NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 23 Challenges to Indian Democracy

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NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 23 Challenges to Indian Democracy

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Challenges to Indian Democracy

Chapter: 23




Q. 1. What do you meant by democracy in political context?

Ans: In political context, we meant democracy is a government of the people, for the people, by the people. All the powers of governing vested in the hands of the people. They (people) can enjoy their power directly or indirectly.

Q. 2. Do you think, the definition of democracy is incomplete unless it is defined in social and individual context as well? Give reasons for you answer.

Ans: Yes, we think that the definition of democracy is not complete unless it is defined in social and individual context as well because a democracy mean:

(i) A type of state

(ii) A form of government 

(iii) A way of social system

(iv) A pattern or design of economic order

When we say, we are the citizens of a democratic country, it reflect not only the importance of political institutions but also the important democratic values like political equality, freedom, liberty, fraternity, secularism and justice, social environment, etc.

Q. 3. Write at least two essential political, socio-economic conditions of democracy.

Ans: Political Conditions:

(i) UAF (Universal Adult Franchise) is given to the people who have the attained the age 18 years or more without any discrimination.

(ii) Constitution is given supreme power to protect the Fundamental Rights of the citizens. 

Socio-Economic Conditions:

(i) Norms reflecting social values like equality, social security and social welfare are implemented.

(ii) Efforts are made to reach the benefit of economic benefits to the section of the society, specially economically backward people or sections.


Q. 1. How do illiteracy, inequality and poverty adversely affects the functioning of Indian democracy?

Ans: Illiteracy, inequality and poverty adversely affects the functions of the Indian democracy as given below:

(i) Illiterate people are unable to understand the value of their political, economic and social rights.

(ii) Inequalities promote the discrimi- nation in the society and does not allow to function democratic system or democracy smoothly.

(iii) Poverty is curse to functioning of a democratic system or democracy. It is the root cause of many deprivations and inequalities.

Q. 2. Do you agree that the portrayal of women by popular entertainment channels or films that you might have seen recently, depict gender discrimi- nation? Justify with examples.

Ans: Yes, we are agree that the portrayal of women by popular entertainment channels and films depict gender discrimination. In most of the T.V. channels and films women are portrayed as depicting the traditional roles of house wife, mothers, sisters, daughters, daughter-in-laws and mother-in- laws. These role played by them somewhere shows the inequality done to them in the society in part of the life. It shows the gender discrimination attached to part played in channels or films. They are not even portrayed as leading actress. It is totally wrong. The credit must goes to theme.

Q. 3. Describe two examples on how do casteism or communalism impact our day to day lives and impact Indian democracy.

Ans: Casteism:

(i). It has weaken the nations unity and functioning and stability of democratic system.

(ii) It has became a more or less rigid group classification, based on birth, which has widen the gap in the society.


(i) It disrupts quite often the smooth functioning of the multi-religious Indian society. 

(ii) It misuses religious sentiment of the people during elections.

Q. 4. If regionalism and sub regionalism are inseparable part of Indian democracy why are they considered challenges?

Ans: The development programme initiated by the government aimed at the growth of all regions of the country equally. But regional disparities and imbalances in terms of the per capita income, literacy rate, state of health, education services, agricultural development varies state to state on account of various reasons and also with in state from one region to another. This condition give rise to demand of regionalism in manifold and the demand for creation of new state on the basis of regionalism importance growing day by day which may be a threat to national integration. For example separatist demands in J and K or by ULFA in Assam or in different groups in north-east regions are a matter of grave concern. 

Q. 5. What are the reasons for criminalization of politics in India?

Ans: Reasons: 

(i) The influence of money and muscle power has grown in Indian politics as a fact for a long time. 

(ii) Now, it is the politicians who seek the protection from criminals now. They (criminal) had now direct access to power.

Q. 6. What are the reasons of increase in political violence in India? 

Ans: Reasons for Political Violence in India:

(i) Communal riots engineered by vested. interest for political, religious, and economic reasons.

(ii) Caste violence in different shapes. 

(iii) Violence associated with the demands of separate states.


Q. 1. What are the measures taken in India to achieve the goals of universal literacy, poverty alleviation and removed gender discrimination?

Ans: (i) To achieve the goal of universal literacy government of India has implemented nation wide ‘Saakshar Bharat’ programme. 

(ii) For the poverty alleviation government has implemented poverty alleviation programme such as JGSY, EAS, MGNREGA etc.

(iii) For removal of the gender discrimination constitutionally politically empowerment is given to women. 

Q. 2. Discuss the steps needed for solving the problem of regional imbalance in India.

Ans: Some of the major steps taken for the problem to solve regional imbalance include:

(i) Tribal Development Programme. 

(ii) Hill Area Development Programme.

(iii) Border Area Development Programme.

(iv) Western Ghats Development Programme. 

(v) Drought Prone Area Programme.

Q. 3. How can the administrative and judicial reforms be realized in India? 

Ans: Administrative Reforms:

Administrative Reforms can be realized in India by:

(i) Making administration accountable and citizen friendly.

(ii) Making decision making process more transparent.

(iii) Improving the performance and integrity of the public services.

Judicial Reforms: They can be realized by observing

(i) Simplification of rules and procedure. 

(ii) Transparency in court procedure.

(iii) Repealing outdated laws.

Q. 4. What is sustainable develop. ment? How will it strengthen Indian democracy?

Ans: The development meet the needs of the present without comprising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is called sustainable development. It will helpful in strengthening the Indian democracy because it aims at focusing removing poverty, ignorance, discrimination, social and economic inequalities.


Q. 1. What do you mean by participation of citizens in the democratic process?

Ans: By participation of citizens in the democratic process we mean that the citizens are actively using and enjoying their political rights granted by the Constitution of India.

Q. 2. What are the various forums or tools available to a common citizen for making the government accountable? 

Ans: (i) The Constitution makes the executive responsible to the legislature.

(ii) Through RTI act, 2005, the citizens can know what is happening in the functioning of their parliamentarian.

Q. 3. Fill in the blanks: 

(a) If you have a right to do certain things, you have also _________ to ensure that your actions do not infringe upon the _________ of others. 

Ans: Responsibility, right.

(b) Citizens must respect the _________ and reject _________.

Ans: Law, violence.

(c) Every group has the right to practice its _________ and to have some _________ over its own affairs.

Ans: Culture, control. 

(d) When a citizen expresses his/her _________ he/she should also listen to the _________ of other people.

Ans: Opinion, views.


Q. 1. Explain the meaning of democracy. Why do you think that the meaning of democracy cannot be comprehensive, if it is defined only in political context?

Ans: Democracy is a popular form of government. It means, the government of the people, for the people by the people. We think that the meaning of the democracy can not be comprehensive if it is defined only in political contexts because other relevance in the social context will not included.

Q. 2. What are the essential conditions that make a system truly democratic? 

Ans: The essential conditions that make a system truly democratic are:

(i) Political conditions.

(ii) (a) Social conditions. 

(b) Economic conditions.

Q. 3. What are the major challenges to Indian democracy? Explain how challenges are potential opportunities to make it an effective democratic system.

Ans: The major challenges to the Indian democracy are:

(a) Illiteracy.

(b) Poverty.

(c) Gender Discrimination.

(d) Unemployment.

(e) Casteism.

(f) Communalism.

(g) Corruption.

(h) Regionalism.

These challenges are potential opportunities to make it an effective democratic system, because, they awa.e the people that without remaining these hindrance, an effective democratic system cannot be setup.

Q. 4. Critically examine the trends of protest and violence in India. Why do protest turned into violent movement?

Ans: The use of violence for political end is dangerous for the existence of a democratic system like India. Various types of violence such as communalism violence, caste violence and political violence, occur in present day which effect the democratic system. Violence based on politics, caste and communal can take any form. For example, a serious conflict of interest has emerged between higher and middle castes led to an aggressive competition for political power which many a time leads to violence or violent movement.

Q. 5. What are the significant corrective measures that are required to be taken to meet the challenges to Indian democracy?

Ans: Following corrective measures are take (required) to meet the challenges to the Indian democracy:

(i) To remove or reduce the illiteracy rate, nation wide programme known as “Saakshar Bharat” is being implemented. 

(ii) To reduce the curse of poverty government has already started many poverty alleviation programmes like JGSY, SGSY, MGNREGA etc.

(iii) Attempts have also been made for the removal of regional imbalances. 

(iv) Efforts have made to stop gender based discrimination.

Q. 6. Discuss the expected role of citizens in Indian democracy especially in the context of the experience of Indian society and government. 

Ans: Expected Role of Citizens.

(i) Society as a whole governed by people’s elected representatives as its expected that the citizens will be obey and respect the rule formulated by their representatives.

(ii) In a democracy such as India, citizens imbibe and reflect in their mind set, thinking and behaviour the basic values like equality, freedom, secularism, social justice, accountability and respect for all.

Q. 7. What are the qualities that need to be reflected in an individual to be an Indian citizen in true sense?

Ans: (i) He/She must be law obedient.

(ii) He/She must exercise his/her political right.

(iii) He/She must participate in public life actively.

Q. 8. Write some good qualities of good citizens.

Ans: Qualities of good citizen: 

(i) He respects the constitution.

(ii) He respects the national symbols. 

(iii) He is ready to sacrifices his life for the cause of nation.



Tick the correct option: 

1. When was Right to Information Act enacted?

(a) 2001

(b) 2005

(c) 1955

(d) 2003

Ans: (b) 2005.

2. Democratia is a __________.

(a) French word 

(b) English word 

(c) Greek word 

(d) Spanish term

Ans: (c) Greek word.

3. Which is an essential condition for democracy?

(a) Political 

(b) Economic

(c) Social 

(d) All of these

Ans: (d) All of these.

4. What was literacy rate among female in 1951?

(a) 18.33% 

(b) 8.9%

(c) 9.8%

(d) 7.8% 

Ans: (b) 8.9%.

5. Which of the following would you consider as a sure effect of demo- cracy?

(a) People making choice for food items.

(b) People making choice of their rules. 

(c) People making choice of their army men. 

(d) People making choice of their religious leaders or head preachers for foreign countries.

Ans: (b) People making choice of their rules. 

6. Which of the following is not reason for the spread of democracy in the first decade after 1945?

(a) Demand by the people.

(b) Imposition by foreign countries. 

(c) Collapse of the foreign rules.

(d) Birth and functioning of the UN.

Ans: (b) Imposition by foreign countries. 

7. Which of the following statement is true about the world now?

(a) There are more people living in the democracies.

(b) There are no more kings in the world. 

(c) There are no more military dictators in the world.

(d) There are communist type of government in all Asian countries. 

Ans: (a) There are more people living in the democracies.

8. Which one of the following statements is true about global democracy?

(a) India should be treated as a special country because a lot of people in our country are poor.

(b) All countries that are ruled by a democratic government should be treated equal.

(c) All countries that have a population above 10,00,000 should be treated equal.

(d) All countries in the world should be treated equally.

Ans: (d) All countries in the world should be treated equally.

9. Modern democracy is known as:

(a) Direct democracy 

(b) People’s democracy

(c) Representative democracy

(d) None of the above. 

Ans: (c) Representative democracy.

10. According to census 2011 the literacy rate among women is ____________.

(a) 70.04%

(c) 66.76%

(b) 65.46%

(d) 76.04%

Ans: (b) 65.46%.

11. According to UNDP Report what was India’s rank out of 182 countries in 2009?

(a) 127

(b) 172

(c) 134

(d) 106

Ans: (c) 134.

12. Based on the current criteria of the Planning Commission estimated poverty ratio as a whole country in India in 2004-2005 is __________.

(a) 27.5%

(b) 25.7%

(c) 28.1%

(d) 14.71%

Ans: (a) 27.5%.

13. In which of the following state is lowest sex ratio?

(a) Punjab

(b) Haryana

(c) Uttar Pradesh

(d) Odisha

Ans: (b) Haryana.

14. According to census 2011, the sex ratio of India is __________.

(a) 940/1000

(b) 977/1000

(c) 927/1000 

(d) 866/1000

Ans: (a) 940/1000.

15. When was NLM set-up?

(a) 1989

(b) 1988

(c) 1999

(d) 2001

Ans: (b) 1988.

16. When was Right to Education Act, enacted by the parliament?

(a) 2006

(b) 2003

(c) 2009

(d) 2012

Ans: (c) 2009.

17. In how many districts National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme was launched in beginning?

(a) 100

(b) 150

(c) 200

(d) 600

Ans: (c) 200.

18. How many days employment is ensured in the National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme?

(a) 150

(b) 100

(c) 160

(d) 200

Ans: (b) 100.

19. How much poverty line is fixed for a person of rural areas in 2000 in India?

(a) Rs. 3281

(b) Rs. 454

(c) Rs. 620

(d) Rs. 654

Ans: (a) Rs. 3281.

20. Which group had the highest poverty in 2000 in India?

(a) Scheduled castes

(b) Rural agricultural labor 

(c) Scheduled tribes

(d) All of the above

Ans: (c) Scheduled tribes.

21. When the National Food for Work Programme was launched in India? 

(a) 2004

(b) 2005

(c) 2003

(d) 2002

Ans: (a) 2004.

22. In how many backward districts NFWP was launched?

(a) 200

(b) 300 

(c) 150

(d) 250

Ans: (c) 150.

23. When was Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana launched?

(a) 1995 

(b) 1999

(c) 1996 

(d) 1993

Ans: (d) 1993.

24. When was Rural Employment Generation Programme launched?

(a) 1995 

(b) 1993

(c) 1999 

(d) 2001

Ans: (a) 1995.

25. When was Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana launched?

(a) 1995 

(b) 1999

(c) 2001 

(d) 2003

Ans: (b) 1999.

26. When was Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana launched?

(a) 1995

(b) 1999 

(c) 2000 

(d) 2003

Ans: (c) 2000.

27. Which region has the largest concentration of the poor?

(a) China 

(b) India

(c) Japan

(d) Sub-Saharan Africa

Ans: (d) Sub-Saharan Africa.

28. Which is the most vulnerable group of poverty in India?

(a) General 

(b) SC

(c) ST

(d) IRDP

Ans: (c) ST.

29. Who estimate the poverty line?

(a) President

(b) Prime Minister

(c) Chief Minister

(d) NSSO

Ans: (d) NSSO.

30. Which organization reports on unemployment and employment among social groups in India?

(a) National Human Rights Commission.

(b) National Sample Survey Organisation.

(c) Indian Statistical Institute.

(d) Ministry of Human Resource Development.

Ans: (d) Ministry of Human Resource Development.

31. Who is considered as poor?

(a) A rich landlord

(b) A business man

(c) Landless laborer

(d) A teacher

Ans: (c) Landless laborer.

32. What is the average of people below poverty line for all groups in India? 

(a) 26%

(b) 20%

(c) 30%

(d) 36%

Ans: (a) 26%.

33. Which one of the following is the main aim of Prime Minister Rozgar Yojna (PMRY)? 

(a) To create self employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns.

(b) To provide government jobs to the educated people of towns and cities 

(c) To provide government jobs to the uneducated people of the towns and cities. 

(d) None of the above

Ans: (a) To create self employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns.


Q. 1. What is democracy?

Ans: Democracy is a government of the people, for the people, by the people. 

Q. 2. Write the various forms of democracy existed in the world.

Ans: Two various terms of democracy existed in the world are:

(i) Direct Democracy

(ii) Indirect Democracy

Q. 3. What do you know about direct democracy? 

Ans: Direct democracy is a form of democracy in which people themselves assemble in the form of legislators from time to time. They pass the laws and form the policy of the irrespective country.

Q. 4. What is indirect democracy? 

Ans: A form of democracy in which people elect their representatives. They govern and take decision on the behalf of the people. This type of democracy is also known as representative form of democracy.

Q. 5. What are basic features of democracy? Write any three basic or essential principles of democracy.

Ans: (i) Rule of law. 

(ii) Sovereignty of the people.

(iii) Liberty.

(iv) Equality.

Q. 6. Write any four challenges faced by Indian democracy.

Ans: Challenges faced by Indian Democracy:

(i) Challenge of poverty.

(ii) Challenge of illiteracy. 

(iii) Challenge of communalism.

(iv) Challenge of regional imbalance. 

Q. 7. What is sex ratio?

Ans: Sex ratio refers to number of female per thousand male. According to census 2011 it was only 943 females per 1000 males.

Q. 8. What are the three major challenges to Indian polity? 

Ans: Three major challenges to Indian polity are:

(i) Casteism.

(ii) Communalism.

(iii) Religious fundamentalism.

Q. 9. According to Transparency International what are main reasons for judicial corruption in India?

Ans: Reasons for Judicial corruption in India are:

(i) Delays in the disposal of cases.

(ii) Shortage of judges and complex procedure, all of which are exacerbated by a preponderance of new laws.

Q. 10. What is poverty?

Ans: Poverty is a situation under which a man is unable to get minimum consumption for life, health and efficiency.

Q. 11. What is poverty line?

Ans: It (poverty line) refers to the cut off point on the line of distribution which divides the population as poor and non-poor.

Q. 12. What do you mean by a citizen? 

Ans: A citizen is a person who lives in a state permanently and enjoys all the civic and political rights given by the state.


Q. 1. Why is democracy considered best from of government?

Ans: 1. Democracy is better than any other form of government in responding to the needs of the people. A non-democratic government can respond to the people’s needs, but it all depends on the wishes of the people who rules.

2. If the rulers don’t want to, they don’t have to act according to the wishes of the people.

3. A democracy requires that the rulers have to attend to the needs of the people. A democratic government is better a government because it is a more accountable form of government.

Q. 2. What are the three merits of democracy?

Ans: Three merits of democracy are as follows:

1. Democracy assures equality: The democratic form of government stands for equality both in the economic and political fields. It assures the right to vote, the right to contest elections and the right to hold public office without any discrimination on the basis of caste, color, creed or sex. It repudiates special privileges. In the economic field it ensures equality of opportunity and economic security to the masses. 

2. It upholds individual liberties: Democracy is the only form of government which upholds individual’s liberties and guarantees their rights through constitutional safeguards. Mill defends democracy on these basis. The freedom of speech, expression, press and association are some of the important civil rights assured to. the people.

3. Willing obedience of laws: There is very little possibility on the part of the people of breaking or violating the laws of the state. In monarchical and aristocratic types of government laws are not framed on the will of people. Their force is needed for rendering obedience to laws. But in democracy, the people themselves make laws and they cannot afford to break the laws themselves.

Q. 3. What are the defects of democracy? 

Ans: 1. Leaders keep changing in a democracy. This leads to instability.

2. Democracy is all about political competition and power play. There is no scope for morality.

3. So many people have to be consulted in a democracy that it leads to delays.

4. Elected leaders do not know the best interest of the people. It leads to bad decisions. 

5. Democracy leads to corruption for it is based on electoral competition.

6. Ordinary people don’t know what is good for them; they should not decide anything. 

Q. 4. Which are the reasons or arguments given against democracy? 

Ans: 1. Army is the most disciplined and corruption free organization in the country. Therefore army should rule the country.

2. The rule of majority means the rule of ignorant people. What we need is the rule of the wise even if they are in small numbers.

3. If we want religious leaders to guide us in spiritual matters why not invites them to guide us in politics as well. The country should be ruled by religious leaders.

Q. 5. How far it is correct that no country is a perfect democracy? 

Ans: 1. Every democracy has to try to realize the ideals of a democratic decision making. This cannot be achieved once and for all. This requires a constant effort to save and strengthen democratic forms of decision making. What we do as citizens can make a difference to making our country more or less democratic. This is the strength and the weakness of democracy: the fate of the country depends not just on what the rulers do, but mainly on what we, as citizens, do..

2. This is what distinguished democracy from other governments. Other forms of government like monarchy, dictatorship or one party rule do not require all citizens to take part in politics. 

Q. 6. Explain how the economic and social equality is the basis for success of democracy.

Ans: Economic equality: Economic e quality means that there is no discrimination on the basis of economic status of a person. Efforts are made to bridge the gap between rich and poor in democracy. At least minimum needs fulfilled. There should be no economic exploitation.

Social equality: There should be no discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, color or religion. Equal opportunities should be available to all.

In a democratic system all people should have right of good governance only due to social and economic equality. People participate equally in political processes. 

Therefore, social and economic equality is necessary for the success of a democracy.

Q. 7. Explain the meaning of democracy. Write any two character istics of ancient democracy.

Ans: I. Meaning of Democracy: The word democracy consists of two Greek words “Demos and Kratia” where demos means people and croatia means power. Thus democracy means the government by the people. American President, Abraham Lincoln has rightly described democracy as government of the people, for the people and by the people.’ Such a government works for the welfare of the people. 

II. Characteristics of ancient democracy:

(i) In ancient period, direct democracy was practiced because there were small states which had small populations.

(ii) This democracy was not based on equality. Only few rich people were allowed to vote.

Q. 8. How far is it correct that democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts?

Ans: 1. In any society people are bound to have differences of opinions and interests. These differences are particularly sharp in a country like ours which has an amazing social diversity. People belong to different regions, speak different languages, practice different religions and have different casts. They look at the world very differently and have different preferences.

2. The preferences of one group can clash with those of other groups. How do we resolve such a conflict? The conflict can be solved by brutal power. Whichever groups is more powerful will dictate its terms and others will have to accept that. But that would lead to resentment and unhappiness.

3. Different groups may not be able to live together for long in such a way. Democracy provides the only peaceful solution to this problem. In democracy, no one is a permanent winner. No one is a permanent loser. Different groups can live with one another peacefully. In a diverse country like India, democracy keeps our country together.

Q. 9. Why a democratic government cannot do whatever it likes?

Ans: 1. A democratic government cannot do whatever it likes, simply because it has won an election. It has to respect some basic rules. In particular it has to respect some guarantees to the minorities.

2. Every major decision has to go through a series of consultations. Every office bearer has certain rights and responsibi- lities assigned by the constitution and the law. 

3. Each of these is accountable not only to the people but also to other independent officials.

Q. 10. Name the targeted anti-poverty programmes.

Ans: Following are the targeted anti- poverty programmes:

1. National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREGA) 2005.

2. National Food for Work Programme (NFWP).

3. Prime Minister Rozgar Yozana (PMRY) 

4. Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP).

5. Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY).

6. Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana. (PMGY).

7. Antyodaya Anna Yozana (AAY).

Q. 11. Write down the various dimensions of poverty. 

Ans: Various dimensions of poverty: 

1. Poverty means hunger and lack of shelter.

2. It is a situation in which parents are not able to send their children to school. 

3. It is a situation where sick people cannot afford treatment. 

4. Poverty also means lack of clean water and sanitation facilities. 

5. It also means lack of a regular job at a minimum decent level.

Q. 12. Why is it expected that poverty will decline in next 10-15 years due to some reasons? Write down these reasons.

Ans: It is expected that poverty will decline in next 10-15 years due to following reasons:

1. Economic growth. 

2. Check on the growth of population at increasing scale.

3. Empowerment of women and economically weaker sections of society. 

4. Primary elementary education.

5. Expansion in infrastructure.

6. Industrialisation of the country.

7. Creation of new jobs.

Q. 13. There has been decline in poverty in  the following states/countries due to some reasons. Write down these reasons. 

1. Punjab and Haryana.

2. West Bengal. 

3. China and Southeast Asian countries. 

4. Kerala. 

5. Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.


Name of the State/CountryReasons for decline in poverty
1. Punjab and Haryana1. High agricultural growth
2. West Bengal2. Land reforms.
3. China and Southeast Asian Countries3. Rapid economic growth and massive investments in human resources development.
4. Kerala4. More focus on human resources development.
5. Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu5. Improvement in public distribution of food grains.

Q. 14. Answer the following both questions: 

(a) What is a challenge? What is its importance?

(b) Discuss briefly foundational challenge of making transition to democracy? 

Ans: (a) I. Challenge: We usually call only those difficulties a ‘challenge’ which are significant but which can be overcomes. 

II. Importance: Once we overcome a challenge we can go up to a higher level than before.

(b) Foundational challenge of making democracy: 

(i) The foundational challenge of making transition to democracy involves bringing down the existing non- democratic regime.

(ii) It aims keeping military away from controlling government and administration. 

(iii) The foundational challenge also wants to establish a sovereign and functional state. 

Q. 15. What is communalism? How is it a hindrance in progress of our democracy?

Ans: I. Communalism: It is a feeling under which a person considers the people of his own religion to be his friends but those of other religion to be his enemies.

II. Communalism as a great hindrance in the progress of India’s democracy: Communalism leads to the feeling of hatred and discard between man and man and thus hits the unity of the nation endangering the democratic set-up. 

Q. 16. What is poverty? How can we remove it?


How can we put an end to the evil of economic inequality?

Ans: I. Poverty: Poverty is the surface manifestation of economic inequality in which a section of society starves while the other wishes in ego.

II. Method to remove or to end economic inequality: 

(i) Reforms in taxation. 

(ii) reforms in education system.

(iii) sound criticism upon consequences of equality. 

(iv) to strike a balance between capitalism and socialism.

Creation of more employment opportunities and a check upon population growth are twin remedies.

Q. 17. What are the main problems of Indian democracy? Briefly tell how can we remove inequality of women.

Ans: I. Main problems of Indian democracy: 

(i) Casteism. 

(ii) communalism. 

(iii) inferiority of women. 

(iv) economic inequality. 

(v) illiteracy. 

(vi) poverty. 

(vii) unemployment.

II. Method to remove inequality of women: Women should struggle themselves to have their rights asserted and equal participation in Parliament and State Assemblies.

Q. 18. ‘Most of the established democracies face the challenge of expansion.’ Explain.

Ans: This challenge involves applying the basic principles of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions, ensuring greater power to local governments, extension of federal principle to all the units of the federation, inclusion of women and minority groups in democratic institutions.

Expansion of democracy cannot take place if maximum decisions are not made inside the arena of democratic control. Most countries including India and old democracies like the US face this challenge.

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