NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Ancient World

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NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Ancient World

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Ancient World, NIOS Secondary Course Social Science Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Ancient World

Chapter: 1




Q. 1. Fill in the blanks:

(a) Society in Bronze Age civilization was divided into ____________.

Ans: Classes.

(b) ____________ seems to be the most important cause of the decline of Harappa Civilization. 

Ans:  Natural calamities.

(c) The Harappan people had overseas trade with ____________.

Ans: Mesopotamia.

Q. 2. Which was the first metal used by human beings? 

Ans: The first metal used by human being was copper.

Q. 3. Name the rivers between which the Mesopotamian civilization was founded.

Ans: The Mesopotamian civilization was founded between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates.

Q. 4. Name the ancient Egyptian script.

Ans: The Ancient Egyptian script was Hieroglyphics.

Q. 5. Name at least four sites of Harappan Civilization situated in India. 

Ans: Four sites of Harappan Civilization situated in India are:

(i) Lothal

(ii) Dholavira

(iii) Kalibangan

(iv) Banawali


Q. 1. Name the three spheres where the impact of iron implements were felt most.

Ans: The three spheres where the impact of iron implements were felt most were:

(i) Agriculture

(ii) Warfare

(iii) Means of Transportation.

Q. 2. Name two important city states in Greece. 

Ans: Two important city states in Greece were:

(i) Sparata

(ii) Anthens

Q. 3. Name the river on which the city of Rome is situated.

Ans: The city of Rome is situated on river Tiber.

Q. 4. Complete the sentences below: 

(a) Constantinople was the capital of the ____________.

Ans: Byzantine Empire.

(b) The Persian King who united Persians was ____________.

Ans: Cyrus.

(c) The Indo-Aryans and the early Persians worshiped the ____________.

Ans: Forces of Nature.


Q. 1. What were the main occupations of people in Later Vedic Period?

Ans: The main occupations of the people in Later Vedic Period were art and craft and agriculture

Q. 2. Which religions did Ashoka embrace after the Kalinga War? 

Ans: Ashoka embraced Buddhism after the Kalinga War.

Q. 3. Name at least four great centers of learning in Ancient India.

Ans: Four great centers of learning in Ancient India were:

(a) Nalanda

(b) Vallabhi

(c) Taxila

(d) Kashi

Q. 4. Name two great physicians of Ancient India.

Ans: Two Great physicians of Ancient India were:

(i) Charaka

(ii) Sushruta 

Q. 5. Fill in the blanks:

(a) The Tamil work Tolkappiyam belonged to the ____________.

Ans: Sangam Age.

(b) ____________ was the capital of the Pandyas

Ans: Madurai. 

(c) Kanishka belonged to the ____________ Dynasty.

Ans: Kushana.


Q. 1. How did the Bronze Age mark a shift from the New Stone Age? 

Ans: The Bronze Age marked a shift from the New Stone Age, because during this age metals such as copper and bronze came to be widely used.

Q. 2. What were the important features of the Harappan Civilization? 

Ans: Some important features of the  Harappan Civilization were:

(i) It had an excellent skill in town planning.

(ii) It is known for its well developed drainage system.

(iii) India’s trade relation also flourished with contemporary civilizations. 

(iv) Agriculture, animal husbandry, trade and commerce, etc. also flourished.

(v) The people worshiped Lord Shiva (Pashupati) which is even worshiped today.

Q. 3. Discuss how did the discovery of iron bring radical changes in the lives of the people.

Ans: The discovery of Iron bring radical changes in the lives of people in following ways:

(i) With the discovery of iron tools and implements began to be used in agriculture. It help in increasing the agriculture yields many folds. 

(ii) It had great impact on the means of transportation. Iron rims and spokes being to use in wheel in order to make it stronger.

(iii) New weapons of iron changed to methods of warfare. 

Q. 4. Discuss the Roman society and economy during 5th century B.C.

Ans: Roman Society: The Roman way of life was known as Romanitas. The Roman society was comprised of there classes namely:

Patricians, plebeians and slaves. 

The Patricians were the owner of lands and pasture and advised the ruler in political matters, while the plebeians were the common people. They also paid taxes and served in the army. The plebeians who fails to pay the taxes were turned into slave. The aristocrate Roman society lived a luxury life.

Economy: Roman society was based on basically on slave labour and they (slaves) were trained for gladiator’s fight.

Q. 5. Describe social, religious and economic life of the Early Vedic People. 

Ans: Social Life:

(i) Most of the people lived in villages which was known as gram.

(ii) People lived in houses made up of wood, bamboo, straw and reeds.

(ii) Family was the primary unit of the society. The head of the family was called grihapati.

(iv) Society was divided into four classes, i.e., the Brahman, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas and the Shudras.

(v) People ate simple but nourishing foods.

(vi) People were fond of games and amusement.

Religious Life:

(i) People worshiped many gods and goddess. 

(ii) They worshiped / offered prayer in the open.

Economic Life:

(i) Agriculture was the main occupation. 

(ii) Domestication of animals was also done.

(iii) People were also engaged in trade and commerce activities. 

Q. 6. What is ‘Dhamma’ according to Ashoka? 

Ans: Dhamma’ is a Pali word which means Dharma. According to Ashoka, dhamma lay stress on high ideals of conduct in practical life to make men peaceful and virtuous.

Q. 7. Write a short note on India’s contribution to world civilization. 

Ans: Contribution of India to world civilization:

1. Adaptability: The greatest peculiarity of Indian culture lies in its timely adaptability according to the circumstances. This is the sole reason behind the ushering of changes in our philosophy, literature, art, science, architecture, society, customs, mode of eating and drinking from time to time. But the originality of Indianism remained intact.

2. Absorption: The Indian society adapt art, literature, philosophy and all the other exterior influences. This is the only reason why solidarity gets clearly reflected through diversity in India.

3. Religious tolerance: India gave Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism to the world. Secularism is the greatest gift of India to the world. The religions in India such as Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and the religion of the Parsis were woven together in a single thread of religious tolerance though they had various differences.

4. Astronomy: Varahmihir and Aryabhatta were the famous astronomers of this age. Aryabhatta discovered the causes of the solar eclipse and the lunar eclipse. He had made an inference about the circumstances of the earth too. Varahmihir had discovered that the moon revolves round the earth and the earth revolves round the Sun.

5. Science and Technology: Hard and rough steel was used in India for the first time. Many dyes were discovered with the help of chemistry.

6. Geography: We get the description of the Indian rivers, mountains and other natural regions in the Puranas. But we have never striven to know about the Geography of other countries.

7. Medicines: The Indians studied physiology in order to find remedy for many maladies of human bodies. We get a description of various types of medicines in Atharva-Veda. The famous physiologists like Charak and Sushrut have narrated the uses of herbs for the treatment of various people in their famous texts named as the Charaksamhita and the Sushrutsamhita.

The above facts reveal that India’s is remarkable contribution to the world civilization.

Q. 8. On the given outline map mark the following:

(i) Rivers: Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, Hwang Ho, Indus.

(ii) Places: Egypt, Greece, Rome, Iran, Nalanda.

Ans. Self activity.



Tick the correct option:

1. When did metal began to use?

(a) In Old Stone Age 

(b) At the end of Middle Stone Age

(c) At the end of New Stone Age 

(d) In the beginning of Old Stone Age

Ans: (c) At the end of New Stone Age.

2. Which is not a Vedic Age civilization?

(a) Mesopotamian

(b) Egyptian

(c) Vedic

(d) Chinese

Ans: (c) Vedic.

3. Which means of transport were used by Mesopotamians? 

(a) Carts

(b) Wagons 

(c) Boat and ships

(d) All of these

Ans: (d) All of these.

4. Mesopotamian script came to be known as:

(a) Cuneiform

(b) Pictographic

(c) Hieroglyphics

(d) None of these

Ans: (a) Cuneiform.

5. What is the meaning of Mesopotamia?

(a) Land between two mountains

(b) Land between two rivers 

(c) Land between two plateau regions

(d) An island.

Ans: (b) Land between two rivers.

6. Which of these civilizations is called ‘Gift of River Nile’?

(a) Chinese 

(b) Egyptian

(c) Indus Valley 

(d) Mesopotamian

Ans: (b) Egyptian.

7. Who was Pharaohs?

(a) Egyptian Kings 

(b) Chinese Rulers

(c) King of Mesopotamia 

(d) Queen of Egyptian Empire

Ans: (a) Egyptian Kings.

8. Where were great monuments of ancient world the Pyramids found?

(a) Mesopotamia

(b) Egypt

(c) Greece 

(d) China

Ans: (b) Egypt.

9. What name is given to Egyptian script?

(a) Hieroglyphic

(b) Cuneiform

(c) Pictographic

(d) Devanagari

Ans: (a) Hieroglyphic.

10. Who built China’s first cities?

(a) Ruler of Shang dynasty 

(b) Ruler of Chin dynasty

(c) Ruler of Han dynasty 

(d) Ruler of Zhou dynasty

Ans: (a) Ruler of Shang dynasty.

11. Who overthrew the Shang dynasty?

(a) Chin dynasty

(b) Han dynasty

(c) The Zhaus

(d) Both Chin and Han dynasty jointly overthrow the Shang dynasty.

Ans: (c) The Zhaus.

12. When was Chin rulers came to power?

(a) 231 CE

(b) 231 BC

(c) 220 CE

(d) 220 BC

Ans: (b) 231 BC.

13. After Chins, which dynasty came to power in China? 

(a) The Zhaus 

(b) The Han

(c) The Shangs 

(d) None of these 

Ans: (b) The Han.

14. Who introduced iron in China?

(a) The Shang rulers

(b) The Zhaus

(c) The Han rulers 

(d) The Chin rulers

Ans: (b) The Zhaus.

15. Who built the famous Great Wall of China?

(a) The Chin rulers

(b) The Shang rulers

(c) The Zhaus

(d) The Han rulers

Ans: (a) The Chin rulers.

16. The Chinese traders had contact with the west through the famous silk route, cross central Asia and Persia during ____________.

(a) The Zhaus

(b) Shang dynasty

(c) Chin dynasty

(d) Han dynasty

Ans: (c) Chin dynasty.

17. Which of the following Indus valley sites is not in India?

(a) Banawali 

(b) Dholavira

(c) Harappa

(d) Ropar

Ans: (c) Harappa.

18. Which pair is not correctly matched?

(a) Kalibangan-Rajasthan

(b) Rakhigarhi-Haryana

(c) Mohenjodaro -Western Punjab

(d) Lothal – Gujarat 

Ans: (c) Mohenjodaro -Western Punjab.

19. How was the society in Bronze Age Civilization divided?

(a) In two classes

(b) In four varnas

(c) In four caste group 

(d) In three classes

Ans: (d) In three classes.

20. When was Iron Age began?

(a) 3000 years ago

(b) 10,000 years ago

(c) 5,000 years ago

(d) In 2100 B.C.

Ans: (a) 3000 years ago.

21. Which of these civilization flourished during Iron Age ?

(a) Greek Civilization

(b) Roman Civilization

(c) Persian Civilization

(d) All of these

Ans: (d) All of these.

22. Athens enjoyed a ‘Golden Age’ under:

(a) Darius

(b) Xerxes

(c) Pericles 

(d) Augustus

Ans: (c) Pericles.

23. It is also known as birthplace of Western Civilization: 

(a) Ancient Greek Civilization

(b) Roman Civilization

(c) Egyptian Civilization 

(d) Persian Civilization

Ans: (a) Ancient Greek Civilization.

24. Which of these is not a great Greece philosopher?

(a) Plato 

(b) Voltaire

(c) Socrates

(d) Aristotle

Ans: (b) Voltaire.

25. Who is the author of ‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’?

(a) Aeschylus 

(b) Democritus

(c) Homer 

(d) Sophocles

Ans: (c) Homer.

26. Choose the correct combination.

(a) Historians ―  Herodotus and Thucydides.

(b) Dramatists ― Homer and Thucydides

(c) Philosopher ― Plato and Herodotus

(d) Scientists ― Archimedes and Sophocles 

Ans: (a) Historians ―  Herodotus and Thucydides.

27. Which of the following was not a Greek great scientists?

(a) Archimedes 

(b) Aeschylus

(c) Aristarchus 

(d) Democritus

Ans: (b) Aeschylus.

28. When did Romans set up a Republic in the city of Rome? 

(a) 510 BC

(b) 510 AD

(c) 776 BC

(d) 776 AD

Ans: (a) 510 BC.

29. Who ruled the Roman Republic?

(a) The King 

(b) The elders 

(c) The Senate 

(d) The democrats

Ans: (c) The Senate.

30. When did Rome began a leading power of Italy?

(a) 200 AD 

(b) 200 BC

(c) 770 AD

(d) 710 BC

Ans: (b) 200 BC.

31. Who belongs to the Roman Society?

(a) The Patricians

(b) The Plebeians

(c) The Slave

(d) All of these

Ans: (d) All of these.

32. When was caesar murdered?

(a) 44 BC 

(b) 44 AC

(c) 74 BC

(d) 74 AD

Ans: (a) 44 BC.

33. At its peak Roman Empire stretched from Mesopotamia in the east to Gaul and Britain in the

(a) West

(b) South 

(c) North 

(d) North-East

Ans: (a) West.

34. Aryans came to India around __________

(a) 1500 AD 

(b) 1500 BC

(c) 2100 BC 

(d) 1250 AD

Ans: (b) 1500 BC.

35. Holy script of Persians is called _________

(a) Zend-Avesta

(b) Cuneiform

(c) Hieroglyphic

(d) Pictographic

Ans: (a) Zend-Avesta.

36. Which of the following Veda was composed during early Vedic Period?

(a) Yajur Veda

(b) Sama Veda

(c) Atharva Veda 

(d) Rig Veda

Ans: (d) Rig Veda.

37. The commentaries on all the Vedas are called _________ 

(a) Brahmanas

(b) Aranyakas

(c) Upanishads 

(d) All of these

Ans: (d) All of these.

38. Which of one is the oldest Veda?

(a) The Yajur Veda

(b) The Rig Veda

(c) The Atharva Veda 

(d) The Sama Veda 

Ans: (b) The Rig Veda.

39. Which of the following is a powerful Mahajanapadas?

(a) Chedi

(b) Matsya

(c) Magadha 

(d) Assaka

Ans: (c) Magadha.

40. Where was Gautama Buddha born?

(a) Gandhara 

(b) Chedi

(c) Kosala 

(d) Lumbini

Ans: (d) Lumbini.

41. Mahatma Buddha died at the age of 80 years at __________

(a) Bodhgaya 

(b) Lumbini

(c) Kushinagar 

(d) Vaishali 

Ans: (c) Kushinagar.

42. Whose followers came to be known as ‘Jainas’?

(a) Lord Mahavira’s

(b) Gautam Buddha’s

(c) Rishabhanath’s 

(d) Parshvanath’s

Ans: (a) Lord Mahavira’s.

43. Who was 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism? 

(a) Vardhamana Mahavira

(b) Rishabhnath

(c) Parshvanath 

(d) None of them

Ans: (c) Parshvanath.

44. Who defeated the last ruler (king) of Nanda dynasty?

(a) Bimbisara 

(b) Chandragupta

(c) Ajatashatru 

(d) Ashoka

Ans: (b) Chandragupta.

45. When was Kalinga war fought?

(a) 260 BC 

(b) 273 BC

(c) 297 BC

(d) 260 AD

Ans: (a) 260 BC.

46. Which of the following Mauryan ruler embraced Jainism?

(a) Bimbisara 

(b) Ashoka

(c) Ajatashatru 

(d) Chandragupta

Ans: (d) Chandragupta.

47. Sangam Age is extended between

(a) 300 AD to 400 AD

(b) 1300 BC to 100 AD

(c) 300 BC to 200 AD

(d) 2500 BC to 1550 BC

Ans: (c) 300 BC to 200 AD.

48. Who was the most powerful ruler of Kushana Age?

(a) Vashishka

(b) Huvishka 

(c) Vasudeva 

(d) Kanishka

Ans: (d) Kanishka.

49. Who was the first ruler of Kushanas?

(a) Kanishka

(b) Kujula Kadphises

(c) Vima Kadphises

(d) Vasudeva

Ans: (b) Kujula Kadphises.

50. Who was the founder of Gupta Empire?

(a) Sri Gupta 

(b) Samudragupta

(c) Chandragupta

(d) Kumaragupta

Ans: (a) Sri Gupta.

51. Harshavardhana ruled over ___________

(a) Madurai

(c) Thanesar

(b) Avanti

(d) Hastinapur

Ans: (c) Thanesar.

52. Which of the following literature made great progress during Ancient India?

(a) Sanskrit 

(b) Pali

(c) Prakrit

(d) All of these

Ans: (d) All of these.


Q. 1. Name any four river valley civilisations of Ancient World.

Ans: Four river valley civilisations of the ancient world are:

(a) Mesopotamian Civilisation 

(b) Egyptian Civilisation

(c) Indus Valley Civilisation 

(d) Chinese Civilisation

Q. 2. Write any two features of Mesopotamian Civilisation.

Ans: (i) Agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Increased agriculture production enabled the growth of number of crafts.

(ii) People worshiped many gods and goddess.

Q. 3. Who were Pharaohs? Who build Pyramids and why?

Ans: The Egyptian kings were called or known as pharaohs. The pyramids were build by pharaohs to keep the mummified bodies of the dead kings (Pharaohs).

Q. 4. Write any two features of Chinese Civilisation during Shang dynasty.

Ans: (i) During the Shang dynasty writing system was developed in China. 

(ii) Craftspersons of this period were very expert in their field.

Q. 5. Who was Confuscius? On what ideology he laid emphasis?

Ans:  Confucius was a Chinese scholar and philosopher who laid emphasis on good ideology, respect to elders, loyalty to the family and obedience to laws of the state.

Q. 6. What major changes were brought by the discovery of agriculture? 

Ans: The discovery of agriculture brought major changes in human lifestyle. It led to adoption of a settled life by them. Humans began to practice agriculture and domesticate animals. Tools and weapons improved, villages came up.

Q. 7. How metal was discovered?

Ans: It is possible that one day they saw a stone or piece of some metal fell into fire. The stone melted leaving behind’ tiny beads of copper. Thus the discovery of metals began.

Q. 8. Write about Cuneiform script.

Ans: The Sumerians were the first to devise a script. This is knew as the Cuneiform script. This was in the form of pictographs- signs, symbols and pictures which denoted objects. Henry Rawlinson deciphered the Sumerian script.

Q. 9. Give the example of an ancient culture.

Ans: The examples of ancient cultures are Harappan, Chinese, Egyptian and Mesopotamian.

Q. 10. Archaeological evidence shows a plowed field in the Harappan cite of Kalibangan. What can be inferred from this about Indian culture? 

Ans: From this it can be inferred that Indian culture is continuous. 

Q. 11. Give two examples of people who come to India from outside and settled here.

Ans:  Some people who came to India from outside and settled here are the Kushanas, Shakas, Turks, Mughals, etc.

Q. 12. Why do we call Indian Culture as a composite one?

Ans: People of eight great religions of the world coexist here in an harmonious manner. Numerous styles of architecture, sculpture and paintings have developed here. Different styles of music and dance both folk and classical exist in the country. So also are numerous festivals and customs. This variety has lead to make the culture of the country to be composite one.

Q. 13. Why was the early Buddhist literature composed in Pali?

Ans: The early Buddhist literature was composed in Pali because it was the language of the common people at that time. 

Q. 14. In which language was the Sangam literature composed? Why is it so called?

Ans: The Sangam literature was composed in Tamil literature. Three big literary gatherings or Sangams were held in which many sages and poets presented their works. 

Q. 15. Give one evidence to show that the people of Indus Valley. Civilizations were experts in measurement and calculation. 

Ans: The systematic designs of buildings, the layout of towns, the straight streets crossing each other at right angles show that the people were experts in measurement and calculations.

Q. 16. What was the contribution of Aryabhatta to Mathematics?

Ans: Aryabhatta made valuable contributions. He invented Algebra and evolved the formula of calculating area of a circle. He also gave the rules of finding the square and cube roots.

Q. 17. Who communicated the knowledge of zero from India to Europe?

Ans: It was the Arabs who traded with India and came to know about the concept of zero. They communicated it to Europe where it became the basis of modern mathematics.

Q. 18. What kinds of surgery was performed by the ancient Indians? 

Ans: Ancient Indians performed surgery also when required. They were proficient in bone-setting. They were experts in repair of noses, ears and lips. Some kinds of plastic surgery was known by ancient Indians. In the early literature on Ayurveda, there are references of some complicated surgical operations. 

Q. 19. Why is the Pope considered the Holiest of the Holy by Catholics? 

Ans: The Pope is considered the Holiest of the Holy by Catholics because he is Lord Jesus’s representative on the earth.

Q. 20. What do we know from the archeological evidences of the Harappan civilisation?

Ans: The evidences show that the people had a good knowledge of mathematics. The systematic designs of buildings, the layout of towns, the straight streets crossing each other at right angles etc.

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