NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 9 Nature and Determinants of Development

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 9 Nature and Determinants of Development Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 9 Nature and Determinants of Development Notes and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 9 Nature and Determinants of Development Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Psychology Notes Paper 222.

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 9 Nature and Determinants of Development

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 9 Nature and Determinants of Development Solutions, NIOS Secondary Course Psychology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 9



Q.1. Write True/False against each statement:

(a) Development refers to both quantitative and qualitative changes. T/F

Ans: True.

(b) Development follows a constant rate. T/F

Ans: False.

(c) The study of development does not cover old age. T/F

Ans: False.

(d) A person may show increase in some aspects and show decline in other aspects at the same time T/F

Ans: True.

(e) Enrichment of the environment can produce dramatic changes. T/F

Ans:  True.

Q.2. Write short answers to the following questions: 

(a) Explain the concept of development.

Ans: The term “development” is generally used to refer to the dynamic process by which an individual grows and changes throughout its life-span. It is often thought of as the process of qualitative change taking place from conception to death. In this way development is a broad term and deals with all areas including physical, motor, cognitive, physiological, social, emotional and personality. It should be noted that developments in all these areas are interrelated. For example, a 13 year-old girl undergoes physical and biological changes in her body and such changes are in turn related to her mental, social and emotional development.

(b) State any three major characteristics of human development.

Ans: Three major characteristics of human development:

(i) Development is a life-long process, spanning from conception till death. 

(ii) Developmental changes are often systematic, progressive and orderly. They usually follow a pattern, proceeding from general to specific, and from simple to complex and integrated levels of functioning. 

(iii) Development is multidirectional, i.e. some areas may show a sharp increase while other areas may show a decline. Developmental changes usually involve an increase in maturity towards higher levels of functioning, e.g. increase in vocabulary’s size and complexity. But it may also involve a decrease or loss, such as in bone density or memory in old age.


Q.1. Fill in the blanks in the following statements:

(a) Improvement in memory and language indicates development in the ___________ domain.

Ans: Cognitive.

(b) Interpersonal relationships fall in the ___________ domain.

Ans: Socio-emotional.

(c) Changes in size and structure of the body fall in the ____________ domain of Development.

Ans: Physical.

(d) ___________ broad domains of development can be categorised for the sake of convenience.

Ans: Three.


Q.1. Write True or False after each statement:

(a) Developmental stages have a fixed age range.

Ans: False.

(b) Prenatal period extends from birth to conception.

Ans: False.

(c) Adolescence is marked by rapid physical and psychological changes.

Ans: True.

(d) There are four stages in the Hindu view of development.

Ans: True.

(e) The Hindu concept of development encourages staying away from the family.

Ans: False.

(f) Developmental tasks are social expectations of a particular age group.

Ans: True.

Q.2. Write short answers to the following questions:

(a) State the major stages of development as described in ancient Hindu texts.

Ans: Most psychologists identify the following stages of development:

(i) Prenatal period (from conception to birth): In this period, the single-celled organism changes into a human baby within the womb.

(ii)  Infancy and toddlerhood (birth-2 years): Rapid changes in the body and brain help several sensory, motor, social and cognitive capacities to emerge.

(iii) Early childhood (2-6 years): Motor skills are refined, language develops, ties are formed with peers, and the child learns through play.

(b) What do you understand by the term “developmental tasks”?

Ans: Developmental stage is characterised by a dominant feature or a leading characteristic which determines its uniqueness. For example, a child is expected to go to school and study while an adult is expected to work and raise a family. Certain characteristics stand out more prominently than others and each period is called a stage. People learn certain behaviour patterns and skills more easily and successfully at certain stages and this becomes a social expectation. For example, a child is supposed to be able to go independently to school in middle childhood. Such social expectations of a particular age common to all persons constitute “developmental tasks”. If a person is able to master the developmental task of a particular stage, he or she is considered to have successfully moved on to the next stage of development.


Q.1. Fill in the blanks in the following statements:

(a) Heredity is determined at the time of ____________.

Ans: Conception.

(b) There are ___________ pairs of chromosomes in a human cell.

Ans: 23. 

(c) Genes can be ___________ or __________.

Ans: Dominant and recessive.

(d) Characteristics that are carried in the genetic code but not displayed are called ______________.

Ans: Genotypes.

(e) In the ecological systems theory, the layer which consists of cultural values, laws and customs is called the ___________.

Ans: Macrosystem.

(f) External agents that can harm the unborn baby in the womb are called ___________.

Ans: Teratogens.

Q.2. Write short answers to the following questions:

(a) Explain the terms ‘genotype” and “phenotype”.

Ans: The dominant gene, therefore, is the one responsible for a particular trait to show up in a person. The characteristics which show up and are displayed e.g. eye colour, are called phenotypes. The recessive gene does not show up as a trait, unless paired with another gene just like it. The characteristics that are carried genetically as Recessive genes but are not displayed are called genotypes. 

Genotype, therefore, refers to the actual genetic material or a person’s genetic heritage while phenotype refers to the individual’s physical and behavioural characteristics which are determined by both genetic and environmental factors.

(b) Briefly explain the main features of the ecological systems theory of Development.

Ans: The ecological systems theory of development are: 

(i) It helps us to know what to expect of the individual’s capability at a particular age.

(ii) It gives information on when to provide opportunities and stimulation for optimal Development.

(iii) It helps to parents, teachers and others who work with children, to prepare them for the physical and psychological changes that are to take place.

(iv) It helps us to be prepared for changes in our bodies and personalities as we grow older.

(v) It helps us to understand that it is possible to facilitate the process of development by providing an enriched environment.


Q.1. Differentiate between the terms “development”, “growth”, “maturation” and “Evolution”.

Ans: Development: The term “development” is often used interchangeably with “growth” and “maturation”, but these terms need to be carefully distinguished. 

Growth: “Growth” generally refers to the quantitative additions or changes in the organic structure. For instance as we become older, the body size, height, weight, proportion of parts of our body change in measurable ways. Also, the vocabulary increases. “Development” on the other hand, is a broader term which often includes growth, but is used more to refer to functional and qualitative changes in cognitive ability, perceptual ability, personality and emotional development and so on.

Maturation: “Maturation” is a term that refers to the natural unfolding of changes with increasing age, e.g. hormonal changes as the individual reaches puberty. An example of this can be seen in breast development which is influenced by release of oestrogen when a girl reaches adolescence. Maturation refers to the changes which are primarily biological in nature and occur due to our genetic programme. Our biological structure follows a predetermined course of changes with time. This can be seen in the development of teeth during childhood. Changes in body proportions with age provide an example of such predetermined universal trends. The size of the head is roughly half of the whole body at birth, but the proportion keeps decreasing until adulthood, when it is less than one-fourth of the whole body. Therefore, maturational changes in our body are primarily due to the ageing process rather than learning or other factors such as illness or injury.

It must be noted that changes in behaviour also occur due to “learning”. Learning takes place as a result of a person’s interaction with the environment. Maturation provides the raw material and sets the stage for learning to occur. Taking the case of learning to read, the child needs to be biologically ready. The eyes need to develop proper focusing ability before a child can learn to read. Therefore, maturation and learning jointly bring about changes in a person’s behaviour.

Evolution: “Evolution” is a term that refers to species-specific changes. Evolutionary changes happen very gradually and are passed on from one generation to the other so that the species is better equipped for survival. The evolution from apes to human beings took place over a period of about 14 million years. Changes that occur at the level of species are called phylogenetic and those that occur at the level of individual are called ontogenetic. The term evolution is also used to describe the incremental changes that take place in the course of development.

Q.2. Describe the major domains of development.

Ans: Development is an inclusive term that incorporates changes in several areas. 

These areas or domains deal with three broad categories:

(i) Physical and motor development: It refers to changes in body-size and structure, functioning of various body systems, brain development, perceptual and motor development.

(ii) Cognitive development: It refers to the development of cognitive and intellectual processes, including memory, attention, intelligence , academic knowledge, problem solving, imagination and creativity. It also includes development of language.

(iii)  Socio-emotional development: It refers to how we develop relationships with other people, and how our emotions emerge and change as we grow older. It includes emotional communication and self-control, understanding of self and others, interpersonal skills, personality, and emergence of friendship and moral reasoning.

Q.3. Identify the major stages of human development.

Ans: The major stages of human development are:

(i) Prenatal period (from conception to birth): In this period, the single-celled organism changes into a human baby within the womb.

(ii) Infancy and toddlerhood (birth-2 years): Rapid changes in the body and brain help several sensory, motor, social and cognitive capacities to emerge.

(iii) Early childhood (2-6 years): Motor skills are refined, language develops, ties are formed with peers, and the child learns through play.

(iv) Middle childhood (6-11 years): These are the school years when the child acquires literacy skills, thought processes are refined, friendships emerge and self-concept is formed.

(v) Adolescence (11-20 years): This period is marked by puberty which signals the onset of rapid physical and hormonal changes, emergence of abstract thinking, sexual maturity, stronger peer ties, sense of self and autonomy from parental Control.

(vi) Early adulthood (20-40 years): This is the stage of life when the youngster leaves home for the sake of education, or to find a career, and to form intimate relationships leading to marriage and having children.

(vii) Middle adulthood (40-60 years): At this stage the person is at the peak of his/her career. There is a need to help children begin independent lives, and to look after own parents who are ageing.

(viii) Late adulthood (60 years till death): This period is marked by retirement from work, decrease in stamina and physical health, bonding with grand-children, and dealing with impending old age and death of self and spouse.

Q.4. Discuss the relative importance of nature and nurture in development.

Ans: The relative importance of nature and nurture in development are: 

(i) Brahmacharya: During this period the major task is learning while living as a student under the guidance of a Guru, with emphasis on discipline and simple Living.

(ii) Grihastha: In this phase of life an individual has to work and take on the responsibility of raising and maintaining a family within the social context.

(iii) Vanaprastha: It is a period of seclusion after one has raised the family and completed the duties towards it. It requires severe discipline and austerity and sharing responsibilities with the younger people.

(iv) Sanyasa: It is the final stage of life when one needs to achieve complete detachment from worldly objects, freedom from desire, and move towards ultimate self-knowledge and renunciation from the world.

These stages of ashramas are based on the principle that a human being should grow, participate and discharge worldly duties and contribute to the progress and welfare of society and move towards liberation and spiritual growth. It is desired that the older persons should give way to the younger generation. In this scheme one lives in a web of obligations to society as well as the environment including all living beings such as animals and trees. It emphasises co-existence with this whole living world rather than being a consumer and exploiting the environment for personal gains.

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