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NIOS Class 10 English Chapter 24 Co-Operation and Prosper
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Co-Operation and Prosper
Chapter – 24
BOOK – II
LET US DO 24.1
Q. 1. Given in the box below are the names of some of the awards given to people for excellence in different areas. Arrange them in the correct order in the columns in the given table. Start with the highest honour in each column. There will be fewer names in some columns. Some awards have been entered into the correct columns for you.
Q.2. Look at the picture of the medal given to the Param Vir Chakra awardee.
Activity for you to do:
- Form a club of like-minded people. Give it a name.
- Design a medal. (Note: the medal must have a design on both sides)
- Arrange an event or ceremony where you could honour people who have achieved excellence in different fields such as bravery or extraordinary courage, sports, helping others, planting trees, keeping the environment clean, waste recycling and so on.
- Make a medal for each field of excellence.
- Lay down guidelines for the selection of awardees in each category based on:
– what special deeds or acts the persons have done
– how these acts benefited a person or people in your society /community neighbourhood.
- Make the people of your neighbourhood aware of your decision by putting up posters, making announcements, talking to people or visiting houses to inform and explain.
- Decide the date on which the club will confer the medals (awards). If possible invite an important person or a senior citizen of the neighbourhood to present the medals.
Param vir chakra
- Read out the achievements of the person or persons who receive the medal.
24.2 LET US UNDERSTAND THE TEXT
24.2.1 PART -1
The people of Gujarat ……………… came into existence in Gujarat.
Do you know of anyone who was once unhappy for some reason , but is now a happy person because a well meaning, wise and intelligent person had a great idea and showed the way to improve his or her life? In this unit Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel feels sad to see the unhappy condition of the poor cattle-owning farmers of Gujarat who work hard but remain poor because they are cheated by middlemen. In this part of the story you will read how Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel formed Co-operatives.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.1
I. Complete the following statements by ticking the correct choice:
Q.1. The chief means of livelihood of the farmers discussed in the above passage was:
(a) weaving cloth.
(b) cattle rearing.
(d) growing food crops.
(d) trading in sheep and other cattle.
Ans. (b) cattle rearing.
Q.2. The narrator says the farmers in Gujarat worked very hard but they were always in want. The phrase ‘always in want’ means that:
(a) they could not make both ends meet (the money they earned was not enough to meet even their basic needs).
(b) their demands were never ending.
(c) they were greedy.
(d) they wanted to work harder and harder.
Ans. they could not make both ends meet.
Q.3. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel wanted to bring prosperity into their lives. He planned to do so by:
(a) beautifying their villages.
(b) giving them modern facilities.
(c) opening more schools.
(d) organising them into a collective group which would do business collectively and share the profits.
Ans. (d) organising them into a collective group which would do business collectively and share the profits.
Q.4. Tribhuvandas was employed by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel to:
(a) train the villagers to preserve and market milk.
(b) check that they were not being cheated by middlemen.
(c) organise them into a co-operative.
(d) to ensure that no one exploited or harassed anyone.
Ans. (c) organise them into a co-operative.
Q.5. By saying “This marked the birth of Amul Dairy and the rest is history” the narrator means that:
(a) the Amul Dairy plant was the first one to be set up in India.
(b) the Amul Dairy was set up and its success story afterwards is so well known to everyone that it does not need to be told or stated.
(c) the people of Gujarat took part in the historical Freedom Movement of India.
(d) after the dairy started functioning with the help of the farmers’ co-operative, they were no longer poor.
Ans. (b) the Amul Dairy was set up and its success story afterwards is so well known to everyone that it does not need to be told or stated.
Q.6. The farmers were disorganised because:
(a) they were poor.
(b) they were uneducated and simple minded.
(c) they were always fighting amongst themselves.
(d) they were lazy.
Ans. (b) they were uneducated and simple minded.
II. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each:
Q.1. What is the role of middlemen?
Ans. Middlemen go between producers and consumers. They buy from the poor farmers at cheap rates. These producers are sold at huge profits.
Q.2. Why did Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel want to eliminate ‘middlemen’?
Ans. Sardar Vallahbhai Patel felt sorry to see the condition of the poor cattle rearing farmers who remained poor even after working hard.
Q.3. What difficulty did Tribhuvandas face?
Ans. Tribhuvandas had to face the competition from another British company also produced dairy products in Mumbai.
Q.4. Why did Dr. Kurien give up his government job?
Ans. Dr Kurien did not find government job challenging He wanted to create history by doing something different.
III. Read the sentences given below. They are from the text. What do the (Bold Italics) words mean? Tick the word that you think is correct. You may refer to a dictionary if necessary.
1. This task was assigned to Mr. Tribhuvandas Patel.
(a) to sign on a paper.
(b) to select someone.
(c) to give a responsibility to someone.
(d) some sort of work.
Ans. (c) to give a responsibility to someone.
2. This system of co-operative effort eliminated the middlemen.
(a) to kill.
(b) to remove.
(c) to defeat.
(d) to punish.
Ans. (b) to remove.
3. It was kind providence that brought a young energetic, intelligent and ambitious Indian engineer, trained in America, to work at the dairy research institute.
(a) chance or luck.
(b) to provide for.
(c) a messenger of God.
(d) a friend.
Ans. (a) chance or luck.
IV. In the following pairs of sentences, the underlined words have been taken from the text. Only one sentence in each pair uses the underlined word correctly. Identify the correct sentence in each pair by putting a tick mark against it. One example has been done for you.
- Mother Teresa was saddened to see the plight of the helpless orphans and destitutes.
- Mother Teresa was satisfied to see the plight of the orphans.
1. (a) India’s prosperity will depend upon the sincerity and quality of education of its people.
(b) India’s prosperity is due to its large population.
Ans. (a) India’s prosperity will depend upon the sincerity and quality of education of its people.
2. (a) The middlemen were salaried middle class people.
(b) The middlemen were traders who purchased things from villagers at low prices and sold them in the market at higher prices.
Ans. (b) The middlemen were traders who purchased things from villagers at low prices and sold them in the market at higher prices.
3. (a) There was an acute shortage of milk supply in the market. One could see harassed mothers waiting in long queues to get some milk for their babies.
(b) The villagers were happy after the village goonda harassed them
Ans. (a) There was an acute shortage of milk supply in the market. One could see harassed mothers waiting in long queues to get some milk for their babies.
24.2.2 PART – 2
Dr. Verghese Kurien developed …………….. chocolates and ice cream.
In this part of the story you will understand how Amul Dairy Unit became one of the biggest milk producers’ co-operative and how this movement empowered the farmers.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.2
I. State whether the following statements are true or false. Give reasons in support of false statement. One example has been done for you.
- Kurien was an ordinary farmer living in one of the villages of Gujarat. (false) Kurien was not a farmer. He was an engineer from Calicut.
1. Dr. Kurien was able to find a way to challenge his competitor in Bombay.
2. Dr. Kurien ushered the Operation Flood Programme in India.
3. Dr. Kurien showed farmers how to increase their crop production using newer techniques. That is why he is called ‘Father of the Green Revolution’.
4. Dr Kurien kept a large part of the profit for himself as payment for his work, with the result that the farmers’ condition never improved.
5. It is due to Dr. Kurien’s vision and management that our countrymen can get good quality milk to drink.
II. Complete the following crossword with the help of the given clues. All the answers to the clues are words that are taken from the text.
1. another word for a prize.
5. a special ability to do something.
7. a big and complete change in a system.
2. another word for being rich.
3. improvements in a system.
4. a part of the profit which is distributed
to shareholders in a company.
6. the superlative of the adjective ‘large’.
LET US LEARN NEW WORDS 24.2
Study the two words written in bold print below. The two words have the same. pronunciation but different meanings.
For instance, a ‘pear‘ is a fruit which is light green in colour, but a ‘pair‘ refers to two people or two things that belong together or go together.
Study the following pairs of sentences. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words given in brackets. One example has been done for you.
- I went to the market to buy some apples, oranges and pears.
I also bought a pair of shoes for myself. (pair/pears)
1. There was so much noise at the station that I could not _______ the announcements.
Come _______, I’ll explain what has to be done. (here/hear)
2. Look out! _______ is a snake under the mango tree in the garden.
The students will be given _______ report cards tomorrow. (their/there)
3. My sister and her friends were going to watch a movie. i wanted to go _______.
There were _______ books lying on the desk. (two/too)
4. In the olden days pens were made out of _______.
Her handwriting is difficult to _______ (reeds/read)
5. Apple _______ is healthy. should not be removed.
The audience broke into a _______ of laughter when they heard the joke. (peal/peel)
Exercise – 1
Rewrite the sentences using the pronouns he, they, or them in place of the underlined nouns.
1. Jannat unlocked the door of his house. Jannat was very tired so Jannat lay down on his bed to rest.
Ans. Jannat unlocked the door. She was very tired so she lay down on his bed to rest.
2. Hari and Babu work in the same company. Hari and Babu were deputed by their boss to buy some furniture for the office.
Ans. Hari and Babu work in the same company. They were deputed by their boss to buy some furniture for the office.
3. The students were very happy when the Principal told the students that the school had organised an excursion for the students.
Ans. The students were very happy when the Principal told them that the school had organised an excursion for them.
4. Hussain, Ali and Gokul wanted to be in the school cricket team. Hussain, Ali and Gokul requested the team captain to take Hussain, Ali and Gokul in the team. The captain said he would give Hussain, Ali and Gokul a chance to play in his team.
Ans. Hussain, Ali and Gokul wanted to be in the school cricket team. They requested the team captain to take them in the team. The captain said he would give them a chance to play in his team.
5. The children made secret plans. The children did not want the others to know anything. If the others came to know the children’s plans the others would not let the children go out.
Ans. The children made secret plans. They did not want the others to know anything. If the others came to know their plans they would not let them go out.
Exercise – 2
A group of friends are discussing plans for a party. Complete the following dialogue with suitable pronouns from the box given below. You will need to use some of these pronouns more than once.
|him, it, he, our, mine, I, she, you, we, us, they, her.|
Do not forget to use a capital letter when writing a word that begins a sentence.
Nadia: Bhim, let’s organise a birthday party for Geeta next Sunday. What do ______ think?
Ans. Bhim, let’s organise a birthday party for Geeta next Sunday. What do you think?
Bhim: I don’t mind. But _______ was Raja who first suggested this, so, let us ask if he is free on that day.
Ans. I don’t mind. But it was Raja who first suggested this. So, let us ask him if he is free on that day.
Nadia: Who all should _______ invite?
Ans. Who all should we invite?
Bhim: Ravi won’t be here. _______ is going to Lucknow to see his aunt.
Ans. Ravi won’t be here. He is going to Lucknow to see his aunt.
Nadia: What about the food and drink?
Should _______ bring cooked food from home or should we buy ______ from the market?
Ans. What about the food and drinks? Should we bring cooked food from home or should we buy it from the market?
Bhim: I think buying the food would be too expensive. Let each one of _______bring one item.
Ans. I think buying the food would be too
expensive. Let each one of us bring one item.
Nadia: Who do _______ think can arrange a music system for playing music? I would have brought _______ but has gone for repairs.
Ans. Who do you think can arrange a music system for playing music? I would have brought mine but it has gone for repairs.
Bhim: Don’t worry. My neighbours have one. _______ are nice people. If ______ request them, _______ would surely lend _______ to me.
Ans. Don’t worry My neighbours have one. They are nice people. If I request them, they would surely lend it to me.
Nedia: That’s good. Now coming back to _______ list, who else should _______ invite?
Ans. That’s good. Now coming back to our list, who else should we invite?
Bhim: I think we can invite Rose who joined our school last week. _______ seems to be a friendly girl.
Ans. I think we can invite Rose who joined our school last week. She seems to be a friendly girl.
Nedia: Ok, so _______ will invite ______. What about Sanjay? I think he gets along well with Geeta and with all of _______. He is good at organisation games and is also good at cracking jokes. _______ will entertain ______ and make _______ laugh.
Ans. Ok, so we will invite her. What about Sanjay? I think he gets along well with Geeta and with all of us. He is good at organising games and is also good at cracking jokes. He will entertain us and make us laugh.
Bhim: Let’s ask both Rose and Sanjay if _______ would like to join _______ party. It will be nice if _______ agree.
Ans. Let’s ask both Rose and Sanjay if they would like to join our party. It will be nice if they agree.
Exercise – 1
Complete the following sentences with a to + infinitive. Choose an appropriate verb from the box below.
|wear, watch, buy, carry, reach.|
1. If you travel abroad, remember _______ your passport.
Ans. If you travel abroad, remember to carry your passport.
2. I can’t afford ________ the airport late.
Ans. I can’t afford to reach the airport late.
3. He wants ________ the new movie.
Ans. He wants to watch the new movie.
4. He has gone to the market ________ vegetables.
Ans. He has gone to the market to buy vegetables.
5. It will be very cold up in the hills. Don’t forget _______ your woollen cap.
Ans. It will be very cold up in the hills. Don’t forget to wear your woollen cap.
2. Verbs which do not need a ‘to’ before them.
These infinitives are called bare infinitives Bare infinitives often come after a modal verb, but not always. They also come after some other special verbs such as ‘make’ and ‘let’.
- I must finish my work immediately.
- My mother makes me brush my teeth every night before I go to bed.
- Let me help you.
Exercise – 2
Complete each sentence with a suitable verb from the box. Do not use a ‘to’ before the verb.
|borrow, follow, check, practise, visit, complete.|
1. I had better _______ my presentation before going to bed.
Ans. I had better complete my presentation before going to bed.
2. You must _______ the school rules.
Ans. You must follow the school rules.
3. I might _______ my grandmother in September.
Ans. I might visit my grandmother in September.
4. You should always ________ your spelling after you finish writing.
Ans. You should always check your spelling after you finish writing.
5. Our teacher made us ________ many sums before the mathematics examination.
Ans. Our teacher made us practice many sums before the mathematics examination.
6. My elder sister sometimes lets me ________ her new badminton racket.
Ans. My elder sister sometimes lets me borrow her new badminton racket.
3. Adjectives which need a verb with a ‘to’ before it.
- I am glad to see you.
- The cultural programme put up by children was exciting to watch.
- He is not strong enough to walk ten miles.
4. Verbs which come after nouns and pronouns need a ‘to’ along with them.
- Do you have a pencil to lend me?
- I have lots of work to complete.
- Can I have something to eat?
Given below is some information about Mr Jalani, a teacher who is popular with his students. Use this information to write a complete sentence with or without ‘to’. Study the examples first.
- They work very hard – Mr. Jalani makes them.
Mr Jalani makes them work very hard. (without ‘to’)
- They take their homework seriously- Mr. Jalani forces them.
Mr. Jalani forces them to take their homework seriously. (with ‘to’)
Exercise – 3
Now rewrite the following sentences on your own.
1. They do a lot of research on the internet – Mr. Jalani makes them ………… .
Ans. Mr. Jalani makes them do a lot of research on the internet.
2. They make models and charts to explain concepts – Mr. Jalani wants them …………. .
Ans. Mr. Jalani wants them to make models and charts to explain concepts.
3. They watch videos and movies about famous personalities – Mr. Jalani lets them ………… .
Ans. Mr. Jalani lets them watch videos and movies about famous personalities.
4. They do well in their exams – Their parents want them …………. .
Ans. Their parents want them to do well in their exams.
5. They have to behave properly – The school expects them …………… .
Ans. The school expects them to behave properly.
Exercise – 1
Now use the information in the above table and complete the information by filling in the blanks.
1. The increase in milk production in ten years was ________ million tons.
2. Increase in per capita available of milk rose from _________ gms per day to _________ gms per day in the same period.
Ans. 217 gms – 258 gms.
3. The smallest increase in production was in the year _________.
4. The last per capita availability of milk was in the year _________.
5. By 2008-09 there has been an increase of ________ gms in the per capita availability of milk compared to the year 1999-2000.
Ans. 5.41 gms.
Exercise – 2
Now complete the paragraph given below by using suitable words /phrases from the box.
|has increased substantially,more than,average per capita availability,milk-producing countries, were able to produce, rate of increase, increase of, yield more, methods of breeding when we produced|
After the introduction of co-operative schemes, India has become one of the major
(1) ________ of the world. Milk production in India (2) _______ in the last ten years. Along with the rise in production the (3) _______ of milk has also increased.
Compared to the year 1999-2000 (4) _______ only 78.3 million tons of milk, we (5) _______ 108.5 million tons of milk, in the year 2008-09, which was an (6) _______ 30.2 tons. This (7) ______ is not sufficient because our population is also increasing substantially each year.
Milk is an essential component of everybody’s diet. Babies and growing children need it (8) ______ adults. If we want our countrymen to be healthy we should find better (9) ______ healthy cattle and feed them healthy fodder so that they (10) ______ milk.
Ans. 1 milk-producing countries.
2. has substantially increased.
3. average per capita availability.
4. when we produced.
5. were able to produce.
6. increase of.
7. rate of increase.
8. more than.
9. methods of breeding.
10. yield more.