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NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 25 Socio-Economic Development And Empowerment of Disadvantaged Groups
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Socio-Economic Development And Empowerment of Disadvantaged Groups
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS WITH THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 25.1
Q. 1. Why do GDP per capita income not effectively measures the quality of people’s life?
Ans: GDP and per capita income are not effective measures of the quality of people’s life as:
(i) GDP is the specific measures of economic welfare and does not take into accounts the important aspects of life such as leisure activity, environmental quality, social justice, gender equality, etc.
(ii) Per capita similarly does not indicate the level of income equality among people.
Q. 2. How is the concept of human development different from traditional concept of social and economic development?
Ans: The concept of human development is different from traditional concept of social and economic development because:
(i) Human Development covers almost all aspects of human life and places people at the center of the concern of development.
(ii) It also emphasized on the purpose of development of enlarging all human choices and not just income.
(iii) Social and economic developement aimed at improving social and economic infrastructure while other aspects of life are not taken into account.
Q. 3. Define sustainable development.
Ans: Sustainable development means meeting the demands of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generation to met their own demands.
Q. 4. Why is it said that development and under development co-exist in India? Identify the major reasons.
Ans: It is said that development and under-development co-exist in India because of following reasons:
(i) India’s rank in Human Development Index (HDI) is 128 out of 177 total countries according to 2007-08 statics.
(ii) Nearly 80% Indian population live on less $2 a day.
(iii) More than 1, Indian population (nearly 27.5%) is living below poverty line.
(iv) India is 12th largest world economy and ranked 4th largest country in terms of GDP.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 25.2
Q. 1. Differentiate between dis- parities and diversities with suitable example.
Ans: Differences created by nature or naturally created differences are known as diversity. For example natural diversity exist in India. While differences created by human or inequalities created by human being are called disparities.
For examples: Social differences, economic differences etc.
Q. 2. How is colonialism one of the important factor in creating regional disparities in India?
Ans: Colonialism is one of the most important factors in creating regional disparities in India because during pre- independence day (before 1947) the British government paid their attention to those regions which had economic and political importance. Other areas which had less importance did not gain importance on commercial as well as political front.
Q. 3. Which one of the following states can be grouped under econo-mically developed states:
B. Orissa (Odisha)
C. Arunachal Pradesh
Ans: D. Haryana
Q. 4. Why are tribal areas of Central India underdeveloped in comparison to most of the areas in the country? Write below the correct statements selecting out of the following:
(A) The areas do not have much natural resources.
(B) They do not have any major industries in this area.
(C) The economic as well as human development for local people is very low.
(D) None of the above.
Ans: (C) The economic as well as human development of local people is very low.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 25.3
Q. 1. Which are the major social disadvantaged groups?
Ans: The major socially disadvantaged groups are listed below:
(i) Scheduled Castes.
(ii) Scheduled Tribes.
(iii) Other backward classes.
(iv) Minorities and women.
Q. 2. Do you think the steps taken by so for have been empowering scheduled castes and scheduled tribes to reap the benefit of socio-economic development? Give three reasons.
Ans: Following steps have been taken (by the government) to empower the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes to reap the benefit socio-economic development:
(i) NSFDG, NSTFDC and STDC have been to provided financial support to those belongs to SCs and STs.
(ii) Children are provided mid-day meal and are also given books free of cost.
(iii) Coaching facilities are provided to the students preparing for various competitive examinations.
(iv) Hostel facilities are being provided to the students pursuing higher education.
Q. 3. Why are the efforts made so far have not been able to empower women in our society?
Ans: (i) Social security and other support services are provided to women to enable to participate (take part) in various industrial sectors.
(ii) A holistic approach to women’s health is being adopted. Special attention is also being given to the needs of the female at all stages of the life cycle.
Q. 4. Do a survey at least 5 families in your neighborhood and collect data in respect of the following. It will be better if you do it on more families, may be 10.
(i) Number of adult male and female members.
(ii) Number of male and female children.
(iii) Number of male and female children born in the last two years.
(iv) Number of male and female children dead in the last two years.
(v) Number of male and female children above the age of 5 attending schools or colleges/university.
(vi) Number of females working outside home in offices or in some business.
Based on the analysis of collected data, try to find the answers to the following questions:
(a) What is the number of male and female children and how many of them are attending schools/colleges? Are the male and female children of a family studying in the same school? And if not, what are the reasons?
(b) Are females working outside home? If yes, where? If not, why?
(c) Do you find the environment of gender discrimination in families? If.yes, why? If not, how?
Ans: Students were themselves conduct the survey. Based on the data collected they will be able to answer these questions.
|Assessment Criteria for the survey: The survey may be assessed on the basis of Learning objective Assessment tools:|
INTEXT QUESTIONS 25.4
Q. 1. Identify the target groups for Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and National Literacy Mission.
Ans: (i) Children of school going are group unable to attend the school.
(ii) Adult illiterates who are even unable to read and write their names etc.
Q. 2. Describe any two achievements of health sector during last fifty years.
Ans: Two achievements of health sector during last fifty years are:
(i) To reduce the inequalities in health sector government has started an ambitious programme known as NRHM (National Rural Health Mission)
(ii) Health programme related to children and women’s health like JSY, BSY,KSY etc are implemented by the government.
Q. 3. What is the latest approach adopted under National Literary Mission?
Ans: Government has adopted latest approach Total Literacy Campaigns and the Post Literacy Programme under National Literary Mission.
Q. 4. Why has government of India started National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)?
Ans: The government of India has started NHRM to reduce the unequal distribution and most of facilities in the major towns and cities.
Q. 1. Why does the concept of socio- economic development not take care of all aspects of development? Give two reasons.
Ans: The concept of socio-economic development do not take care of all aspects of development as:
(i) Social development is a process which results only the transformation of social institution which improves the capacity of society to full its aspiration.
(ii) Economic development indicates the economic status of a society or country and refers to the growth of specific measures such as GDP, Per Capita Income etc.
Q. 2. Why there regional are imbalances and socio-economic disparities in India? Analyze any six factors responsible for it.
Ans: There are regional imbalances and socio-economic disparities in India.
Some of the factors responsible for this are:
(i) There are wide regional disparities in per capita income.
(ii) Poverty is also a major factor responsible for regional imbalances and socio- economic disparities.
(iii) Industrialization is not developed in all regions equivalently. Attempts are being made to expand the process of industrialization of various regions.
(iv) Regional disparities in agricultural growth have increased over the year. In majority of Indian states agricultural growth is yet to pick up.
(v) Literacy is the measure of socio-economic development of a region but there are great disparities in this regard in all regions.
(vi) The means of transport and communication are not equally developed in all regions. In respect of road length some states have highest road density while in others are less road density.
Q. 3. Explain any six social empowerment measures adopted by the government of India for the disadvantage stations of the society.
Ans: (i) NSFDG, NSTFDC and STDC have been to provided financial support to those belongs to SCs and STs.
(ii) Children are provided mid-day meal and are also given books free of cost.
(iii) Coaching facilities are provided to the students preparing for various competitive examinations.
(iv) Hostel facilities are being provided to
the students pursuing higher education.
(v) Schools for disadvantaged sections of the society has been also open to gave them the advantage of education at very normal fees.
(vi) NSTFDC supports various income and employment generating activities through loans, market support, training and so in.
Q. 4. Describe various measures undertaken by the government of India for reducing the drop-out rates and to improve the levels of achievement in education.
Ans: Some of measures taken by the government of India for reducing the drop- out rates and to improve the levels of achievement in education are listed below:
(i) Parental awareness is created.
(ii) Role of community and Panchayati Raj institution is increased to develop education level.
(iii) Economic incentives such as free education, free books and free uniforms are distributed.
(iv) Improvement is also done in the process of schooling and in the content also.
(v) Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and Mid-day Meal schemes are also been activated.
Q. 5. What is Literacy campaign? Describe various strategies adopted for the success of the programme.
Ans: Literacy campaign is the main programme of the NLM (National Literacy Mission) which impart basic literacy to the adult non-literate. It was followed by Post Literacy Programme to reinforce the literacy skill.
It aimed at providing facilities like rural library and reading rooms for the neo- Literates and other sections of the society. In addition to this, it also aims vocational training to the neo-literates and other disadvantaged sections of the society.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Tick the correct option:
1. What is the full form of GDP?
(a) Gross Domestic Profit
(b) Gross Domestic Product
(d) Gross Development Profit
(d) Gross Development Product
Ans: (b) Gross Domestic Product.
2. Which of the following is an indices of Human Development Index?
(a) A long and healthy Life.
(b) Knowledge and education
(c) A decent standard of living
(d) All of these
Ans: (d) All of these.
3. Which of the following is not at component of HDI?
(a) Per Capita Income
(b) Life Expectancy
(c) Literacy Rate:
(d) Poverty Rate
Ans: (d) Poverty Rate.
4. According to World Development Report 2004, high income countries are those which have per capita income of:
(a) $ 900 or less
(b) $ 1000 or less
(c) $ 825 or less
(d) $ 500 or less
Ans: (c) $ 825 or less.
5. What is the most common method of measuring the economic development of a country?
(b) Equal treatment.
Ans: (d) Income.
6. How has per capita income in India increased from 1950-51 to 2000?
(a) From Rs. 6500 to Rs. 16,500
(b) From Rs. 255 only in 1950-51 to Rs. 16,500 in 2000
(c) From Rs. 755 to Rs. 14,500
(d) From Rs. 1855 to Rs. 16,500
Ans: (b) From Rs. 255 only in 1950-51 to Rs.16,500 in 2000.
7. The most common indicators for measuring economic development of a country are:
(a) national income and per capita income.
(b) health and education.
(c) employment and poverty.
(d) life expectancy and literacy rate.
Ans: (a) national income and per capita income.
8. The formula used for measuring average or per capita income of a country is:
(a) Total population x total income of the country.
(b) total population + total income of the country.
(c) total income of the country/total population
(d) total income of the country/total population x area of the country.
Ans: (b) total population + total income of the country.
9. Literacy rate measures the proportion of literate population in the
(a) 8 and above age group
(b) 7 and above age group
(c) 9 and above age group
(d) 10 and above age group
Ans: (b) 7 and above age group.
10. Which of the following is the measures of sustainable development?
(a) Green National Income.
(b) Genuine savings.
(c) Green GNP.
(d) All of these.
Ans: (d) All of these.
11. Among the following criteria which one is the basis of measures the development of a country according to the World Bank?
(a) Per Capita Income.
(b) Literacy Rate.
(c) Gross Enrolment Ratio.
(d) Life Expectancy.
Ans: (a) Per Capita Income.
12. Which of the following is not true with reference to development?
(a) Different persons different development goals.
(b) For development people look at mix of goals.
(c) The developmental goals that people have is only about higher income.
(d) The developmental goals that people have are not only about better income but also about other important things in life.
Ans: (c) The developmental goals that people have is only about higher income.
13. Who published the Human Development Report?
(d) World Bank.
Ans: (b) UNDP.
14. Which of the following statement is correctly defines literacy rate?
(a) Total literate population divided by total population.
(b) Total literate population divided by total illiterate population.
(c) It measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.
(d) It measures the proportion of literate population in the 18 and above age group.
Ans: (c) It measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.
15. When was the concept of Human Development Index (HDI developed?
Ans: (a) 1990.
16. Which of the following is the modern concept of development?
(a) Economic development.
(b) Economic growth.
(c) Developed economy.
(d) Sustainable development.
Ans: (d) Sustainable development.
17. Development of a country can be determined by
(a) Its per capita income.
(b) Its literacy level.
(c) Health status of the people.
(d) All the above.
Ans: (d) All the above.
18. What is the meaning of HDI?
(a) Human Development Index.
(b) Human Development in Industries.
(c) Indian Human Development Index.
(d) Human beings devotion towards India.
Ans: (a) Human Development Index.
19. Who publish HDI report?
(a) World Bank.
(d) State Bank of India.
Ans: (c) UNDP.
20. Which is related with HDI?
(a) Per capita Income.
(b) Life expectancy.
(c) Literacy rate.
(d) All of these.
Ans: (d) All of these.
21. Who develops the concept of HDI?
(a) Professor Amartya Sen.
(b) Dr. Mahubub ul-Haq.
(c) Both (a) and (b).
(d) Dr.Farrukh Abdullah.
Ans: (c) Both (a) and (b).
22. Which is not include in the concept of Sustainable Development?
(a) Economic Development.
(b) Individual Development.
(c) Environment Pollution.
(d) Social Development.
Ans: (c) Environment Pollution.
23. PPP stands for __________.
(a) Provision for Purchasing Power.
(b) Purchasing Power Parity.
(c) Provision of Purchasing public property.
(d) None of the these.
Ans: (b) Purchasing Power Parity.
24. In which of the following Indian states literacy rate is higher?
(b) Madhya Pradesh.
Ans: (d) Kerala.
25. When was the Scheduled Tribes and Other traditional forest dwellers Act implemented?
Ans: (b) 2006.
26. How much reservation is given to women in rural and urban local bodies?
Ans: (c) 33%.
27. When was Indian Parliament enacted free and compulsory education act?
Ans: (b) 2009.
28. When was SSA was launched?
Ans: (a) 2001.
29. When was National Literacy Mission launched?
Ans: (a) 1988.
30. Which was the first country to launch a comprehensive Family Planning Programme?
Ans: (d) India.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. What is the meaning of development?
Ans: It means growth and advancement altogether and not separately.
Q. 2. What are developing countries?
Ans: Developing countries are those countries which are trying to make their industry and economic system more advanced.
Q. 3. Define economic develop-ment?
Ans: Economic development is a process whereby the real per capita income of an economy increases over a long period of time.
Q. 4. What do you meant by socio- economic development?
Ans: By socio-economic development we means development which aims at improvement in the life style of the people.
It is process of social and economic transformation based on, cultural and environmental factors.
Q. 5. What do you know about social development?
Ans: Social development is a process which results in the transformation of social structure in social institution which improves the capacity of society to fulfill one’s aspiration.
Q. 6. What is National Income?
Ans: National Income: A country with higher level of national income in considered more developed/advanced than a country which has a low level of national income. As the size of national income expands there is more availability of goods and services in the country. More goods and services mean higher level of consumption and standard of living of the people.
Q. 7. Define per capita income.
Ans: Per Capita Income: Per capita income is considered as a better indication of economic development. Increase in per capita income leads to improvement in the standard of living.
Q. 8. What is GDP?
Ans: GDP also known as GDI is the measures of National Income and outcome for a given country’s economy. It is the sum of all goods and services.
Q. 9. What do you know about 3P or purchasing power party?
Ans: It is the method of measuring the purchasing power in different currencies in different countries.
Q. 10. What are disadvantaged groups of the society?
Ans: These are those groups of society which till today discriminated both socially and economically.
Q. 11. Give the full forms of the following.
Ans: (a) National Scheduled Castes Finance and Development Corporation.
(b) National Safai Karamchari Finance and Development Corporation.
(c) Scheduled Castes Development Corporations.
(d) Scheduled Tribes Development Corporations.
Q. 12. How does the India Constitution provide social justice?
Ans: (i) The protection of civil right was enacted in 1955.
(ii) Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Prevented of Atrocities Act was enacted in 1989.
(iii) In 2006, the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers Act was introduced.
Q. 13. Write the name of any four National Health Programmes initiated by the Government.
Ans: (i) Universal Immunization Programme.
(ii) National Tobacco Control Programme
(iii) National Cancer Control Programme
(iv) National Aids Control Programme
Q. 14. Write any two outcomes of National Literacy Mission.
Ans: Two major outcomes of National Literacy Mission are:
(i) It has cover 597 districts of the country, under various literacy programmes.
(ii) It has helped in increasing India’s overall literacy level.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Write the meaning of economic development. What are two indicators to measure the development of nation?
Ans: Economic development is a process through which per capita income and economic welfare of the people increase in a long term process.
Indicators to measure development of a nation are:
(a) National income.
(b) Per capita income.
Q. 2. What is meant by human development? Mention various criteria of measuring human development.
Ans: I. Meaning of Human Develop- ment: Human development touches upon social, economic, political and cultural aspects of human life with special emphasis on reduction in poverty and narrowing down the gap of inequality and unemployment.
II. Various criteria of measuring Human Development: A long and healthy life, to get education, information and knowledge, to have opportunities to earn livelihood, to have access to the natural resources for a decent standard of life, to have a personal and social security, equality and enjoyment of human rights.
Q. 3. Give some examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our lives.
Ans: More income or more material goods do not always give us a good quality life. There are other aspects such as equal treatment, freedom, security, opportunity to learn, good working condition, pollution-free atmosphere, job security and good social life which are very important for a good quality life.
Q. 4. Distinguish between human development and economic develop- ment.
Ans: Human Development:
(i) It is broader aspect of development as it includes monetary as well as the non-monetary aspects.
(ii) Human development is end or the final goal of all developments.
(iii) It is process of both quantitative and qualitative growth.
(i) It is narrow concept as it includes only the monetary aspects.
(ii) It is a means to achieve human development.
(iii) It includes only the quantitative growth.
Q. 5. Why is per capita income of different countries calculated in dollars and not in their own currencies by the World Bank?
Ans: Dollar is a hard currency. It is accepted by all member nations of the World Bank. Therefore, every country calculates its per capita income in dollars to provide real and exact picture of its economic growth as well as economic standard of their people. It is very easy to compare the per capita incomes of different countries having the datas of different countries in one important currency like dollars.
Q. 6. What contributes to the human development?
Ans: There are many economic as well as non-economic factors which contribute to the human development.
(i) Living a long and a healthy life.
(ii) To have education, information and knowledge.
(iii) Enjoying a decent standard of living.
(iv) Enjoying basic fundamental rights.
Q. 7. Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development? Explain.
Ans: (i) For comparing countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes.
(ii) Countries with higher income are more developed than others with less income.
(iii) This is based on the understanding that more income means more of all the things that human beings need. Whatever people like, and should have, they will be able to get with greater income. So, greater income itself is considered to be one important goal.
Q. 8. “What may be development for one may not be development for the other.” Explain with a suitable example.
Ans: Different persons have different notions of development because life situations of persons are different.
Example: Construction of dams leads to generation of hydroelectricity, thus development. However, many people have to be displaced from their villages, hence, it may not be development for them.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Study the map given above and answer the following questions:
(i) What is the situation of your State as far as HDI is concerned? Give any two reasons for such a situation.
(ii) Identify two States of India – one having very high HDI and the second having low HDI.
Ans: (i) I am living in NCR and here level of HDI is high.
(a) Well developed educational and health facilities.
(b) Development of technology signifies that number of jobs are available.
(c) Improved/Fastly improving infrastructure.
(ii) High ― Punjab: Low ― Rajasthan
Q. 2. Discuss the causes of Regional Disparities in India.
Ans: The major causes of Regional Disparities in India are:
(i) Geographical factors are the major cause responsible for regional disparities in India. Desert region of Rajasthan and hilly regions of north-eastern parts are such examples.
(ii) The distance of the region from the national or state capital or district capital are.also effected the economies of these area.
(iii) The states having better developed infrastructure facilities made faster progress than compare to other states having less developed infrastructure.
(iv) Unequal distribution of natural resources is also responsible for regional disparities. Some states have greatly benefited from the availability of natural resources with the help of latest technology.
Q. 3. Describe the efforts made by the government to economically empowered the socially disadvantaged groups.
Ans: Efforts made by the government to economically empowered the socially disadvantaged groups are:
(i) NSFDC provides them financial supports and other benefits for taking up various income generating activities.
(ii) NSKFDC provides supports to Safari
Karamchari to taking up various income generating activities.
(iii) NSTFDC supports them in various income and employment generating activities through loan, marketing support, training and so on.
(iv) STDCs works as channelising agencies and extending to beneficiaries oriented schemes. It covers agriculture and other support activities i.e., small scale industry, transport and service sector.
Q. 4. How women as socially and politically empowered?
How social and political empower- ment is assured to women?
Ans: Social Empowerment:
(i) Efforts are being made to ensure them equal access to education. Now women are also able to get quality education to facilitate long term learning as well as development of vocational/technical skill.
(ii) Attention is also paid to meet the nutritional needs of women at all stages of the life cycle. Political Empowerment:
(i) They have right to participate equally in decision making at all levels.
(ii) The 73rd and 74th Amendments of Indian Constitution have ensured their access and participation in political power structure by giving 33.3% reservation in Panchayati Raj and local urban bodies.
Q. 5. (a) What were the goals of SSA?
(b) Write any two objectives of Mid- day Meal Scheme.
Ans: Goals of SSA: The goals of Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA) are:
(a) Universal retention by 2010
(b) Focus on elementary education Objectives of Mid-day meal scheme:
(i) Improved the nutritional level of the children in Government schools, Government aided schools and EGS and AIE centers.
(ii) Provide nutritional level of children of primary stage in drought affected areas during summer vacations.
(iii) Encourage the poor children to attend the school.
Q. 6. What is criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are limitations on this criterion, if any?
Ans: In World Development Report, 2006, the World Bank has used the criterion of average income or per capita income in classifying different countries. The average income or the per capita income is the total income of the country divided by its population. According to above report, countries with per capita income of Rs. 4,53,000 per annum and above in 2004 are called rich countries and those with per capita income of Rs. 37,000 or less are called low income countries.
Limitations: Limitations of this criterion are that while average income is useful for competition, it does not tell us how this income is distributed among people. A country may have more equitable distribution. People may be neither very rich nor extremely poor. But in another country with same average income, one person may be extremely rich, while others may be very poor. So, the method of average income does not give correct picture of a country. This system hides disparities among people.
Q. 7. Why is the issue of sustain- ability important for development?
Ans: Sustainable development means that a development should meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. The issue of sustainable development has emerged from rapid industrialisation of the world in the past century. It is felt that the economic growth and industrialisation have led to reckless exploitation of natural resources. Sustainability promotes a rational use of natural resources.
The earth has enough non-renewable resources to meet our present and future needs for development if we use them in an economic manner. But, if we use them recklessly in the greed of rapid economic development, our world may become a vast waste land.
Q. 8. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
Ans: UNDP (i.e. United Nations Development Programme) compare countries on the basis of educational level of people, their health status and per capita income per annum while the criterion used by World Bank is merely that of per capita income or average income for measuring development. In brief, Human Development criterion is used by UNDP while only economic development by the World Bank.