NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 10 Childhood

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 10 Childhood Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 10 Childhood Notes and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 10 Childhood Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Psychology Notes Paper 222.

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 10 Childhood

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 10 Childhood Solutions, NIOS Secondary Course Psychology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 10



Write short answers to the following questions:

Q.1. Give names of any 3 gross motor skills developed in childhood.

Ans: Crawling, standing, walking.

Q.2. Give names of any 3 fine motor skills developed in childhood.

Ans: Grasping, pinching, holding pencil.


Q.1. Write short answers to the following questions:

(a) List any 3 major features of the preoperational stage.

Ans: Create mental images, store it, talk about events, people create new scenes from imagination.

(b) Describe any 3 major achievements of the concrete operational stage.

Ans: Understanding logical principles improvement in spatial reasoning language Development.


Q.1. Fill in the blanks in the following statements:

(a) The development of empathy depends on ________ and __________ development.

Ans: Cognitive and language.

(b) Girls in middle childhood attach more importance to good ____________ relations while boys give more importance to own social ____________.

Ans: Interpersonal and prestige.

(c) A child who is liked by some but disliked by other peers is called __________.

Ans: Controversial.

(d) When two children are playing without interaction, it is called _________ play.

Ans: Parallel.

(e) An internal determiner of emotional development is the child’s ___________.

Ans: Temperament.


Q.1. Give brief answers to the following questions.

(a) What do you understand by the term ‘Socialisation’?

Ans: Acquiring norms values, beliefs, Regulation discipline of undesirable behaviour, agents of socialisation.

(b) State the major types of parenting styles.

Ans: Authoritarian, permissive, authoritative and neglectful.


(a) Discuss the major features of physical development in early childhood.

Ans: Early childhood covers the period from 2 to 6 years. It is also known as the preschool stage. The child who has become mobile is now able to widen the sphere of activities beyond the immediate family. Through interaction with the wider society and the environment the child learns the rules of appropriate social behaviour of and develops mental abilities which prepare him/her for formal education and schooling. Most infants appear to be quite clumsy in their physical and motor activities. But gradually their locomotion skills become refined and graceful. Body balance while walking and running improves noticeably. A 3-year-old can run in a straight line and jump smoothly without falling down. A 4-year-old can skip, jump on one foot and catch a large ball thrown from a distance.

(i) 2-3 years: Undresses self and assists with dressing, Copies a circle and a cross, Strings four large beads, Turns a single page, Snips with scissors on a line, Buttons/unbuttons large buttons.

(ii) 3-5 years: Copies a square, Prints own name – tripod pencil grasp, Ties shoelaces, Cuts on line continuously, Prints some capital letters.

(iii) 5-7 years: Copies a triangle, Cuts our simple shapes, Copies first name, Prints numerals 1 to 5, Colour within lines, Pastes and glues appropriately.

(b) Describe the major features of motor development in middle childhood.

Ans: During this period children show fast change in social relationships. They use social comparison to distinguish themselves from others. They start seeing things from another’s perspective. A child begins to weigh self-worth and increasingly compares himself/herself with peers. Children are now able to understand emotions of pride and shame and can experience more than one emotion in a given situation. They can suppress or conceal emotions more effectively and use self-acquired strategies to cope. In this period, children internalise or begin to control their values and feelings from within. They start making judgments at this age that impact moral development. Gender differences are observed during middle childhood. Girls may attach greater importance to good interpersonal relationships and the family while boys may emphasise the importance of social prestige. A prevalent problem among children of this age group is bullying. Researchers have found that bullies display certain characteristics, such as being intrusive, having demanding but unresponsive parents. Victims are often depressed and have lower self-esteem.In middle childhood, self-concept changes from a focus on observable characteristics and typical behaviour and emotions to an emphasis on personality traits, positive and negative characteristics, and social comparisons. The child begins to see his or her own strengths and limitations. This helps the move towards achievement of an identity.

(c) Discuss the main differences between the preoperational stage and concrete stage of Piaget’s theory.

Ans: Early childhood, from 2 to 6 years, is the phase when the child progresses through the Preoperational stage. 

There are two sub-stages of the Preoperational Stage:

(a) Symbolic Function (2 to 4 years).

(b) Intuitive Thought (4 to 7 years).

During the Symbolic Function substage, children can create mental images of objects and store them in their minds for later use. For example, such a child can draw a picture of or pretend to play with a puppy that is no longer present there. Children can talk about people who are travelling, or who live somewhere else. They can also talk about or draw places they visited, as well as create new scenes and creatures from their imagination. Children can also use their mental images of things to role-play in games. Piaget also believed that pre operational children have a style of thinking characterised by Egocentrism, or the inability to see the world from someone else’s point of view. According to Piaget, children with egocentrism explain situations from their own perspective and understanding. 

The next substage in Piaget’s Preoperational cognitive development stage is the Intuitive Thought substage, which spans ages 4-7 years. Children in this substage of development learn by asking questions such Piaget labelled this “intuitive thought” because he believed that children at this stage tend to be so certain of their knowledge and understanding that they are unaware of how they gained this knowledge in the first place. These children show “Centration”. They focus on one characteristic of object and base their decisions or judgement on that only. During early childhood, children’s ability to understand, process, and to produce language also improves rapidly. There is a ‘language explosion’ between 3 and 6 years. At age 3, their spoken vocabularies consist of roughly 900 words. By age 6, spoken vocabularies expand dramatically to anywhere between 8,000 and 14,000 words.

(d) Explain the major features of emotional development in early childhood.

Ans: The major features of emotional development in early childhood are mentioned below: 

(i) The first emotions that can be recognised in babies include joy, anger, sadness and fear. As children’s sense of self develops, more complex emotions like shyness, surprise, elation, embarrassment, shame, guilt, pride and empathy emerge.

(ii) Children’s sense of self develops, more complex emotions like shyness, surprise, elation, embarrassment, shame, guilt, pride and empathy emerge. 

(iii) Emotional development is one of the key factors to notice in a child’s growth. The emotional development in kids is given equal importance as that of physical growth.

(e) Discuss how cultural factors influence the process of socialisation in childhood.

Ans: The process of acquiring norms, values and beliefs, which are considered significant in a society, is called socialisation. It is the process of transmitting cultural values, preferences and patterns of behaviour to children. This is done by various processes, institutions and people. Socialisation involves regulating children’s behaviour and disciplining their undesirable or inappropriate behavioural tendencies. Parents, families, children’s peer groups, schools, religious institutions and mass media such as television are some important agents of socialisation. They influence the process of child rearing directly as well as indirectly and reinforce culturally appropriate modes of thought and behaviour. Early childhood is a crucial period of development because during this period children learn a great deal about the norms, conventions and practices in their families, society and culture. They acquire language and learn the fundamentals of culture. 

The primary socialisation agents during this period are the family members. Middle childhood is the time when influence of peers and school becomes prominent, though family context remains important. The effect of media such as television and computers is undeniable. This is the time when social stereotypes and prejudices are most likely to develop. Much research has been done on the impact of parenting styles on the socialisation of the child. 

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