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NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 14 Growing Up As Boys And Girls
Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 7 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 7 Social Science Chapter 14 Growing Up As Boys And Girls and After, NCERT Class 7 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – II: History, Social and Political Life – II: Civics, Our Environment: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Growing Up As Boys And Girls
Social And Political Life-II [Civics]
QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
Q.1. Are the statements given alongside true or false? Support your answer with the use of an example.
(a) All societies do not think similarly about the roles that boys and girls play.
Because in most societies, the work boys do is given more importance than the work girls do.
(b) Our society does not make distinctions between boys and girls when they are growing up.
Ans: It is a false statement. Our society makes distinctions between boys and girls even while they are in growing phase. From the very early age, boys are taught to be tough and serious, while girls are taught to be mild and soft. Boys are given toys like cars, guns to play with while girls are given dolls.
(c) Women who stay at home do not work.
Ans: It is a false statement. Women who stay at home, do a lot of household chores They cook food, wash clothes, sweep floor, and numerous other works, some of which are very strenuous.
(d) The work that women do is less valued than that of men.
Ans: It is a true statement. The work that women do is not properly valued. Because, women do not get payments for most of these works. They do sweeping, cleaning, washing, cooking and caring of children and elders at home, and receptionist, personal assistants, public relations, etc. in the offices. But in the offices their work is under estimated.
Q.2. (i) Housework is invisible and unpaid work.
(ii) House work is physically demanding.
(iii) House work is time consuming.
(iv) Write in your own words what is meant by the terms ‘invisible’, physically demanding’, and ‘time consuming? Give one example of each based on the household tasks undertaken by women in you home.
Ans: (i) ‘Invisible’ here, means that the work done by women is devalued when it is not paid for because their physical and emotional stress is not recognized.
(ii) ‘Physically demanding’ means that more labour is required to do household jobs than other work, technical or mechanical.
(iii) ‘Time consuming’ means that household work requires a lot of time. Most of her time is consumed in these activities and less time is left for herself or to relax.
Q.3. Make a list of toys and games that boys typically play and another for girls. If there is a difference between the two lists, can you think of some reasons why this is so? Does this have any relationship to the roles children have to play as adults?
Ans: (i) Lists of toys and games that boys play with: cars, guns, swords, buses, railway trains, lions, etc. (toys) and cricket, kabaddi, hockey, football, etc. (games).
(ii) List of toys and games that girls play with: dolls, cooking items, etc. (toys), badminton, table-tennis, hide and seek, etc. (games).
These games are also played by the boys. From the above description we can infer that there is a difference between the toys with which boys play and the toys with which girls play.
The reason behind this is that our society makes clear distinctions between boys and girls. Boys are taught to be tough while girls are taught to be mild. Boys are expected to do works which highlight their manly features but girls are expected to remain in limit with all feminine virtues. All these are ways of telling children that they have specific roles to play when they grow up to be men and women. Later in life this affects even the subjects they can study or the careers they can choose.
Q.4. If you have someone working as a domestic help in your house or locality talk to her and find out a little bit more about her life-Who are her family members? Where is her home? How many hours does she work? How much does she get paid? Write a small story based on these details.
Ans: Yes, I know Mrs. Kanta Devi who is working as a domestic help in our locality. She does a lot of work- sweeping, cleaning, washing clothes, cooking food and looking after young children. Her family members living in jhuggi-jhopari area near Yamuna river. She has two daughters and a son. She is a widow. She works at least 6 to 8 hours in a house where she is taking a job. She gets very low salary approximate 1,500 per month.
Q.1. In what ways to the experiences of Samoan children and teenagers differ from your own experiences of growing up? Is there anything in this experience that you wish was part of your growing up?
Ans: Samoan children and teenagers did not go to school. They used to do household work. They looked after their younger siblings. Fishing was an important part of their activities. Unlike these children we cannot think a life without school. We go to school daily. Our teachers and parents teach us many different things like good manners, good health, etc. We don’t enjoy much free time because we have to do homework after the school is over. In the evening we get some time to play.
I like fishing very much but never got an opportunity for this activity. Samoan children were really lucky who enjoyed fishing everyday. I wish this activity had been a part of my growing up.
Q.2. Make a drawing of a street or a park in your neighbourhood. Show the different kind of activities young boys and girls may be engaged in. You could do this individually or in groups.
Ans: Student do this activity themselves.
Q.3. (i) Are there as many girls as boys in your drawing? Most probably you would have drawn fewer girls.
Ans: No, There are fewer girls in comparison of boys.
(ii) Can you think of reasons why there are fewer women and girls in your neighbourhood streets, parks and markets in the late evenings or at night?
Ans: There are fewer women and girls in my neighbourhood streets, parks and markets in the late evening or at night, because, firstly their population is less than men and boys, and secondly there is an insecurity to their dignity and respect.
Q.4. (i) Are girls and boys doing different activities?
Ans: Yes, Girls and boys are doing different activities.
(ii) Can you think of reasons why this might be so?
Ans: The reasons behind the different activities of girls and boys are as follows:
(a) The girls are supposed to be more vulnerable to their dignity while boys are not generally.
(b) Girls are supposed to do most of the homely jobs in future whereas boys are supposed to work outside the house.
(iii) What would happen if you replaced the girls with the boys and vice-versa?
Ans: If we put the girls in the place of boys it will represent an increase in the number of girls. It would indicate that the attitude of the society has changed regarding the girls. The society is now treating girls differently. But, if the boys were put in the places of girls, it would indicate that the societies had been more rigid for girls. They were not treating girls friendly and liberally as the boys were treated.
Q.5. Were Harmeet and Shonali correct in saying that Harmeet’s mother did not work?
Ans: No, they were not correct. Harmeet’s mother did a lot of work inside the home. As her work was not paid, Harmeet and Shonali developed a notion that she did not work.
Q.6. What do you think would happen if your mother or those involved in doing the work at home went on a strike for a day?
Ans: If my mother or those involved in doing the work at home went on a strike for a day, the consequences would be the following:
(i) I would have been in school uniform without bath.
(ii) I would not get the breakfast at right time and a good dish as mother prepared.
(iii) I would have to go to school without lunch-box because Papa would not be able to make a dish for my lunch-box.
Q.7. Why do you think that men and boys generally do not do house work? Do you think they should?
Ans: Men and boys generally do not do house work because
(a) In our society, it is believed that household works is the responsibility of women of the house.
(b) They are brought up like that and are not given training of any household work from the beginning.
Yes, I think they should also do household work because:
(i) In case, women go out to work, they can manage house.
(ii) Household work is a joint responsibility.
Q.8. Study the table given below and answer the questions that follow:
What are the total number of work hours spend by women in Haryana and Tamil Nadu each week? How does this compare with the total of work spent by men?
Ans: The total number of work hours spent by women in Haryana each week is 53 hours and that in Tamil Nadu is 54 hours. In comparison to this, the total number of work hours spent by men in Haryana is 40 hours and that in Tamil Nadu is 44 hours.
Q.9. What do you think this poster is trying to say?
Ans: This poster is trying to highlight the importance of women in household and in the lives of men. The women should also be given their place of dignity and equality in society.
Q.10. This poster was created by women’s group in Bengal. Can you write an interesting slogan for the poster?
Ans: Women – The Divine Power.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATIONS
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What do you understand by ‘Gender’?
Ans: Gender is a socially constructed definition of women and men.
Q.2. What are the primary activities that boys start performing at the age of nine?
Ans: Fishing, planting coconuts.
Q.3. Where is the Samoan Island situated?
Ans: Southern Pacific Ocean.
Q.4. Name the Domestic helper of the Harmeet’s house.
Ans: Mangala is a domestic helper in the Harmeet’s house.
Q.5. What is gender inequality?
Ans: Whenever distinctions are made between women and men and an unequal treatment is meted out to girls and boys in different field, it is termed as gender inequality.
Q.6. Does our society treat both boys and girls in the same way?
Ans: No, our society make clear distinctions between boys and girls. This begins from a very young age. We have for example, given different toys to play with.
Q.7. Name the social reformers who work in the field of gender equality and empowerment of women.
Ans: (i) Swami Dayanand Saraswati.
(ii) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
(iii) Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
(iv) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
Q.8. What do you mean by Sati system?
Ans: According to Sati system, a widow has to burn herself on the funeral pyre of her dead husband. If she hesitates to do so, the relatives and priests push her into the flames.
Q.9. Write some characteristics of the work that women do at homes.
Ans: Some characteristics of the work that women do at home are:
(i) It is not considered as work.
(ii) It is not valued.
(iii) It is physically demanding.
(iv) It is time consuming.
Q.10. Write a brief note on the life of Samoan children.
Ans: (i) The Samoan children did not go to school.
(ii) They learnt to take care of children and do house work.
(iii) They learnt to undertake fishing.
Q.11. Which term is used for a woman who is doing household work and also employed as a police woman?
Ans: ‘Androgyny’ is used for a woman who is doing household work and also employed as a police woman.
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What has the government done for girls to attend school, and the women outside the home?
Ans: The government has setup Anganwadis’ or ‘Childcare Center’ by passing laws to provide creche facilities.
(i) Creche is a day nursery for children when their parents are at work.
(ii) Thus, the provision of creches helps women to work outside the home. It also provide opportunity to more girls to attend school.
Q.2. Give some reasons why child-marriage is a curse for girls?
Ans: Child-marriage is a curse for girls because:
(i) It puts an unnecessary physical and mental burden on a girl at the time when she is supposed to study and play.
(ii) If her husband dies, she would not marry again and she spends her whole life as widow.
Q.3. Write two differences observed between boys and girls in a small town in Madhya Pradesh in the 1960s.
Ans: (i) From class VI onwards boys and girls went to separate schools. The girls’ school was designed very differently from the boys’ schools.
(ii) They had a central courtyard where they played in total seclusion and safety from the outside world. The boy’s school had no such courtyard and their playground was just a big space attached to the school.
Q.4. Why don’t we pay to the women for the work they do in their homes?
Ans: The work done by a woman in the house daily is not recognised as work. It is assumed that this is something that comes naturally to women. It, therefore, does not have to be paid for.
Q.5. Give a brief description on the lives of the domestic workers.
Ans: (i) In our surrounding we can see that most domestic workers are women. Sometimes, even young boys or girls are employed to do this work.
(ii) Their wages are very low, as domestic work does not have much value.
(iii) A domestic worker’s day can begin as early as five in the morning and ends as late as twelve at night.
Q.6. Across the world what are the responsibilities for housework and care-giving task?
Ans: Following are the responsibilities of the housework and care-giving task:
(i) Looking after the family.
(ii) Taking care of health of babies.
(iii) Taking care of elderly and sick members of the society.
(iv) Maintenance of the house.
Q.7. What do you understand by term ‘Double-Burden’?
Ans: The term ‘double-burden’ stands for double load. It is usually used to describe the women’s work. It refers to the situation when women work both inside the house and outside.
Q.8. Give reasons why boys are given more importance than girls in many societies?
Ans: Boys are given more importance than girls in many societies because:
(i) The birth of a boy is considered more important and is regarded as auspicious as the continuity of a family depends upon the boy and not on the girls, who will leave family after their marriage.
(ii) The female child is considered a liability in the family because since her birth to death; all the expenses are born by the parents.
(iii) The boys are considered to be the bread-earners of the family.
Q.9. Write about any three major areas of discrimination against girls and women in India.
Ans: (i) In villages or rural areas, as girls are provided less education as compared to boys, they are forced to stay inside the house and help in household work.
(ii) They receive less health-care facilities than men.
(iii) Women’s work is under-valued though they work hard in society.
Q.10. Why should low-value attached to women household and care-giving work be a matter of concern for the government?
Ans: The low-value attached to women household and care-giving work should be a matter of concern for the government because it is not a matter of individual or a family. It is part of a large system of inequality between men and women. So, appropriate actions must be taken by the society to uproot this evil from the society.
Q.11.’Sex and gender are not the same’. Do you agree with the statement? Explain.
Ans: Sex and gender are not the same. They are two different aspects. Biological differences determine sex. Gender relations are based on different relations of power in society and family. Sex can be determined by genes and biology.
Q.12. What are the main responsibilities of a woman in a family? Do you think their work is valued by the society?
Ans: The main responsibility of a women in a family is to look after the house work and care-giving tasks, like looking after the family, especially children, the elderly and sick members. No, there work is not valued by society because it is assumed that this is something that comes naturally to women.
Q.13. Why should we value household work?
Ans: House work is very important. It is equally valuable as other outside works, but this kind of work is often invisible and is not paid. Thus, we should value household work.
Q.14.What do you understand by care-giving task?
Ans: It means looking after the family, especially children, the elderly and sick members. This care-giving task is assumed to be performed by women. But as society is changing, both men and women perform these task and is no longer the sole responsibility of the women.
Q.15. How a boy’s school differ from a girl’s school?
Ans: The girl’s school was designed very differently from the boy’s school. Girl’s school had a courtyard where they played in total seclusion and safety from the outside world. The boy’s school had no such courtyard and playground was just a big space attached to the school.
Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What tasks does the housework involve in rural and urban areas?
Ans: The housework involves the following tasks:
In rural areas women and girls carry heavy loads of firewood. They wash clothes and dishes, sweep and clean floors. They also pick up loads which require bending, lifting and carrying. They also cook food by standing for long hours in front of hot stoves both in rural and urban urea. They take care of children, old and sick people at home.
Q.2. Explain any three types of gender inequality found in social field.
Ans: Three types of gender inequalities found in the social field are:
(a) Mortality Inequality: When there is high mortality rate of female than male, it is termed as mortality inequality. There is a fewer number of females per thousand as compared to males.
(b) Natality Inequality: It is based on sexual difference. In most of the advanced countries, the birth of a new boy is celebrated with joy while the girl children are infanticided and foeticide even today.
(c) Family Inequality: In some families, boys are preferred than girls. The girls are given different treatment than boys. Even best food is served to boys, in a poor family, boys are sent to school while girls are asked to do household work.
Q.3. What type of gender inequalities are found in economic fields?
Ans: Gender inequalities in economic field:
(a) Women are given less wages as compared to men.
(b) In most of the developed countries, even today they are not given equal share in the property owned by their parents or their in-laws. In case of death of their husbands, they have to depend on the mercy of their family and to spend her all life.
(c) Women workers are even economically exploited by the industrialists.
(d) Women are not preferred for night-duty and long-distance work involving hard-labour.
Q.4. Explain the aspects related to household work done by women, which is often neglected or not recognised by the society.
Ans: Aspects related to household work done by women can be explained as follows:
(a) Firstly, a lot of physical work is involved in the household work. In both rural and urban areas women and girls have to fetch water. In rural areas they carry heavy head loads of fire wood. Tasks like cleaning, sweeping, washing clothes and picking up loads require bending, lifting and carrying. Many chores, like cooking involves standing for long hours in front of hot stoves.
(b) Another aspect of housework and care giving that we do not recognise is that it is very time consuming.
Higher Order Thinking Skill
Q.1. What do you mean by the women’s movement? What methods they adopt?
Ans: Women individually and collectively have struggled to bring about many favourable changes for themselves. This struggle is known as the women’s movement.
The following are the methods of struggle that the women’s movement have used to spread awareness, fight discrimination, seek justice or to raise issues.
(i) Campaigning: It aims to achieve a certain purpose or goal in a planned way.
(ii) Awareness: It means that people are aware through street plays, songs and public meetings.
(iii) Protesting: Protesting is a method of struggle of an individual or a group of people against the unfavourable law or policy.
Q.2. Write about an experience of any one domestic women helper working in your locality.
Ans: (i) Shalu is a domestic helper in our locality.
(ii) Shalu said that her memsahib always shouted to get work done.
(iii) She started her work at 5 O’clock in the kitchen.
(iv) She was given a cup of tea and two dry rotis and could never get third roti in the breakfast.
(v) She took an extra roti secretly in the evening.
(vi) She could not wear chappals in the house. As a result, her feet would swell up in the winters.
(vii) She was not paid good enough salary.
(viii) She allowed to take a leave.
Q.3. Do you think boys and girls grow up differently? Give your views.
Ans: Yes, girls and boys grow up differently. This begins at a very young age. For example, we give them different toys to play with. Boys are usually given cars to play with and girls dolls. Toys become a way of telling children that they will have different futures when they become men and women.
How girls must dress, what games boys should play, how girls need to talk softly or boys need to be tough. All these are ways of telling children that they have specific roles to play when they grow up to be men and women. Later in life this affects the subjects we can study or the careers we can choose.
Value Based Questions
Q.1. What steps has the government taken for women empowerment?
Ans: The Government has taken many steps for women empowerment, like:
(i) The government announced the National Policy for empowerment of women in 2001.
(ii) In recent years, women have been given representation in the Panchayati Raj and there is 33 per cent reservation for them in the local government bodies.
(iii) We have a number of women ministers and chief ministers at the central and state level.
(iv) Dowry Prohibition Act has also been formulated.
(v) In recent years, the condition of working women has improved considerably.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Multiple Choice Questions
Tick (✓) the correct option:
1. What was the most important activity on Samoan Island in 1920s?
(iii) Household work.
(iv) None of these.
Ans: (i) Fishing.
2. At what age did the boys join older boys for learning outdoor jobs?
(i) 5 years.
(ii) 9 years.
(iii) 11 years.
(iv) 13 years.
Ans: (ii) 9 years.
3. What did girls learn after the age of fourteen years?
(i) How to weave baskets?
(ii) How to do plantation?
(iii) Special cooking.
(iv) All of these.
Ans: (iv) All of these.
4. From which class did the girls and boys go to separate school in a town in Madhya Pradesh?
(i) Class IV onwards.
(ii) Class V onwards.
(iii) Class VI onwards.
(iv) Class III onwards.
Ans: (iii) Class VI onwards.
5. What can you say about the work of men and women?
(i) They are equally valued.
(ii) They are not equally valued.
(iii) Woman’s work is valued more than men’s work.
(iv) Can’t say.
Ans: (ii) They are not equally valued.
6. Who was Melani?
(i) A domestic worker.
(ii) A factory worker.
(iii) A shopkeeper.
(iv) A teacher.
Ans: (i) A domestic worker.
7. Who founded the Hindu Balika Vidyalaya in Calcutta?
(i) Swami Dayanand.
(ii) Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
(iii) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
(iv) None of these.
Ans: (iii) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
8. The gender role of a woman within her family is ________.
(i) To do household work.
(ii) To look after her children and elderly people.
(iii) To do household sick member of her family.
(iv) All of these.
Ans: (iv) All of these.
ll. Fill in the blanks:
1. Societies make clear ________ between boys and girls.
2. _______ is a method of struggle of an individual or a group of people against the unfavourable law or policy.
3. The _______ says that being male or female should not become a reason for discrimination.
4. Despite the hard work they do, the _______ of women after do not show them much respect.
5. Widow Remarriage Act was passed in the year _______.
6. ______was an active member of the Prarthna Samaj.
7. Domestic work does not get any ______ reward.
8. Men and women do not you have the same ______.
III. True-False Statements:
1. A term dowry refers to the gifts in different form given to girl at the time of marriage.
2. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the founder of Arya Samaj.
3. Our Constitution does not says that being male or female does not become a reason for discrimination.
4. All people adopt the gender role according to their biological sex.
5. The education of the daughter is preferred over the son.