exploited the natural resources of their colonies.

(ii) Colonial people were badly treated. and considered unequal to their masters. 

(iii) Imperialistic country drained out the both African and Asian countries.

Q. 7. Examine the course of events during Second World War. 

Ans: Course of events which lead to World War-II were:

1. Unjust Treaty of Versailles: The Treaty of Versailles, which was concluded at the end of the First World War was very unjust. That treatment meted out to Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey was revengeful. Therefore, it was resented by Germany and her allies.

2. Rise of the Fascist Powers: Rise of Fascist powers in Germany, Italy and Japan was also responsible for the Second World War. The Nazis in Germany and the Fascists in Italy loved war and thought it to be the best means of their progress. So, they adopted an aggressive policy which led to Second World War.

3. Insult of Germany: Soon after World War Ist, France humiliated Germany at every step. So, Germany wanted to pay her the same coin.

4. Policy of Appeasement: The Western powers adopted a policy of appeasement towards Germany, Japan and Italy, It encouraged them to adopt war like tendencies. Had they been checked in time, there would have been perhaps no Second World War.

5. Italian Invasion of Ethiopia: Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1939 increased tension among European countries.

6. German Occupation of Austria and Czechoslovakia: German occupation of Austria in 1938 and that of Czechoslovakia in 1939 made the Second World War inevitable.

7. German invasion of Poland: German invasion of Poland in 1939 forced both England and France to give up the policy of appeasement. They were compelled to declare war against Germany on September 3, 1939. It was the start of the Second World War.

Q. 8. What were the main objectives of League of Nations? 

Ans: Main Objectives of the League of Nations:

(i) To maintain peace and security.

(ii) To prevent war anywhere in future. 

(iii) To settle international dispute peacefully.

(iv) To promote international cooperation.

Q. 9. Mark the following places on the given outline map of the world: 

(a) Any two colonies each of Britain and


(b) The Triple Allies and the Triple Entente of World War I. 

(c) The Allies and the Axis Powers of World War II.

Ans. Self Activity.



1. Where was industrialization took place fast in the world?

(a) England

(b) Russia

(c) France

(d) Germany

Ans: (a) England.

2. Who invented Steam Engine?

(a) James Mills

(b) James Watt

(c) Samuel

(d) Crompton

Ans: (b) James Watt.

3. When was steam engine invented?

(a) 1733

(b) 1789

(c) 1769

(d) 1735

Ans: (c) 1769.

4. Who was the inventor of Flying Shuttle? 

(a) John Khamba 

(b) John William

(c) John Thomson

(d) John Kays

Ans: (d) John Kays.

5. By whom was Spinning Jenny invented?

(a) James Martin

(b) James Luther

(c) James Hamilton

(d) James Hargreaves 

Ans: (d) James Hargreaves.

6. Who is known as “the father of the factory system?”

(a) John Arkwright 

(b) Samuel Crompton

(c) John William

(d) None of them 

Ans: (a) John Arkwright.

7. Who invented Drilling Machine?

(a) John Arkwright 

(b) John Wilkinson

(c) John Kay

(d) John William 

Ans: (b) John Wilkinson.

8. Which of the following is Known as ‘Dark Continent’ ? 

(a) Europe

(c) North America

(b) Asia

(d) Africa

Ans: (d) Africa.

9. When was Ethiopia was taken over by Italy? 

(a) 1935

(b) 1905

(c) 1940

(d) 1919

Ans: (a) 1935.

10. When did Meiji Restoration begin in Japan?

(a) 1878

(b) 1868

(c) 1818

(d) 1905

Ans: (b) 1868.

11. In which of the following years Bank of Japan was founded?

(a) 1877 

(b) 1905

(c) 1876

(d) 1925

Ans: (a) 1877.

12. When was ‘Russo-Japanese’ war fought?

(a) 1905

(b) 1903)

(c) 1907

(d) 1907

Ans: (a) 1905

13. Which of the States consist of Balkan region? 

(a) Greece

(b) Romania and Serbia

(c) Bulgaria

(d) All of these

Ans: (d) All of these.

14. Germany declared war on Russia in _________1914.

(a) 13 September

(b) 18th May 

(c) 3 August

(d) 15th August 

Ans: (c) 3 August.

15. When did USA decide to join First World War?

(a) 1916

(b) 1917

(c) 1915

(d) 1919

Ans: (b) 1917

16. Which treaties separate Hungary from Austria?

(a) St. Germain Treaty

(b) Treaty of Versailles

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of these

Ans: (a) St. Germain Treaty.

17. When was League of Nations set up? 

(a) 1920

(b) 1919

(c) 1914

(d) 1940

Ans: (a) 1920

18. Where was UNO founded? 

(a) St. Halina 

(b) San Francisco

(c) New York 

(d) New Jersey

Ans: (b) San Francisco.


Q. 1. Write any two features of Imperialism.

Ans: Two features of imperialism.

(i) It uses the economic resources of other countries i.e. colonel countries.

(ii) It establish their dominance over the trade of their colonies. 

(iii) It tries to maintain peace and establish stable government in their colonies or occupied lands. (Any two)

Q. 2. Explain, how did Industrial Revolution led to the emergence of imperialism.

Ans: Due to industrial revolution there was much increase in the production in European countries. For the extra consumption of the production there was need for the new markets and these markets were in the countries of Asia and Africa as there was lack of industries.

Q. 3. What is the meaning of Dollar Diplomacy?

Ans: It means that the USA can intervene in the internal affairs of any country of the western hemisphere if her economic interest are jeopardized. In Mexico a popular leader like Francisco Madero was simply deposed with the help of United States because he could not guarantee the safety of huge investments that the United States had made in the country.

Q. 4. What were the adverse effects of opium trade on China in the 19th century?

Ans: (i) This trade was illegal and profitable to the British traders. 

(ii) It did much physical and moral damage to China.

(iii) It badly effect Chinese economy.

Q. 5. Write any two conditions that favored the spread of imperialism in Asia and Africa.

Ans: (i) As a result of Industrial Revolution the European countries produced goods so much and that too so rapidly they required markets for their surplus goods.

(ii) In order to run their factories the owners were forced to explore new territories for different raw materials.

Q. 6. What is meant by ‘Boxer Rebellion’? 

Ans: The scramble for privileges stopped in China after an uprising against the foreign powers is known as the Boxer Rebellion.

Q. 7. Write any two immediate effects of Boxer Rebellion on China.

Ans: (i) The foreign powers gained victory in Boxer Rebellion and levied heavy damages on China as punishment.

(ii) Imperialism continued with the co- operation of Chinese war lords. 

Q. 8. Describe any two methods used for colonial domination by the imperialist countries.

Ans: (1) The explorers made the Europeans interested in African countries. 

(2) The Christian Missionaries dedicated to spread Christianity, also played their part in the spread of imperialism.

Q. 9. Mention two important effects of imperialism on Africa in the 19th century.

Ans: (1) Economic Exploitation: The imperialist countries greatly exploited the economy of the occupied countries in Africa. They bought raw materials from these countries at very cheap rates and sold their own manufactured goods at higher rates.

(2) Racial Discrimination: As the Europeans belonged to the victorious countries they regarded themselves superior to the Asian and the African people. As such, they hated and kept aloof from the inferior races of these countries. They would not allow them to enter their hotels and clubs and even forbade them to live near the European localities.

Q. 10. Who were the Boers and in which part of Africa they were settled?

Ans: The Boers were Dutch settlers who had settled in the southern parts of Africa in the early 19th century and had taken to farming.

Q. 11. Which two factors helped Japan to become an imperialist power.

Ans: 1. As a result of Meiji Restoration, Japan began to modernize her industries and soon became one of the most industrialized countries of the world.

2. Japan was in need of raw materials to support her industries. So Japan looked for lands which had raw materials. China, was very close to Japan and provided ample opportunities for her imperial desires.

Q. 12. What is meant by the term New Imperialism’?

Ans:  The second phase of imperialism that began the last decade of the 19th century and continued till the World War First is termed as “new imperialism”. The imperialist nations belonging to this phase of imperialism were Britain, Germany, Italy, France, Japan, USA etc. 

Q. 13. What made imperialist countries invest their capital in Asia and Africa toward the end of 19th century?

Ans: The two reasons that made the imperialist countries made their surplus capital in Asia and Africa were as below: 

(i) The abundant raw material to purchase at cheap rates.

(ii) The availability of cheap labour. term

Q. 14. What is meant by the ‘Cutting of the Chinese Melon’?

Ans: ‘Cutting of the Chinese Melon’ means division of China into different spheres of influence. France, Germany, Britain, Japan, USA and Russia were the countries having the influence in the particular areas of China. This division is called Cutting of the Chinese Melon.’

Q. 15. What is meant by Meiji Restoration? (V. Imp.)

Ans: Japan was the only Asian country which rose to become an imperialist country. It had introduced a new change in 1867 known as the Meiji Restoration. After this change Japan began to modernize her economy. Soon she became one of the industrialized countries of the world. 

Q. 16. Give two reasons which forced Japan to adopt imperialistic policies. 

Ans: 1. Its industrialization demanded new markets for the sale of manufactured goods.

2. Its industries sought to obtain raw material.

Q. 17. What is meant by the Civilizing Mission?

Ans: By Civilizing Mission it is meant the task of making people civilized. The white: men, in the name of civilizing people in Africa, undertook the evil of slavery.

Q. 18. Describe any two advantages gained by Britain after its victory in the Opium War with China.

Ans: (i) The Chinese were forced to pay heavy damages to the British and to open five port cities to Britain traders. 

(ii) The Chinese government also agreed that in future, British subjects in these ports would be tried for any crimes in English courts rather than a Chinese court.

Q. 19. What led to the division of world into two groups before 1914?

Ans: As a result of the race for colonies and the division of Ottoman Empire, European countries fell into two groups. In 1882, Germany, Italy and Austria, formed Triple Alliance. After this in 1907, the England, France and Russia formed Triple Entente. Both the groups began to increase the military strength and developed deadly arms. Now it become clear that if any one of these groups involved in a way would lead to the world war.

Q. 20. “The World War First was to end all wars” Do you agree with this statement? 

Ans: It was believed that the First World War would be war to end all wars but whether it did bring an end to all wars is a debated question.

The peace treaties signed after the war sowed the seeds of the Second World War. The reasons behind that those treaties were harsh and one sided.

Q. 21. What led to the Civil War in Russia after Russian withdraw from the First World War?

Ans: (1) The Entente powers of which Russia had been a member were opposed to the Revolution.

(ii) These powers started an armed intervention in Russia, which resulted in a civil war.

Q. 22. Why did Germany enter late in race for colonies? How did it plan to control the economy of the Ottoman Turkish Empire?

Ans: Germany entered late in the race for colonies because it united and became a nation state later than other imperialist powers. Germany planned to control the economy of the Ottoman Turkish Empire by constructing a railway line from Berlin to Baghdad. 

Q. 23. What do you know about ‘Pan- Slav’ Movement?


Explain, the meaning of ‘Pan-Slav Movement. 

Ans: 1. This movement aimed at establishing a united slave state in the Balkans.

2. Russia started this movement to attracts all the Slavs of Eastern Europe to come together and form a separate Slav State, under the leadership of Serbia.

3. Russia hoped to increase its influence in the Balkans by this movement, with the active support of Serbia.

Q. 24. Name the new type of warfare developed in the First World War. How was this different from the earlier wars? (V. Imp.)

Ans: 1. Trench warfare was the new type of warfare developed in the First World War.

2. Earlier armies fought face to face in open battle fields.

Q. 25. Describe the immediate cause and the basic cause of the First World War.

Ans: 1. The immediate cause of the First World War was the murder of the Austrian Prince Arch Duke Ferdinand or June 28, 1914.

2. The real and the basic cause of the First World War was the imperialistic rivalry among the European nations. Every nation wanted to capture more and more colonies.

Q. 26. What were the consequences of World War First on Austria-Hungary? 

Ans: Consequences of World War First on Austria- Hungary. 

(i) Austria-Hungary broken up and two new separate kingdoms-Austria and Hungary were set up.

(ii) Austria had to cede some of her territories to Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

(iii) Austria’s army was also reduced to 30,000 only. 

Q. 27. What were known as Axis Powers?


What is meant by the term ‘Axis Powers’?

Ans: During the Second World War, Germany, Italy and Japan entered in an alliance known as Axis Powers. These were far off countries but still, they got united to pursue a policy of aggression in Europe, Asia and Africa.

Q. 28. Explain the term ‘Fascism’. Where did it originate?

Ans: The word ‘Fascism’ is taken from the Italian word ‘Fascio’. It means a bundle of rods with an axe in it. It symbolized the power of united people and the authority of the state in all aspects of a national life.

Q. 29. Describe in short the ideology of Fascists.

Ans: Fascism was a method for gaining and retaining power by violence and gave importance to fighters spirit, military discipline, and a determined will to achieve any objective.

Fascists were against the individualism and wanted to establish a powerful state by the collective support of all the people.

Q. 30. Why did Fascism arose to power in Italy? Give two reasons.

Ans: Fascism arose to power in Italy because 

(i) Italian government was controlled by the capitalists and the landlords. They were afraid of the growing strength of socialism as it would have removed them from power. 

(ii) Italy’s ambitions of gaining colonies after the First World War not achieved and it could only fulfilled with the help of Fascist ideology which glorified war and expansion.

Q. 31. How did the Nazi exploit the economic crisis of 1929-1933 to their advantages?

Ans: Nazis exploit the crisis of 1929 to 1933 to their advantages as:

(i) They took advantage of the discontent of the people to get support for their anti democratic and expansionist programmes.

(ii) The unemployed youth were absorbed in the armed gangs of Hitler known as ‘Brown Shirts’.

Q. 32. When did Hitler formally announce his violation of the Treaty of Versailles? What reason did he give for this?

Ans: 1. Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles in March 1935. (V. Imp.)

Reasons: Hitler claimed that he was trying to make Germany equal in position to the other European powers. Since European nations had not followed the policy of disarmament, German rearmament was a necessity.

Q. 33. How did Germany become the supreme power in the European continent within a year of the outbreak of the Second World War? (V. Imp.)

Ans: 1. Germany became the supreme power in the European continent by a quick conquest of Poland, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Holland, Netherlands and finally France.

2. Lightning war tactics of Germany was the reason behind quick victories.

Q. 34. What serious mistake did 1 Hitler make when he attacked the Soviet Union, violating the Non- Aggression Pact? (Imp.)

Ans: 1. Hitler desired the vast territory and resources of the Soviet Union. 

2. He remained hostile to Bolshevism and wanted to end the power of the Soviet Union. 

Q. 35. When was Pearl Harbour attacked by Japan? State an important effect of this invasion.  (V. Imp.)

Ans: Japan attacked Pearl Harbour in Hawaii and severely damaging the American Pacific fleet, on December 7, 1941. 

As a result of this invasion USA lost twenty warships, 250 aircrafts and 300 soldiers.

In return, America declared war on Japan and joined the Allies.

Q. 36. Which battle of World War II turned the tide against the Axis Power?

Ans: The battle of Stalingrad (1941) turned the tide against the Axis powers during 2nd World War. The Allies prepared vast encircling operation that brought the Nazis their major defeats all over the world.


Q. 1. What were the main features of industrial Revolution (in England)? 

Ans: Main features of Industrial Revolution:

(i) Goods began to produce in the big factories and on a large scale.

(ii) Life of the labour became easier as they had to do less manual work.

(iii) Goods were available at cheaper rate. 

(iv) Agriculture, trade, communication and transportation also gained importance.

Q. 2. Discuss some useful inventions which helped the process of revolution in textile industries in England.

Ans: (i) Hargreaves invented the machine for faster spinning.

(ii) Arkwright made the same machine running with water. 

(iii) Crompton modified the same machine to make it more efficient.

(iv) Cartwright invented the powerloom. 

(v) Eli Whitney invented ‘Cotton Gin’ which made possible to separate the seeds from cotton three hundred time faster by than hand.

Q. 3. What do you know about Munro Doctrine?

Ans: Munro Doctrine was put forward by United States of America in 1823. According to this doctrine, European powers were warned against any attempt to extend their powers in the Western Hemisphere i.e., North America. When in 1904, Germany and Britain imposed a naval blockade of Venezuela because she could not repay the loan taken from them, the United States forced both Germany and Britain to lift the blockade and declared that only she had the right to intervene in the affairs of their neighboring countries in case of any default. 

Q. 4. Why did the peace treaties after the First World War fail to create conditions for stable peace? (Imp.)

Ans: 1. It has rightly been said that the peace treaties after the First World War failed to create conditions for the stable peace in the world. In fact the Treaty of Versailles that was concluded with Germany was unjust. This treaty was very disgracing for Germany. Her territories and colonies were taken away from her. It also had an adverse effect on her economy. So, as a result after taking the reign of Germany into his hands, Hitler tore this treaty into pieces.

2. Like Germany her allies such as Austria, Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria etc., were also treated harshly. So, this type of treatment resulted in another World War. 

Q. 5. Why did the USA join the First World War? 

Ans: 1. The United States of America joined the First World War in April 1917 on the side of the Allies,

2. The German U-boats were attacking on the American ships.

3. The American banks had advanced huge loans to the Allies. So they would no like to see the defeat of her allies.

4. Culturally USA was very close to Britain, the leader of the Allies.

Q. 6. Describe any four changes took place on the world map after the Work War First.

Ans: Following changes took place on the world map after the First World War: 

(i) Austria and Hungry became two separate nations. 

(ii) Poland, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia were recognized as independent states.

(iii) The Ottoman Empire was totally dismembered.

(iv) Mesopotamia was entrusted to Britain and Syria to France. 

(v) Alsace-Lorrain was returned to France.

Q. 7. When and by whom was the Anti-Comintern pact signed? What were its aims?

Ans: The Anti-Comintern Pact was signed in 1937. It was signed between Germany, Italy and Japan.


(i) It was signed to check the spread of communism in the world. 

(ii) It directed against the propagation of communism by Russia. 

(iii) It also aims to follow an aggressive policy for the expansion of territories. 

Q. 8. What were the features of the relationship between an imperialist country and its colony in the 19th century?

Ans: Relationship between the imperialist country and its colony in the 19th century:

1. Loss of independence of the colony: The different imperialist countries by hooks or by crooks cast a spell of slavery wherever they went. Thus, many Asian and African countries lost their independence.

2. Economic exploitation of the colonies: The Imperialist countries drained the wealth of their colonies by all possible fair or foul means.

3. Racial discrimination: The imperialists countries regarded themselves of superior race and regarded the people of their colonies far inferior to them.
4. Divide and Rule Policy: They set one community against the other thereby damaging the age old fraternity of the people.

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