NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 7 Thinking and Problem Solving

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 7 Thinking and Problem Solving Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 7 Thinking and Problem Solving Notes and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 7 Thinking and Problem Solving Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Psychology Notes Paper 222.

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 7 Thinking and Problem Solving

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 7 Thinking and Problem Solving Solutions, NIOS Secondary Course Psychology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 7



Q.1. What is thinking?

Ans: Complex mental process involving manipulation of information.

Q.2. What are the different mental components of thinking?

Ans: Concepts and reasoning.


Q.1. Define problem solving. Discuss the two types of problem solving.

Ans: Directed thinking focussed towards dealing with a specific problem Means-an- analysis and Algorithms.

Q.2. Discuss the role of mental set in problem solving.

Ans: Mental set inhibits the quality of mental activities.


Q.1. What is creativity? What are the possible characteristics of a creative person?

Ans: Thinking which involves reaching out to solutions in a unique and novel way which was nonexistent earlier. Creative persons can be self-assertive, dominant, impulsive, may prefer complexity etc.

Q.2. Discuss in brief the stages of creative thinking.

Ans: Preparation, incubation, illumination, evaluation revision.


Q.1. What is the difference between decision making and judgement? Discuss in brief.

Ans: Decision making is a kind of problem solving. Judgement is a process of forming opinions, arriving at conclusions and making critical evaluations.


Q.1. Give any 2 examples each for

(a) Concepts.

(b) Reasoning.

(c) Problem solving.

Ans: (i) Concepts: Concepts are one of the key elements of thinking. Concepts represent objects, activities, ideas, or living organisms. They also represent properties (such as “sour” or “brave”), abstractions (such as “anger” or “fear”), and relations (such as “smaller than” or “more intelligent than”). Concepts are mental structures which allow us to organise knowledge in systematic ways. We cannot observe them directly, but we can infer them from behaviour.

We as human beings have the capacity to abstract the essential characteristics of objects, events or whatever we perceive. For example, when we see a Potato we categorise it as ‘vegetable’, and when we see a towel we categorise it as ‘cloth’. Whenever we encounter a new stimulus we tend to treat it as a member of a familiar or remembered category and take the same action toward it and give it the same Label.

(ii) Reasoning: Reasoning is also one of the key aspects of thinking. It is a process that involves inference. Reasoning is used in logical thinking and problem solving. It is goal directed, and the conclusions or judgments are drawn from a set of facts. In reasoning, information from the environment and the stored information in the mind are used following certain rules. There are two types of reasoning: deductive and inductive. In deductive reasoning we try to deduce or draw conclusion from a set of initial assertions or premises; whereas in inductive reasoning we start from available evidence to generate a conclusion about the likelihood of something. Most cases of Scientific reasoning are inductive in nature. Scientists and even lay people consider a number of instances and try to determine what general rule covers them all. 

For example, the person is a priest, because he is wearing plain cloth, prays and eats simple food.

(iii) Problem solving: Problem solving is part and parcel of our daily life. Every day we solve a number of problems ranging from simple to complex.

For example if you want to score good marks in an exam, you study hard, take the help of teachers,friends, and parents and finally you score good marks.

Q.3. Explain the concept of decision-making and its importance in daily life.

Ans: We make several decisions in our day-to-day life, such as decisions pertaining to our personal life, social life, education, career etc. When we take a decision which gives us success whereas our faulty decisions do not yield the desired result. 

Decision making is also related with another term ‘judgement’. Let us discuss these two aspects of thinking separately. 

Decision Making: Decision- making is a kind of problem solving in which we select an appropriate alternative out of a number of alternatives available to us. For example, you have the option to choose between History and Psychology courses in your eleventh grade. You attend classes in both the subjects to decide upon the course to choose. Suppose you find that the contents of psychology are relevant, interesting and new and the teacher is intelligent, friendly, knowledgeable, and having good verbal ability; all qualities that you value in a teacher. So, on the basis of judgement about the subject and qualities of the teacher you decide to choose the psychology course.

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