NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 3 Individual Differences

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 3 Individual Differences Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 3 Individual Differences Notes and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 3 Individual Differences Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Psychology Notes Paper 222.

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 3 Individual Differences

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 3 Individual Differences Solutions, NIOS Secondary Course Psychology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 3



Q.1. Explain the term ‘individual differences’.

Ans: Extent and kind of variations or similarities among people on psychological characteristics. They occur due to interaction of genetic and environmental factors.


Q.1. Define psychological assessment. Explain the need for psychological assessment.

Ans: Use of specific procedures employed in evaluating personal qualities, behaviours and abilities of individuals.

Q.2. Discuss in brief the main properties of a psychological test.

Ans: Reliability, validity, standardisation.


Q.1. What do you understand by the term intelligence?

Ans: Aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and deal effectively with the environment.

Q.2. What is IQ?

Ans: Intelligence quotient is mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100 IQ = MA/CA × 100.


Q.1. Define aptitude.

Ans: Combination of characteristics that indicates an individual’s capacity to acquire some specific skill or knowledge after training.

Q.2. What do you understand by aptitude batteries?

Ans: Aptitude batteries Are developed to assess aptitude eg. Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) and General aptitude Test Battery (GATB).


Q.1. Define personality. Describe any two perspectives on personality?

Ans: Person’s unique and relatively stable behaviour pattern which remains consistent across situations and over a period of time. Trait perspective, biological perspective, psychodynamic perspective, socio-cultural perspective, humanistic perspective (any two).


Q.1. What is a self-report measure of personality?

Ans: Person is asked to report about himself / herself on a set of statements.

Q.2. Discuss the use of projective technique in measuring personality.

Ans: Individual has to respond to unstructured or ambiguous stimuli. The responses in the form of projection reflect the nature of his/her personality.

Q.3. What do you understand by situational or observational measure of personality?

Ans: Behaviour of individuals is observed in purposefully designed situations.


Q.1. What do you understand by the term “individual differences”?

Ans: Individual differences referring to the extentand kind of variations or similarities among people on some of the important psychological aspects such as intelligence, personality, interest, and aptitude. This lesson will also help us understand how to assess such similarities or variations among individual.

Q.2. Define Intelligence. Name any two Intelligence Tests.

Ans: Thus a person, if found to be of average intelligence on one occasion should also appear of average intelligence if tested after two weeks.

If a test tells two different value while assessing the object on two occasions then it will be called unreliable.

(i) A test of intelligence can be called reliable only when a person scores high or low consistently on both the occasions.A good test is found to have high reliability.

(ii) The validity of a test refers to the degree to which it assesses what it intends to assess. A valid test of personality gives a measure of person’s personality and predicts behaviour in situations where that aspect of personality is pertinent.

Q.3. Explain the differences between Intelligence, Aptitude and Achievement.


IntelligenceAptitude Achievement.
Intelligence is the global capacity to the understand  the world , think rationally and use  available resources effective when faced interest Aptitude are aim to uncover  when where you can potentially apply  your skill in the future Achievement are measure what you ‘ve already learned or accomplished 
Intelligence are measure  the innate cognitive  ability your have right now Aptitude refers to an individual characteristic that indicate the potential to develop a culturally valued ability .Achievement typically refers to knowledge and skill that are formally taught in academic  setting 
Intelligence a make of once generally ability and evolves rapidly with the learning they are exposed Aptitude are used to predict how people will  perform  in the future on specific domains .Achievement are provide information about what an individual has learned or acquired .

Q.4. Identify the major perspectives towards the understanding of personality.

Ans: The major perspectives towards the understanding of personality are given below:

(i) The trait perspective tries to describe personality in terms of various traits.Some  times the traits are grouped into clusters. These clusters are called “types”. For instance introversion and extraversion are two types of personality traits.

(ii) The psychodynamic perspective calls attention to the unconscious needs and conflicts as well as the influence of earlier stages of development on our lives. Sigmund Freud, a noted psychologist, provided the core concepts for this Perspective.

(iii) The socio-cultural perspective highlights the importance of the social and cultural environment. In view of this theory, our personality and behaviour patterns are acquired through interaction with others and adoption of social and cultural Norms.

(iv) The humanistic perspective emphasises the enormous potential for freedom and growth present in each one of us. It is a view which is optimistic and emphasises-on positive aspects of life and potentialities.

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