NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 2 Methods of Psychology

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 2 Methods of Psychology Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 2 Methods of Psychology Notes and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 2 Methods of Psychology Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Psychology Notes Paper 222.

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 2 Methods of Psychology

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 2 Methods of Psychology Solutions, NIOS Secondary Course Psychology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 2



Fill in the blanks:

Q.1. ___________ focuses on the role of different parts of brain in regulating feelings, memories, emotions and other aspects of behaviour.

Ans: Biological approach.

Q.2. Focus of the ___________ is on the information processing capacity of the individual.

Ans: Cognitive approach

Q.3. ______________ assumes that the person is active and self-actualizing agent and has a choice in deciding his behaviour.

Ans: Humanistic approach. 

Q.4. According to the _____________ majority of human behaviours are triggered by unconscious motivation.

Ans: Behaviouristic approach

Q.5. The unit of analysis for the ______________ is explicit, objective and overt behaviour and its relationship with environmental Stimulation.

Ans: Behaviouristic approach.


Q.1. Observation is divided into ____________ and ____________ observation depending on the role of observer.

Ans: Participant and non-participant

Q.2. In an experiment the experimenter studies the effect of one variable on the other by deliberately _____________ and  one ____________ Variable.

Ans: Manipulating, controlling

Q.3. In the case study method the main unit of analysis is the _____________ and his experiences across different contexts in life.

Ans: Individual.

Q.4. The variable which is controlled and manipulated by the experimenter is called ___________ variable and the variable on which its impact is studied is known as ____________ variable.

Ans: Independent, dependent.

Q.5. ____________ method is generally used to study the pattern of opinions, attitudes, beliefs and values of the people.

Ans: Survey.


Q.1. A ____________ provides an objective assessment of different qualities and limitations of the individual.

Ans: Psychological test.

Q.2. ____________ of a test refers to its consistency in terms yielding the scores from the representative sample for which it has been designed.

Ans: Reliability.

Q.3. ____________ of a test reveals the extent to which the test measures what it claims to measure.

Ans: Validity

Q.4. A ____________ uses ambiguous, vague and unstructured stimuli such as pictures, inkblots, drawings, incomplete sentences.

Ans:  Projective test.

Q.5. The items (questions) of the questionnaire can be either in _____________ form or in ___________ form.

Ans: Close-ended, open-ended

Q.6. Interview as one of the techniques of data collection is often referred as a _______________ between two persons with a set objective.

Ans: Face-to-face interaction.

Q.7. In the case of ________________ the questions are already framed with the possible options.

Ans: Structured interview.

Q.8. _______________ comprises of a variety of open-ended questions and the interviewee gives his or her responses as freely as possible.

Ans: Unstructured interview.


Q.1. Describe three main approaches used by psychologists to understand mental processes. Why do we need so many approaches to understand human behaviour?

Ans: Three main approaches used by psychologists to understand mental Processes are:

(i) Biological Approach: This approach focuses on biological structures and phenomena such as brain, genes, hormones, endocrine system and neurotransmitters in order to understand the dynamics of behaviour. Its main focus is on the role of different parts of brain in regulating feelings, memories, emotions and other aspects of behaviour. Similarly the impact of over-secretion or under-secretion of different kinds of hormones in governing behaviour is studied. Behaviour genetics as one of the subdisciplines studies the genetic determinants of behaviour. Moreover, this approach looks for physiological basis of human behaviour.

(ii) Psychoanalytic Approach: The father of psychoanalytic approach Sigmund Freud focused on unconscious libidinal energy in describing the present state of the individual. He studied mind in terms of hierarchical arrangements of experiences in the form of different layers of consciousness (e.g. conscious, preconscious, and unconscious). Freud explored the nature and quality of unconscious through analysis f dreams, slips of the tongue, neuroses, psychoses, work of art, and rituals. He assumed that majority of human behaviours are triggered by unconscious motivation. Thus to understand the present human behaviour the analysis of unconscious mental contents is considered most important.

(iii) Humanistic Approach: Contrary to Freud, the father of humanistic approach Carl Rogers put greater emphasis on conscious experiences of the present situation, role of interpersonal experiences across the course of life, and people’s capacity to grow toward psychological maturity. This approach basically assumes that a person is an active and self-actualizing agent and has a choice in deciding his behaviour. As a part of the self-actualizing process a person seeks to maintain a congruence between self and experience. However, because of past experiences with conditional positive regard, he may deny or distort the experiences that threaten one’s self-system. Such a self-system can be changed in the therapeutic setting through genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathic understating of the client’s problem by the therapist.

(iv) Behaviourist Approach: The unit of analysis for this approach is explicit, objective and overt behaviour and its relationship with environmental stimulation. The father of behaviourism J. B. Watson emphasised on objective analysis of behaviour. He advocated that behaviour is largely governed by the association between stimulus and response and the behaviour can be shaped in a desired direction by manipulating this association.

(v) Cognitive Approach:The cognitive approach emerged as an alternative to the mechanistic paradigm of behaviourism. This approach mainly focuses on the study of information processing capacity of the individual in terms of perception, remembering, thinking, language, reasoning, problem solving and decision making which are called higher mental processes. It proposes that we look out for information in the world and our behaviour depends upon the way we process this information.

This approach largely relies on computational models and assumes that behaviour and mental processes can best be understood by treating them in terms of information Processing. personality types vary from person to person, producing different actions and behaviour.

Q.2. Describe the characteristics of scientific method. Explain the use of observation for data collection? 

Ans: The characteristics of scientific method are given below:

(i) Empirical: The scientific method is based on empirical evidence, which means that it relies on observations and experiments.

(ii) Systematic: The scientific method is systematic, which means that it follows a specific set of steps in order to ensure that the results table and repeatable.

The use Observation is a qualitative data collection method that can be used alone or in combination with other methods. It provides detailed information about the setting, participants, and activities associated with the topic of interest. Field notes are used to document observation data, which can be analysed alone or triangulated with other types of data using theoretical or conceptual frameworks or by identifying themes.Observation is a valuable method for health services researchers to understand complex issues in healthcare settings and identify key components involved in a topic of interest. It helps in forming relevant questions, measuring appropriate variables, and designing effective interventions.

Q.3. Discuss the experimental method as a scientific method. Identify the techniques used to control relevant variables?

Ans: Experimentation: In the case of experiment the experimenter studies the effect of one variable on the other by deliberately manipulating and controlling one variable. The variable which is controlled and manipulated by the experimenter is called independent variable (IV) and the variable on which the impact of independent variable is studied is known as dependent variable (DV). In a simple experiment two groups are formed. One is experimental group in which participants receive the independent variable. The other is control group in which behaviour is observed without giving the independent variable. By manipulating independent variable the experimenter is in a position to state that change induced in one variable brings change in another variable. Apart from these variables the experimenter has to also simultaneously take care of other variables which are beyond his or her control. Such variables are called relevant variables and need to be controlled as they might confound the effect of independent variable.  In experimental studies three kinds of relevant variables are taken into account. These are organismic variables, situational variables and sequential variables. Organismic variables are related to personal characteristics of the participants such as age, sex, and personality features. Situational variables are concerned with the quality of physical environment during the conduct of experiment such as temperature, humidity and noise. Sequential variables are related to the very procedure of conducting the experiment when the participant is required to be tested across several conditions. Hence exposure of the participant to varied conditions may result either in attaining proficiency due to practice effects or in developing fatigue and monotony towards experiment. 

Experimenters use the following techniques to control the unwanted effect of relevant Variables.

(i) Elimination: In this technique extraneous variables are eliminated from the experimental setting.

(ii) Making Conditions Constant: In this technique the extraneous variables which cannot be eliminated are kept constant in order to make their effect same during the entire experiment.

(iii) Matching: Through this technique the relevant variables are equated or held constant across all the conditions of experiment.

Q.4. Discuss how psychological tools are used to understand human behaviour and psychological processes.

Ans: psychology employs a range of tools and techniques to gain insights into human behaviour. These tools help them delve deeper into the complexities of the mind and explore the factors that shape our thoughts, emotions, and actions. Let’s explore a few commonly used tools in understanding human behaviour:

(i) Interviews and Questionnaires: Psychologists often use interviews and questionnaires to gather information directly from individuals. Through structured or open-ended questions, they can explore a person’s experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and motivations. These tools allow psychologists to gain subjective perspectives and understand individual differences.

(ii) Psychological Tests: Various standardised tests are designed to assess different aspects of human behaviour. For example, intelligence tests measure cognitive abilities, personality tests delve into personality traits and characteristics, and projective tests explore subconscious thoughts and emotions. These tests provide valuable insights into an individual’s psychological makeup.

(iii) Observations: Psychologists observe individuals in natural or controlled settings to understand their behaviour. They pay close attention to verbal and non-verbal cues, body language, and interactions with others. Observations help identify patterns, triggers, and contextual factors that influence behaviour.

(iv) Case Studies: Case studies involve in-depth examination of a particular individual, group, or situation. Psychologists collect detailed information through interviews, observations, and records, allowing them to gain comprehensive insights into specific behaviours, conditions, or circumstances.

(v) Psychophysiological Measures: Psychophysiological measures, such as electroencephalography (EEG), heart rate monitoring, and brain imaging techniques (like functional magnetic resonance imaging – fMRI), help psychologists study the relationship between physiological processes and behaviour. These measures provide insights into the neural and physiological mechanisms underlying behaviour.

(vi) Experimental Studies: In experimental studies, psychologists manipulate variables and observe the effects on behaviour. By carefully controlling conditions, they can establish cause-and-effect relationships and uncover underlying mechanisms. Experimental designs help psychologists understand the impact of different factors on human behaviour.

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