NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 5 Sensory Processes: Attention and Perception

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 5 Sensory Processes: Attention and Perception Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 5 Sensory Processes: Attention and Perception Notes and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 5 Sensory Processes: Attention and Perception Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Psychology Notes Paper 222.

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 5 Sensory Processes: Attention and Perception

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 5 Sensory Processes: Attention and Perception Solutions, NIOS Secondary Course Psychology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 5



Q.1. Discuss the role of vision and hearing in our lives.

Ans: Vision is extremely important. We experience vision with the help of our eyes which are like a camera.

Q.2. Briefly explain the concept of ‘threshold’.

Ans: The minimum amount of change between two stimuli that can be recognised is called “difference threshold”.


Q.1. Explain the concept of perception.

Ans: Perception is when an internal representation of an object that was earlier sensed is formed.

Q.2. Describe the process of perception.

Ans:  When we sense an object, our sensation is in the form of the organisation, depth and consistency of stimulus. Perceptual processes then analyse this into parts and mental processes help us identify the stimulus.


Q.1. Describe various determinants of perceptual organisation.

Ans: Factors which determine perceptual organisation are figure ground organisation, perceptual consistency and depth perception.

Q.2. What do you understand by the term perceptual constancy?

Ans: Perception of an object’s shape, size or brightness remains the same even though its image on the retina has changed. This is called perceptual consistency.

Q.3. Discuss depth perception with help of an example.

Ans: Depth perception is the ability to see three dimensional space and judge distances. For example depth perception helps us drive a motorcycle or a car and helps us catch

a ball.


Q.1. Discuss the concept of Attention?

Ans: Attention is the process by which we notice stimuli. Selective attention is a process in which we give priority to a particular sensory message.

Q.2. Identify the various determinants of attention.

Ans: Determinants of Attention:

(i) Physical factors: All other things being equal, physical factors like repetition, contrast, shape, size, brightness and contrast do affect our attention. A good packaging or bright light attracts us. That is why all big companies invest a lot on packaging their products in an attractive manner. Similarly an advertisement which is published on a regular basis in newspapers and electronic media catches the attention of customers more easily than non-advertised products.

(ii) Motives and attention: Motives also play a role in shaping our perception. For example, if you are hungry food-related words are more likely to gain your attention than non-food words. Advertisers and propagandists take advantage of two motives that are very common in our society: anxiety and sex. Many products such as toothpastes, food products even automotives highlight the health concern to catch the attention of Customers.


Q.1. Describe the importance of perception in our daily life.

Ans: Perception in our daily life: Sensation can be explained as the process by which one form of energy is converted into another form. For example light is converted into neural impulses by which we code sensory events in our system that can be processed by our brain. The sensory systems process information reaching to the brain. The motor systems process information going out of the brain to muscles and glands. Sometimes your parents switch on the T.V. and adjust the volume of sound that they can hear. Suppose you adjust it to a volume which you are able to detect but your mother says that she is unable to hear and asks you to increase the volume. If your mother asks you to stop after some point that means that the difference of adjustment has been noticed by your mother. This minimal amount of change of volume between two stimuli that is being recognized by your mother is called a “difference threshold”. Background of a stimulus also affects our sensation. For example stars are present in the sky in day time and at night but are visible only after sunset or at nighttime because they can not be detected due to the intense background of the daylight sun. 

Sensation and perception work seamlessly together to allow us to experience the world through our eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin, but also to combine what we are currently learning from the environment with what we already know about it to make judgments and to choose appropriate behaviours.

Q.2. Define perception and also discuss principles of perceptual organisation?

Ans: The act or faculty of perceiving, or apprehending by means of the senses or of the mind; cognition; understanding. immediate or intuitive recognition or appreciation, as of moral, psychological, or aesthetic qualities; insight; intuition; discernment: an artist of rare perception.

Principles of perceptual organisation are: 

(a) Proximity: All other factors being equal, stimuli that are near one another tend to be grouped together. For example, if four stand near one another and a fifth 10 feet away, the adjacent four will be seen as a group and the distant fifth as an outsider. Events that are close in time and space are also perceived together.

(b) Similarity: Stimuli that are similar in size, shape or colour tend to be grouped together.

(c) Continuity: Perception tends toward simplicity and continuity. Even if there are dots in a circular fashion, the person will see them as a complete circle.

(d) Closure: It is the tendency to complete a figure that is incomplete but has a consistent overall form.

(e) Common region: Stimuli that are found within a common area tend to be seen as a Group. 

Q.3. Discuss the concept of depth perception and perceptual constancy?

Ans: Depth PerceptionIt is the ability to see three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distances. Withoutdepth perception you can’t ride on a motorcycle, or drive a car, catch a ball, thread a needle or simply walk around a room. The world would look like a flat surface. The ability of depth perception is partly innate and partly learned.

Depth cues are features of environment and messages from the body that supply information about distance and space. The cues which work with just one eye are called monocular cues and those which require two eyes are called binocular cues. Binocular cues are the most basic source of depth perception that is caused due to retina disparity (a discrepancy in the images that reach the right and left eyes). A person with one eye will have very limited depth perception. Pictorial cues for depth are features found in paintings, drawings and photographs that impart information about space, depth and distance. This influence causes apparent perception of things which are not there. For example, if you stand between two railway tracks, they appear to meet at the horizon, even though they actually remain parallel.

Q.4. What do you understand by Extra-sensory perception?

Ans: Extra sensory perception is the ability to perceive objects or events in ways that cannot be explained by known sensory capacities. 

Parapsychology is the study of extra sensory perception phenomena. Events that seem to lie outside the region of accepted scientific laws are called psi-phenomena. An example of extrasensory perception when a person intuitively ‘feels’ that his brother who is in another city is not well. Another example could be when you just ‘know that an earthquake is going to happen in your city. 

Clairvoyance: It is the ability to perceive events or gain information in ways that appear unaffected by distance or normal barriers. Telepathy or perception of another person’s thoughts or the ability to read someone else’s mind. 

Precognition: The ability to predict or perceive accurately future events. 

Psycho-kinesis: The ability to exert influence over inanimate objects by will-power (mind over matter). Some rare persons are able to move objects only through concentration but without touching them.

A few psychologists strongly believe in extrasensory perception but the majority does not subscribe to it.

Q.5. Describe the various applications of perception.

Ans: There are several ways in which knowledge of the process of sensation, perception and attention can be used in everyday life.

(i) Eyewitness: You may be aware that eyewitness testimony is key to decisions in the judiciary. Not only do advocates and police officers lay strong emphasis on eye witness testimony, but they have a strong belief that it is usually correct. But psychologists in large numbers are of the opinion that eyewitness errors are very common in perception. In fact impressions formed when a person is surprised, stressed or threatened are especially prone to distortion. Therefore it would be advisable for the investigative agencies and jurors to gather more evidence instead of solely relying on eyewitness while coming to a conclusion.

(ii) Perceptual awareness and positive psychology: Do some people perceive things more accurately than others? Humanistic psychologists believe that some people perceive themselves and others with unusual accuracy. Habituation is when we stop paying attention to familiar stimuli. When a stimulus is repeated without change our response to it habituates or decreases. It seems that creative people attend to stimuli, even those that are repeated.

(iii) The value of paying attention: We have this general tendency to generalise without paying attention to the diversity of possibilities. Perceptual clarity requires rigorous effort of paying more and more attention. Breaking perceptual habits and interrupting habituation can lead to good results. If you begin to question your own perceptions by bringing another interpretation to the same reality you can get marvellous outcomes in your activities.

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