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NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 24 National Integration and Secularism
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National Integration and Secularism
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS WITH THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.1
Q. 1. Fill in the blanks:
(a) A nation is a country __________.
Ans: with a unified socio-economic and political structures.
(b) National integration is the awareness of a __________. amongst the citizens of a country.
Ans: common identity.
(c) This kind of integration is very important in the building of __________.
Ans: a strong and prosperous India.
(d) In India, all the major religions of the world such as __________. are practiced.
Ans: Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Christianity and Sikhism.
Q. 2. Why is national integration needed?
Ans: National integration is the awareness of a common identity amongst the people of a nation. For a country like India, national integration is essential as it provides a common identity in spite of the religious, linguistic, geographical as well as socio-cultural diversities. India is a vast country where all the major religions of the world are practiced like Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and Zoroastrianism. There are many languages and even more ethnic groups. Despite all these differences, India is one political entity and we have to peacefully coexist, hence national integration has to be realized.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.2
Q. 1. Fill in the blanks:
(a) During the British rule India become geographically united, but it was not a __________ and __________ nation.
Ans: united, integrated.
(b) It was during the freedom movement that the feeling and sentiments of __________ emerged.
(c) During the freedom struggle, people belonging to different __________ joined hands to drive out the British power from India.
Ans: regions, religions, cultures and communities.
(d) The Indian National Congress was formed in __________.
Q. 2. Do you think that the Constitution of India lays great emphasis on national integration? How?
Ans: The Indian Constitution lays great emphasis on national integration. One of the major objectives of the Preamble is unity and integrity. It also mentions that all citizens of India has the duty to protect and uphold the sovereignty, integrity and unity of India. Keeping this in perspective, the Preamble has made provisions for a centralized federation and opted for a strong central government.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.3
Q. 1. What is communalism?
Ans: Communalism means encouraging and defending religious fundamentalism in order to divide the Indian society along religious lines. It is generated when individuals belonging to one religion develop excessive affinity to their religion and hatred towards other religions. This kind of feeling is dangerous for the unity and integrity of the country.
Q. 2. Do you agree that regionalism may be justified? State reasons.
Ans: In Spite of planned development of over six decades, all regions in our country are not developed in the desired manner. In light of this, regionalism may be justified if the demands are based on genuine grievances of the regions. If the region has been denied their fair share of projects and industries or has been neglected then it is justified.
Q. 3. Why do non-Hindi speaking states oppose Hindi as the Official Language?
Ans: Non-Hindi speaking states oppose Hindi as the Official Language because most of the people do not know Hindi. Hindi is being promoted in the non-Hindi speaking states also. It is necessary that Hindi speaking states also promote non-Hindi languages like Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Oriya, Bengali, Kannada or Assamese in their respective areas.
Q. 4. Why is extremism a threat to national integration?
Ans: Because these movements cause loss of lives of government personnel and people and destroy public property. They use violence and create fear in public life. Generally the youth participate in such movements. The basic reasons for taking up arms by the youth is the continuing state of socio- economic deprivations and exploitation. But the extremist activities have been threat to law and order and peaceful living of the people residing in the affected areas.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.4
Q. 1. What is the meaning of secularism?
Ans: Secularism means equality of all religions and religious tolerance. India does not have an official state religion. The Government must not discriminate or favor any religion. It must treat all religions with equal respect in the state context. In the individual context it means Sarva Dharma Sambhava, equal respect for all religions. Every person has the right to preach, practice and propagate any religion they choose.
Q. 2. What are the provisions in the constitution that are focused on Secularism?
Ans: The Indian Constitution through its preamble and particularly through its chapters on Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles has created that secular state based on the principle of equality and non-discrimination.
Q. 3. What is the role of a citizen in strengthening India as secular state?
Ans: In strengthening India as a secular state every citizen must treat all religions with the some respect as he or she has for his or her religion. No religion permits individuals to ignore or hate others. If citizens look around themselves, they may find that their friends, neighbors, classmates and nearby residents believe and practice other religions that are different from their. They belong to various castes. If they do not respect other religion, how can they interact with them and be a good friend, classmate or neighbor.
So it is essential that all the people. develop respect towards one another and practice peaceful co-existence.
Q. 1. Define national integration and discuss the contribution made by the national freedom movement to the emergence of national integration.
Ans: National integration is the awareness of a common identity amongst the people of a nation. It provides a common identity in spite of the various socio- cultural and demographic differences. The contribution made by the national freedom movement towards national integration is incomparable. It was during these national freedom movements that the feelings and sentiments of nationhood emerged. During these movements, people from different regions, castes, cultures etc. joined hand to drive out the British forces from India.
Q. 2. How does the Indian Consti-tution reflect and promotes national integration?
Ans: The Constitution of India is a torch- bearer for the message of national integration. Its preamble includes unity and integrity of the nation as a major objective. The Constitution reflects the respect of the diversity of the country. It tries to ensure that the unity and integrity is maintained. The Constitution has also made provisions for a centralized federation and a strong central government.
Q. 3. What are the major challenges to national integration in India?
Ans: After Independence, India faced certain challenges. These are:
(a) Communalism: It is generated when individuals belonging to one religion develop excessive affinity to their religion and hatred towards other religion.
(b) Regionalism: A strong feeling of pride or loyalty that people in a region have for that region, often including a desire to have power to govern themselves. It also sometimes leads to the desire to be a separate state.
(c) Linguism: When differences crop up between the regions or people based on the language, it is called linguism. Differences based on languages have been present since the very beginning.
(d) Extremism: Extremist movements like the Maoist movement and Naxalite movement are a great challenge to national integration. These movements often use violence to create fear in the public. These cause loss of life and property.
Q. 4. What are the factors that promote and strengthen national integration?
Ans: Certain important factors that provide a sound base for national integration are:
(a) Constitutional Provisions: The constitution of India has made provision for promoting and ensuring national integration. The citizens have been empowered with fundamental rights and duties.
(b) Governmental Initiatives: A National Integration Council has been set-up to consider issues related to national integration and recommend suitable measures to be taken. The single Planning commission prepares plans for the nation and the Election Commission conduct elections.
(c) National Festivals and Symbols: National festivals like Independence Day, Republic Day and Gandhi Jayanti are festivals that are celebrated by all Indians and in all parts of the country. National symbols like the National Flag, National Anthem and the National Emblem give us one identify.
(d) All India services and other factors: All India services like IAS, IFS, IPS etc., unified judicial system, postal and communications network promote the unity and integrity of the Indian nation.
Q. 5. Define secularism and analyze its importance for the Indian political system.
Ans: Secularism refers to all religions being equal before the law, as well as religious tolerance amongst the people. India is a land of many languages and hence secularism is important for the smooth running of the government. The Constitution of India declares India as a secular state and through its preamble, i.e., Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy, has created a secular state.
Q. 6. Given below are two statements of renowned freedom fighters:
Mahatma Gandhi once said: “I am a Hindu and swear by my religion, I will die for it. But it is my personal affair. The State has nothing to do with it. The State would look after your secular welfare, health, communications, foreign relations, currency and so on, but not your or my religion. That is everybody’s personal concern !!”
Maulana Azad, one of the closest colleague of Mahatma Gandhi had said, “I am a Muslim and profoundly conscious of the fact that I have inherited Islam’s glorious traditions of the last thirteen hundred years. I am not prepared to lose even a small part of that legacy I am equally proud of the fact that I am an Indian, an essential part of the indivisible unity of Indian nationhood, a vital factor in its total make-up without which its noble edifice will remain in- complete.”
In the light of the above two statements, explain the role of Indian citizens for strengthening secularism and national integration in India.
Ans: Indian citizens have the utmost responsibility to safeguard and secure their religion. India is a secular nation, and the state should not interfere in the personal matters, i.e., the religion, of the citizens. It is the duty of the Indian citizens to strengthen the value of secularism. This goes to serve the purpose of national integration.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Tick the correct option:
1. When India got her independence?
(a). 14th August 1947
(b) 15th August 1947
(c) 26th January 1949
(d) 26th January 1950
Ans: (b) 15th August 1947.
2. How many Princely States in India at the time of Independence?
Ans: (c) 562.
3. Which of the these princely state wished to remain independence, both from India and Pakistan at the time of Independence?
(c) Jammu & Kashmir
(d) All of these
Ans: (d) All of these.
4. It was during the freedom movement that the feeling and sentiments of _________ emerged.
(d) divide and rule
Ans: (c) nationhood.
5. When was Indian National Congress founded?
Ans: (b) 1885.
6. India is a __________.
(a) Secular State
(b) Religious State
(c) Undemocratic State
(d) Communist State
Ans: (a) Secular State.
7. When was the Official Language Commission set up?
Ans: (c) 1955.
8. Which act/or commission recognises the use of English for official purpose without any time limit?
(a) Act of 1947
(b) Act of 1963
(c) Language Commission of 1955
(d) None of these
Ans: (b) Act of 1963.
9. When do we observe National Integration Day?
(a) 19th November
(b) 20th December
(c) 18th May
(d) 9th July
Ans: (a) 19th November.
10. Which is not a national symbol?
(a) The National Flag
(b) The National Anthem
(c) The National Emblem
(d) Red Fort
Ans: (d) Red Fort.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. What is Casteism?
Ans: Casteism is a superiority or inferiority complex, owning different ladders in caste hierarchy.
Q. 2. Define communalism.
Ans: Communalism is nothing but an ideology which tries to encourage religious views of one religion among people and which are totally against the religious views of the other religious groups.
Q. 3. What is communal politics?
Ans: When one religion is shown superiority as compared to other religion in politics then its known as communal politics.
Q. 4. What is the meaning of the concept ‘National Integration’ according to Dorothy Simpson?
Ans: According to Dorothy Simpson, the concept ‘National Integration’ means creating a mental outlook which will promote and inspire every person to place loyalty to the country above group loyalty and the welfare of the country above narrow sectional interest.
Q. 5. Do you think national integration is essential? If yes, why?
Ans: Yes, we think that national integration is essential, because it keeps the different socio-cultural, religious, linguistic and geographical diversities united together. It is also essential for the security and development of the nation.
Q. 6. The Constitution of India lays the great emphasis on national integration. Justify by giving arguments.
Ans: (i) The Preamble to Indian Constitution includes unity and integrity of the nation as a key objective.
(ii) It guarantees Fundamental Rights to every citizen without any discrimination.
(iii) It also stipulates that every citizen has the fundamental duty to uphold and protect the nation’s sovereignty and integrity.
Q. 7. What are various challenges to National Integration?
Ans: The various challenges to National Integration are:
Q. 8. Write the immediate result of the regional movements.
Ans: The immediate result of the regional movements leads to the creation and division of the existing states. For example Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, and Jharkhand three new states have been created by dividing existing Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
Q. 9. Why and when was Official language commission set up?
Ans: The Official Language Commission was set up in 1955. It was set up to recommended in favour of replacing English by Hindi as an official language.
Q. 10. By whom was Official Language Commission of 1955 opposed? What was its impact?
Ans: It was opposed by all non-Hindi speaking regions (states). As a result of its impact, once again in 1963 it was introduced in Lok Sabha and allowed the continued used of English for official purposes.
Q. 11. Is India a secular state? Justify.
Ans: Yes India is secular state, because state has no religion of its own. All religions are treated equally, no religion is given preference over the other.
Q. 12. What is the meaning of secularism?
Ans: Secularism is a belief which states that religion should not be involved in the organization of the society.