NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 8 Indian National Movement

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NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 8 Indian National Movement

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Indian National Movement

Chapter: 8




Q. 1. Explain three causes which led to national consciousness among Indians during the British regime.

Ans: The three causes which led to national consciousness among Indians during the British regime were as follows:

1. Anti-colonial movement.

2. political and administrative unity under British rule and 

3. Revival of ancient Indian Culture.

Q. 2. Why was British government interested in the formation of Indian National Congress in 1885? 

Ans: To give a safe and constitutional outlet to Indians so their anger would not develop into agitation against British.

Q. 3. What were the differences between the Moderates and the Radicals?

Ans: Moderates believed in petition and requesting the British Government to solve the grievances whereas radicals believed in organizing mass protests, criticizing government policies, boycotting foreign goods and use of Swadeshi goods. 

Q. 4. Why did the Indian leaders support the British during the First World War?

Ans: In the hope that the British Government would provide constitutional powers to the Indians after winning the war.

Q. 5. Why was the Khilafat movement started against British rule?

Ans: Because the division of Ottoman Empire and insult of Caliphate (Khalifa).


Q. 1. How was Satyagraha different from the other protests?

Ans: Satyagraha means a non-violent insistence for truth and justice. Other protests were violent and aggressive in nature.

Q. 2. Why was Simon Commission boycotted by Indians ? Give two reasons.

Ans: (i) The commission had no Indian members.

(ii) The commission was not in favour to grant Swaraj for Indians.

Q. 3. Why did Gandhi withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Ans: Outbreak of violence during the movement caused its suspension. 

Q. 4. How was the approach of revolutionaries different from the others?

Ans: They chose the path of armed movement against the Britishers. Others were not in favor of this.

Q. 5. What do you understand by ‘Purna Swaraj’? 

Ans: ‘Purna Swaraj’ means complete independence and sovereignty. 

Q. 6. How was communal divide in India promoted by the British? 

Ans: By promoting separate electorates for Muslims, Sikhs etc and encouraging Muslim league to raise communal demands.


Q. 1. Write two basic features of the Act of 1935.

Ans: Princely states and the British Provinces all had to come under All India Federation. It restricted the power of legislature i.e., no control over defence and foreign relations.

Q. 2. What was the demand of Muslim League?

Ans: Muslim League demanded a separate nation for Muslims i.e. Pakistan.

Q. 3. What led to the participation of Congress in the elections after 1935?

Ans: To gain constitutional powers and change the British laws Congress decided to participate in the elections.

Q. 4. Why were the Indian leaders concerned about the British presence in India during the Second World War?

Ans: Because the British in India could lead the Japanese invasion during Second World War.

Q. 5. What were the major causes the partition of India?

Ans: The communal divide, demand of Muslim League and lack of consensus between the political parties.


Q. 1. In the initial years of its existence, what types of demands were put by the Indian National Congress before the British Government?

Ans: British Government realized the aggressiveness in political field in Indians. This aggressiveness was against British. They (British officials) met with the Viceroy of that time and established Indian National Congress. Chandra Bannerji was the first President of it. They felt that if we put any demand before the government they will definitely make some corrections in the appeal. They had narrow social views. This effect was limited upto town and city Indians. This association made conversation with the government then tell to the Indians. This aim was very limited.

Q. 2. Why did Lord Curzon want to divide Bengal?

Ans: Lord Curzon wanted to establish the rule in India for a long time so he made a plan to use ‘Divide and Rule’ policy among Indians. So he divided Bengal into two parts. One part of Bengal was for Muslims and rest for others. He declared that it was done for the better administration.

Q. 3. What was the significance of Satyagraha made by Gandhi ji in South Africa? What was the nature of Satya- graha made by Gandhiji in India?

Ans: The treatment of Indians in South Africa by the Britishers provoked his conscience. He decided to fight against the policy of racial discrimination of the South African Government. He evolved technique of Satyagraha (non-violent insistence, truth and justice). Gandhiji succeeded in this struggle in South Africa.

He returned to India in 1915. In 1916 he founded the Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad to practice the ideas of truth and non-violence. His first experiment of Satya- graha began in Champaran in Bihar in 1917 when he inspired the peasants to struggle against the oppressive Colonial system. He also organized Satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat. These peasants were not able to pay their revenue because of crop failure and epidemics. In Ahmedabad he organized a movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Q. 4. Do you think that the Non- Cooperation Movement was successful in its goal? Give two reasons in support of your argument.

Ans: Gandhiji started non-cooperation Movement to accept his demands by British Government. Gandhiji laid down an elaborate programme-

(1) Surrender of titles and honorary offices as well as resignation from nominated seats in local bodies.

(2) Refusal to attend official and non- official functions.

(3) Gradual withdrawal of children from officially controlled schools and colleges.

(4) Gradual boycott of British courts by lawyers and litigants.

(5) Refusal on the part of the military, clerical and labouring classes to offer themselves as recruits for service in their countrymen.

(6) Boycott of elections to the legislative councils by candidates and voters.

(7) Boycott of foreign goods and national schools and colleges. All these things prove the success of Non-Cooperation Movement.

Q. 5. Why was the Simon Commission asked to leave India? 

Ans: In 1927, British Government appointed a commission in the chairman ship of Sir John Simon. Its main aim was to study the law made in 1919 and to make provision for the amendment in future. But there was no member of India in the commission. When this commission reached India, all Indians called it ‘All white commission’ and boycott it. In India it had to face opposition. Indians hoisted black flags and arranged strikes. Indians shouted ‘Simon Commission go back’. The commission was not in the favour to permit full Swaraj.

Q. 6. Why did the Dandi March lead to the arrest of Gandhiji?

Ans: British Government made a law for the tax on salt. Indians opposed it. Gandhi marched for breaking this law on 6 April 1930 by taking a small piece of salt which was spread there. In this movement large number of peasants, businessmen, women, children were participated. The government arrested gandhiji in May 1930 and sent to Yarvada prison of Pune. This events made full effect on changing world and the nature of Indians. Gandhi came forward to break this law. This is why he was imprisoned.

Q. 7. Why was the revolutionaries throw a bomb in the Legislative Assembly?

Ans: In 1928, Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad and Batukeshwar Dutt and others formed an association known as ‘Hindustan Socialist Republican Association’. Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in Legislative Assembly opposing the Public Safety Bill and Trade Dispute bill, It was 8 April 1929. They spoke “Inclab Zindabad” slogan continuously. Though there was neither injury nor death. A litigation was imposed. Bhagat Singh, Raj Guru and Sukh Dev sentenced to death on 1931 Their sacrifice encouraged people for agitation.

They were called ‘Shaheeds’. They became the symbols of unity and aspiration.

Q. 8. Discuss the role of Azad Hind Fauz led by Subhash Chandra Bose in the Indian National Movement.

Ans: Subhash Chandra Bose found the outbreak of the Second World war to be a convenient opportunity to strike a blow for the freedom of India. Bose had been put under house arrest in 1940 but he managed to escape to Berlin on March 28, 1941. The Indian community there acclaimed him as the leader (Netaji). He was greeted with ‘Jai Hind’. (Salute to the motherland) He tried to raise an Indian army and urge the country people to rise in arms against the British. In 1942, the Indian Independence League was formed and a decision was taken to form the Indian National Army (I.N.A.) for the liberation of India an invitation from Ras Bihari Bose, Subhash Chandra Bose came to East Asia of June 13, 1943. He was made President of the Indian Independence League and the leader of the I.N.A. popularly called “Azad Hind Fauj”. He gave the famous battle cry “Chalo Dilli”. He promised Independence to Indians saying “Tum Mujhe Khoondo, Main Tumhe Azadi Dunga”. In March 1944, the Indian flag was hoisted at Kohima.

Q. 9. How did the ‘Quit India Movement’ contributed the independence of India?

Ans: Cripps Mission failed. It gave discourage in Indians under the leadership of Gandhiji. The congress realized that British Government should be compelled to agree all the demands of Indians or they should be compelled to Quit India. On 14 July 1942 a meeting of action committee of Congress was held in Vardha and an agenda passed in which ‘Quit India’ was passed. Addressing the Congress delegates in the night of 8th August Gandhiji in his soul stirring speech said, “I therefore want freedom immediately, this very night before dawn if it can be hand I am not going to be satisfied with anything short of complete freedom. Here is a ‘mantra’, a short one that I give you, you may unprint an your hearts and let every breath of yours give expression to it. The Mantra is ‘Do or Die’. We shall either free India or die in the attempt. We shall not live to see the perpetuation of slavery.”

On 9th August 1942, all the important or popular leaders were arrested and this association was declared cancelled and Press was banned.

Q. 10. Mention three causes that forced the Britishers give India independence in the twentieth century.

Ans: British army and police started lathy charge on Indians. Indians were killed brutally. ‘Quit India’ movement spread in the hearts of all Indians. There was no space left for Britishers to take shelter. There was place to take more benefit from India except to surrender and to set free.

The people of India burned all the government offices, police stations, post offices etc and snatched all the rights of British people. All the foreign goods were burnt. Now the Indian anger was open to all.

All Indians were ready to devote every thing for the sake of freedom.



There are four possible answers are given with each question. Out of these only one answer is correct. Choose it and write (✔) sign on it.

1. “Arise, awake and stop not till the goal is reached”. Who told these words?

(a) Swami Dayanand

(b) Swami Vivekanand

(c) Ram Krishna Paramhansa

(d) Mahatma Gandhi

Ans: (b) Swami Vivekanand.

2. Who wrote ‘Vandemataram’?

(a) Rabindra Nath Tagore

(b) Arvind Ghosh 

(c) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

(d) Kailash Nath Katju

Ans: (c) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.

3. Who is the writer of National Anthem “Jana Gana Mana Adhinayak Jai Hai”?

(a) Rabindra Nath Tagore

(b) Arvind Ghosh

(c) Bankim Chandra Chatterje

(d) Swami Dayanand Saraswati 

Ans: (a) Rabindra Nath Tagore.

4. The first Chairman of Indian National Congress was: 

(a) Gopal Krishna Gokhle

(b) Badruddin Tayyab 

(c) Ras Bihari Bose

(d) Bomesh Chand Benerjee

Ans: (d) Bomesh Chand Benerjee.

5. In which year Indian National Conference was established?

(a) 1885

(b) 1890

(c) 1892

(d) 1900

Ans: (c) 1892.

6. When was university Act formed in India?

(a) 1904

(c) 1892

(b) 1898

(d) 1908

Ans: (a) 1904.

7. Who spread ‘Refusal’ in the whole country?

(a) Lok Manya Bal Gangadhar Tilak

(b) Mahatma Gandhi

(c) Raja Ram Mohan Roy

(d) Jawahar Lal Nehru

Ans: (b) Mahatma Gandhi.

8. In which year the Bengal division was taken back?

(a) In 1910

(b) In 1911

(c) In 1912

(d) In 1913

Ans: (b) In 1911.

9. ‘Freedom is my birth right’. Who spoke these words? 

(a) Jawahar Lal Nehru

(b) Mahatma Gandhi

(c) Lok Manya Tilak

(d) Subhash Chandra Bose 

Ans: (c) Lok Manya Tilak.

10. A bomb was thrown on Central Legislative Assembly on 8 April 1929 by

(a) Batukeshwar Dutt

(b) Sukhdev

(c) Rajguru

(d) Bhagat Singh

Ans: (a) Batukeshwar Dutt.

11. Who gave ‘Do or Die’ slogan?

(a) Vivekanand

(b) Mahatma Gandhi

(c) Subhash Chandra Bose

(d) None

Ans: (b) Mahatma Gandhi.

12. Who was the founder of Forward Block’?

(a) Jawahar Lal Nehru

(b) Subhash Chandra Bose

(c) Mahatma Gandhi

(d) Mohammad Ali Jinna

Ans: (b) Subhash Chandra Bose.

13. “You give we blood and I will give you freedom.” Who gave this slogan?

(a) Subhash Chandra Bose

(b) Mahatma Gandhi

(c) Jawahar Lal Nehru

(d) Sardar Patel

Ans: (a) Subhash Chandra Bose.

14. Who constituted I.N.A.?

(a) Subhash Chandra Bose

(b) Jawahar Lal Nehru

(c) Mahatma Gandhi

(d) Bhagat Singh

Ans: (a) Subhash Chandra Bose.


Q. 1. What was the slogan of French Revolution?

Ans: The watchword of the French Revolution, “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.” 

Q. 2. In which year the rise of nationalism in India arose? 

Ans: The nationalism in India started in 19th century.

Q. 3. When and by whom was the Indian National Congress” established? 

Ans: Indian National Congress was established in 1885 by Alen Octovian Hume. 

Q. 4. Write the names of some active workers of Indian National Congress.

Ans: The active members of Indian National Congress were -Bomesh Chandra Benerjee, Firoz Shah Mehta, Gopal Krishna Gokhle, Dada Bhai Naoroji, Ras Bihari Bose, Badruddin Tayab. 

Q. 5. What is the other name of ‘Garam Dal’? 

Ans: Passionate Nationalists was the other name of Garam Dal. 

Q. 6. What was the period of Garam Dal?

Ans: The period after 1905 till 1918 was called as the Passionate Nationalists. 

Q. 7. Who was Lord Morley?

Ans: Lord Morley was the Secretary of State.

Q. 8. Who was Lord Minto? 

Ans: Lord Minto was the Viceroy

Q. 9. Who was the winner in First World War ?

Ans: British won the First World War. 

Q. 10. What is the meaning of Satyagrah?

Ans: Satyagrah means the opposition based on truth and justice. 

Q. 11. Write the names of revolutionary states.

Ans: The main revolutionary states in India are – Punjab, Maharashtra, Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Orissa.

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