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NCERT Class 6 Science Chapter 9 The Living Organisms and Their Surroundings
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The Living Organisms and Their Surroundings
NCERT TEXT BOOK EXERCISES
Q. 1. What is a habitat?
Ans: The place (or surroundings) where a plant or animal lives is called its habitat. The habitat is a part of the total environment of the region.
Q. 2. How are cactus adapted to survive in the desert?
Ans: Cactus are adapted to survive a desert as they have
(i) No leaves or spiny leaves to prevent water loss through transpiration.
(ii) Stem is modified in such a way that it performs photosynthesis and conserves water.
(iii) Their roots go very deep into the soil for absorbing water.
Q. 3. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The presence of specific features which enable a plant or an animal to live in a particular habitat, is called _________.
(b) The of the plants and animals that live on land are called _________ habitat.
(c) The habitats of plants and animals that live in water are called _________ habitat.
(d) Soil, water and air are the _________ factors of a habitat.
(e) Changes in our surroundings that make us respond to them, are called __________.
Q. 4. Which of the things in the following list are non-living?
Plough, Mushroom, Sewing machine, Radio, Boat, Water hyacinth, Earthworm.
Ans: The non-living things are: Plough, Sewing machine, Radio, Boat.
Q. 5. Give an example of a non-living thing which shows any two characteristics of living thing.
Ans: Clouds in sky. They show two living characteristics:
(i) They grow in size.
(ii) They move from one place to another place.
Q. 6. Which of the non-living things listed below, were once part of a living thing:
Butter, leather, soil, wool, electric bulb, cooking oil, salt, apple, rubber.
Ans: Butter, leather, wool, cooking oil, apple.
Q. 7. List the common characteristic of living things.
Ans: Characteristics of the living things are as follows:
(i) All living things need food.
(ii) All living things show growth.
(iii) All living things respire.
(iv) They respond to stimuli.
(v) They excrete.
(vi) All living things reproduce.
(vii) They show movement.
Q. 8. Explain why speed is important for survival in grasslands for animals that live there.
Ans: There are few trees or places for animals to hide in the grassland habitats. The animals like lion or tiger prey other animals such as deer. The deer have very fast running speed to help them to run faster so as to reach a safe place. So, the speed is very important for survival of grassland animals.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Name one each of the following living organisms:
(a) That reproduces by laying eggs.
(b) That reproduces by giving birth to the young ones.
Q. 2. Which plant part carries out photosynthesis
(a) In a common plant?
(b) In a cactus plant?
Q. 3. Name the habitat of:
Q. 4. Give one example of each.
(i) Aquatics habitat.
Ans: Aquatic habitat: Pond.
(ii) Terrestrial habitat.
Ans: Terrestrial habitat: Forest.
Q. 5. Name one adaption of a desert plant.
Ans: Leaves and stem become thick and store water.
Q. 6. Give one characteristic of hydrophytic plant.
Ans: Stem is thin and flexible.
Q. 7. Name the animal which is called the ship of desert.
Q. 8. Name two aquatic animals which have no gills.
Ans: Dolphin and whales.
Q. 9. Name two aquatic plants which float on the surface of water.
Ans: Water lettuce and water hyacinth.
Q. 10. Name two aquatic plants which are completely submerged in water.
Ans: Hydrilla and Vallisneria.
Q. 11. Name an animal in which the exchange of gases during respiration takes place through its skin.
Ans: The earthworm breathes through the skin.
Q. 12. Name the process by which living things (organisms) obtain energy from food.
Q. 13. Name one characteristic which tells us that seeds are living things.
Q. 14. Name two animals which live in the aerial habitat.
Ans: (i) Birds.
Q. 15. Write the names of two sea animals which have gills.
Ans: Fish, Octopus.
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Give two characteristics of the animals showing aquatic adaptation.
Ans: (i) Body is compressed laterally to reduce friction. This allows passage in the water while swimming.
(ii) Swim bladders present in certain fishes are filled with air and maintain buoyancy.
Q. 2. Give two adaptations in herbivores during in grasslands.
Ans: (i) Strong teeth for chewing and cutting hard grass.
(ii) Long ears to follow the movements of predators. Predator is the animal which makes them its prey.
Q. 3. Explain why many mountain trees are cone-shaped having sloping branches.
Ans: The trees in mountain habitats are usually cone shaped having sloping branches because this shape of the mountain trees makes the rain water and snow to slide off easily without damaging the branches and leaves.
Q. 4. There are two potted plants A and B. The plant A has big yellow flowers. The seeds of plant are used for extracting an edible oil. When the potted plant A is placed near an open window of a room, the stem, leaves and flower of this plant bend towards stimulus C coming from outside the room. And when a pencil is brought in contact with the leaves of potted plant B, the leaves fold up at once.
(a) What could the plant A be?
Ans: Sunflower plant.
(b) Name the stimulus C.
(c) What could the plant B be?
Ans: Mimosa plant or Touch-me-not plan
(d) Name the stimulus which folds up the leaves of plant B.
Ans: Touch (of pencil).
Q. 5. What are the differences in the desert and sea regions?
Ans: In the sea, plants and animals are surrounded by salty water. Most of them use the air dissolved in water for breathing. In desert, a very little amount of water available. It is very hot in the day time and very cold at night. The organisms breathe air from the surroundings.
Q. 6. What kind of movements do we see in plants?
Ans: (i) Opening and closing of a flower.
(ii) Growth of a stem and leaves.
(iii) Movement of water, minerals and food from one part of the plant to other.
(iv) Movement of stem towards sun light and root towards water in the soil.
Q. 7. Differentiate between biotic and abiotic components of a habitat.
|Biotic Component of a habitat||Non-biotic components of a habitat|
|1. All living beings such as human beings, animals, plants micro-organisms are called biotic compo- nents.||1. All non-living things such as soil, water bodies, atmosphere and meteorological factory such as sun- light, temperature. rainfall, wind speed etc. are called abiotic components.|
|2. They are living components.||2. They are non-living components|
Q. 8. Why do animals in the mountain adapt themselves to their habitats? Give any two examples.
Ans: The animals living in the mountain adapted to the conditions there. regions are They have thick skin or fur to protect them from cold. For example, Yaks have long hairs to keep them warm. Snow leopard has thick fur on its body including feet and toes. This protects its feet from the cold when it walks on the snow.
Q. 9. What are the adaptations of submerged aquatic plants?
Ans: Some aquatic plants are totally submerged in water. All parts of plants grow under water. Some of these plants have narrow and thin ribbon-like leaves. These can bend in the flowing water. In some submerged plants, leaves are often highly divided through which the water can easily flow without damaging them.
Q. 10. What are adaptations of frog to their habitats?
Ans: Frogs usually have ponds as their. habitat. Frogs can stay both inside the pond water as well as move on land. They have strong legs that help them in leaping and catching their prey. They have webbed feet which help them swim in water.
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q. 1. An animal having a rounded body and small ears has thick fur on its body. Fur is also present on its feet and toes. This animal has also a thick layer of fat beneath its skin for “insulation”. The feet of this animal are quite big in size.
(a) What do you think this animal could be?
Ans: Snow leopard.
(b) Name the habitat of this animal.
Ans: Mountains where snow is present.
(c) How does having a rounded body small ears help this animal?
Ans: Having a rounded body and small ears keeps body surface area of snow leopard to a minimum and hence reduces the heat loss from the body of snow leopard.
Q.2. A small part X of the stem of a plant is removed with the help of a sharp knife in such a way that there is a growing point Y on it. The lower part of X is buried in the moist soil. After a few days, X develops roots and grows to become a new Z.
(a) What is the plant part like X known as?
(b) Name: (i) Y, and (ii) Z.
Ans: (i) Bud.
(c) Name one plant which is usually reproduced by this method.
Ans: Rose plant.
Q. 3. The two animals X and Y both live in the same habitat called ‘forest’. The animal X is a herbivore. It has eyes on the sides of its head and big ears. It also runs very fast. The animal Y is a carnivore. It has eyes in front of the head. The animal Y has long, strong and sharp claws in its front legs which it can withdraw inside the toes. It can also run very fast.
(a) What could be the animal:
Ans: (i) Deer.
(b) is the advantage to animal X of having eyes on the sides of its head?
Ans: The eyes on the sides of the head enable the deer see in all directions at the same time. This helps deer to see animals like lion which kill it in all the area around it.
(c) What is the advantage to animal Y of having eyes in front of its head?
Ans: The eyes in front of its head enable the lion to have a correct idea of the location of its prey like deer.
Q. 4. How do different trees in the mountain region adapted to the conditions prevailing their habitat?
Ans: The trees in the mountain region are normally cone shaped and have sloping branches. The leaves of some of these trees are needle-like. This helps the rain water and snow to slide off easily. There could be trees with shapes very different from those that. are also present on mountains. They may have different kind of adaptation to survive on the mountains.
Q. 5. Explain the features of fish which keep it to adapt to live in water (any three).
Ans: (i) The shape of the fish is streamlined which help in the movement.
(ii) The slippery scales/skin on their bodies help to protect them.
(iii) They have flat fins and tails which help them to swim, change direction and to keep the body balanced.
Q. 6. How do the sea animals such as dolphins and whales breathe?
Ans: The sea animals such as dolphins and whales breathe in air through their nostrils or blowholes that are located on the upper parts of their heads. This allows them to breathe in air when they swim near the surface of water. They can stay inside the water for a long time without breathing. They do not have gills to help them to use the oxygen dissolved in the water.
Q. 7. There are two animals P and Q. The animal P has long legs and it can drink large amount of water at one go. The hump of this animal has a substance R stored in it. The animal Q has a streamlined body shape. It moves by using its fins and tails. The animal Q breathes through the special organ ‘S’.
(a) Name: (i) animal P and (ii) substance R.
Ans: (i) Camel.
(b) Name: (i) animal Q, and (ii) s
Ans: (i) Fish.
(c) What are the most habitats of
Ans: (i) Desert.
(ii) Aquatic habitat Pond, Lakes, River or Ocean).
Q. 8. Give three adaptations in carnivores in grasslands.
Ans: (i) Sharp and long claws in their front legs to catch, hold and tear the body of their prey.
(ii) Light brown colour or patchy body This helps them to hide in dry grass.
(iii) The eyes in front of the face help in locating their prey.
Q. 9. How does air affect biotic components?
Ans: Air is essential for the survival of plants and animals. Air contains oxygen and carbon dioxide. Animals cannot live without oxygen and plants cannot live without carbon dioxide. In the form of wind, air also affects plants and animals. Strong wind may break the branches of trees and uproot them. Some diseases caused by fungi and bacteria are spread by air.
Q. 10. During respiration, the exchange of gases P and Q in a plant takes place through the tiny pores R in its leaves whereas that in a cow takes place through the organs S.
(a) Name the gases P and Q.
Ans: Oxygen and carbon dioxide.
(b) What are the tiny pores R?
(c) Name the organs?
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Explain how a lion is adopted to the forest habitat?
Ans: The lion is adapted to the forest habitat in the following:
(i) The lion is a strong, fast and agile animal which can hunt and kill its prey like deer.
(ii) The lion has long, strong and sharp claws in its front legs to catch its prey. The lion can withdraw (pull in) the claws inside the toes so that they do not become worn out and blunt when it walks.
(iii) The lion has eyes in front of its head which enables it to have a correct idea of the location of its prey. This helps it in catching the prey.
(iv) The lion is light brown in colour. The light brown colour helps the lion to hide in dry grassland (without being noticed) where it hunts for prey.
Q. 2. How is fish adapted for aquatic life?
Ans: (i) The body of a fish is spindle- shaped and streamlined which allows least resistance while moving in water.
(ii) The body is laterally compressed with a pointed head, body and a tail.
(iii) The body is provided with the waterproof covering of scales.
(iv) Body is slimy because of mucous coating to reduce water tension.
(v) Fins are present for movement and swimming.
Q. 3. How is camel adapted to survive in a desert?
Ans: Camel is adapted to live in a desert because of its following special features:
(i) A camel has long legs which help to keep its body away from the hot sand in the desert.
(ii) A camel can drink large amount of water when it is available and store it in the body.
(iii) A camel’s body is adapted to save water in the dry desert. A camel passes small amount of urine, its dung is dry and it does not sweat. Since a camel loses very little water from its body, it can live for many days without drinking water.
(iv) A camel’s hump has ‘fat’ stored in it. In case of emergency, a camel break down stored fat to obtain water.
(v) A camel has large and flat feet which help it to walk easily on soft sand by preventing it from sinking into the sand.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL QUESTIONS
Q. 1. The petals of flower A open up at night but close during the day time. On the other hand, the petals of flower B open up in the morning but close after sunset.
(a) Name one flower which behaves like A.
Ans: Moon flower.
(b) Name one flower which behaves like B.
Ans: Dandelion flower.
(c) What is the stimulus which is responsible for this behaviour of the flowers?
Ans: Sun light.
Q. 2. An organism X lives in water and breathes through the special organs of breathing called Y. It moves about in the water with the help of its fins and tail. Another organism Z lives in the soil and breathes through its thin and moist skin.
It moves by lengthening and shortening its body alternately.
(a) Name (i) organism X, and (ii) organs Y.
Ans: (i) Fish.
(b) What could the organism Z be?
Ans: Earthworm uses oxygen from the air.
Q. 3. Explain why:
(a) A lion has eyes in the front of its head?
Ans: The lion has eyes in front of its head which enables it to have a correct idea of the location of its prey. This helps it in catching the prey.
(b) A deer has eyes on the sides of its head?
Ans: The deer has eyes on the sides of its head which enable it to see in all directions at the same time. The all round vision of deer helps it to see animals like lion (which kill it), in all the areas around it.
Q. 4. Give one example of a non- living thing which appears to show any two characteristics of living things. What are these characteristics?
Ans: Non-living thing: Clouds Characteristics:
Q. 5. Give two examples of responses of animals to stimuli.
Ans: (i) If a man touches a very hot object accidently, he quickly pulls his hand away from the hot object. In this case, the stimulus is heat and the man responds by moving his hand away from the hot object.
(ii) If a barefooted man steps on a sharp object like a thorn (or nail), he quickly pulls away his foot from the sharp object. In this case, the stimulus is pain (produced by sharp object) and the man responds by moving his foot away from the sharp object.
SKILL BASED QUESTIONS
Q.1. Draw a diagram to show the growth of a chicken into an adult.
Q. 2. (a) Observe the following figure and state what does it show.
(b) On the basis of figure tell that human lay eggs or produce young ones.
Ans: (a) Fig. 9.22 shows the growth of a baby into an adult.
(b) Human produces young ones.
Q. 1. Fill in the following blanks with a suitable word:
(i) The place where a plant or animal lives is called its __________.
(ii) Oxidation of food is called ___________.
(iii) Fishes move about in the water with the help of their ___________ and ____________.
Ans: Fins, Tails.
(iv) In cactus plant, the process of food making called photosynthesis is carried out by its ___________.
(v) A carnivore living in a grassland has ____________ and ___________ canines.
Ans: Long, strong.
(vi) Cacti plants are called _____________plants.
(vii) ___________ plants grow in deserts or in very dry places where there is scarcity of water.
(viii) ___________ are the plants which grow in watery places or the places which remain very wet throughout the year.
(ix) ___________ give birth to their young ones.
(x) The movement of the plant shoot towards light is called ___________.
Q. 2. State whether the following statements are true or false:
(i) Animals grow throughout their life.
(ii) Non-living objects do not carry out respiration.
(iii) Frogs can live inside water as well as land near the pond.
(iv) Lotus grows completely submerged under water.
(v) Fish does not have gills.
(vi) Fat is stored in a camel’s hump for use in emergency situation.
(vii) Fishes have scales on their bodies to protect themselves.
(viii) Man is an aquatic organism.
(ix) The life span of bacteria is about 20 minutes.
(x) Desert plants are called mesophytes.
Q. 3. Match the items in Column A with those in Column B:
|Column A||Column B|
|1. Bird||(a) Terrestrial.|
|2. Cat||(b) Nocturnal.|
|3. Cactus||(c) Desert adaptations.|
|4. Camel||(d) Volant adaptations.|
|5. Cockroach||(e) Xerophytes.|
|Column A||Column B|
|1. Bird||(d) Volant adaptations.|
|2. Cat||(a) Terrestrial.|
|3. Cactus||(e) Xerophytes.|
|4. Camel||(c) Desert adaptations.|
|5. Cockroach||(b) Nocturnal.|
Q. 4. Write one word for the following:
(i) A place where an organism lives.
(ii) The tendency of an organism to develop certain features which improve the chances of survival in the environment it lives.
(iii) The plants which can store water in their spongy stems.
(iv) The respiration organs of whale.
(v) The process of removing body wastes.
(vi) The period during which an organism completes its life cycle.
Ans: Life span.
(vii) Plants and animals which grow and propagate in deserts.
(vii) Living things such as plants and animals.
(ix) Non-living things such as air, water and soil.
(x) Animals that live on land.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
(i) Fishes move about in the water with the help of their
(a) Mouths and gills.
(b) Legs and scale.
(c) Wings and tails.
(d) Fins and tails.
Ans: (d) Fins and tails.
(ii) Which one of these animals can live on land as well as in water?
Ans: (c) Frog.
(iii) Which of the following is not the characteristic of living things?
(c) Do not need food.
Ans: (c) Do not need food.
(iv) Which one of the following aquatic plants grows completely submerged in water?
(a) Water hyacinth.
(c) Water lily.
Ans: (b) Hydrilla.
(b) Which one of the following is not terrestrial habitat ?
Ans: (c) Ocean.
(vi) Fishes have scales on their bodies to:
(a) Help them to swim.
(b) Keep them warm.
(c) Attract other fishes.
(d) Protect themselves.
Ans: (d) Protect themselves.
(vii) Which of the following animals does not have gills?
Ans: (c) Dolphin.
(viii) An animal lives on land and in water. It has a tail and its body is covered with scales. This animal is:
Ans: (b) Crocodile.
(ix) Yaks have one of the following on their bodies to keep them warm. This one is:
Ans: (b) Hair.
(x) Sunlight, water and air are:
(b) Biotic components.
(c) Abiotic components.
Ans: (c) Abiotic
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
Rajeev went to a place in Himachal Pradesh to spent vacation. This place was very rich in vegetables and while walking he touched a plant which caused irritation in its body. Native people told him that it is due to a plant known as Bicchu Buti. He got confused because a plant with similar name in Haryana is a beautiful soft ornamental plant.
(i) Why such confusion occurs about the identity of living organisms?
Ans: In different regions of the world, a particular species is known by one name in one part of the globe and by another name in another part. This leads to confusion about the identity of living organism.
(ii) How such problem of identity can be solved and confusion can be avoided?
Ans: This problem can be solved by following scientific nomenclature in which each species is known by one valid name all over the world.
(iii) What value of native people is reflected in the above case?
Ans: Native people showed the value of good behaviour, scientific attitude and compassion.