# NCERT Class 6 Science Chapter 10 Motion and Measurement of Distances

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## NCERT Class 6 Science Chapter 10 Motion and Measurement of Distances

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### Motion and Measurement of Distances

Chapter: 10

NCERT TEXT BOOK EXERCISES

Q.1. Give two examples each of modes of transport used on land, water and air.

Ans: Modes of transport used are:

(i) Land: Buses, railways, cars etc.

(ii) Water: Boats, ships.

(iii) Air: Air planes, gas balloons, etc.

Q. 2. Fill in the blanks:

(i) One metre is ___________ cm

Ans: 100.

(ii) Five kilometres is ___________ m.

Ans: 5000.

(iii) Motion of a child on a swing is _____________.

Ans: Oscillatory motion.

(iv) Motion of a needle of a sewing machine is ____________.

Ans: Oscillatory motion.

(v) Motion of a wheel of a bicycle is____________.

Ans: Circular motion.

Q. 3. Why can a pace or a foot step not be used as a standard unit of length?

Ans: The pace or foot step has different lengths for different persons. So they cannot be used as a standard unit of length.

Q. 4. Arrange the following lengths in their increasing magnitude:

1 metre, 1 centimetre, 1 kilometre, 1 millimetre.

Ans: 1 millimetre > 1 centimetre > 1 metre > 1 kilometre.

Q. 5. The height of a person is 1.65 m. Express it into cm and mm.

Ans: (i) 165 centimetre.

(ii) 1650 millimetre.

Q. 6. The distance between Radha’s home and her school is 3250 m. Express this distance into kilometre.

Ans: 3.250 kilometre.

Q. 7. While measuring the length of a knitting needle, the reading of the scale at one end is 3.0 cm and at the other end is 33.1 cm. What is the length of needle?

Ans: Length of needle = 33.1 cm

(-) 03.0 cm

_____________

= 30.1 cm

Q. 8. Write the similarity and dissimilarities between the motion of a bicycle and a ceiling fan that has been switched on.

Ans: The motion of a bicycle and a ceiling fan are in circular motion. Thus both show similar motion.

But the ceiling fan moves without changing its position while the bicycle moves with changing its position with time. This shows dissimilarities between two motions.

Q. 9. Why could you not use an elastic measuring tape to measure distance? What would be some of the problems you would meet in telling someone about a distance you measured with an elastic tape?

Ans: We should not use elastic measuring tape to measure distance because the length of the measuring tape will increase when we pull or stretch the tape for measuring the length. The length may increase or decrease due to its elasticity. So we cannot measure the correct length by elastic measuring tape. The length measured by this tape either will be more or less depending on the elasticity of tape.

Q. 10. Give two examples of periodic motion.

Ans: Examples of periodic motion:

(i) Motion of a pendulum.

(ii) Motion of a branch of a tree.

(iii) Motion of a child on a swing.

SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION

Q. 1. State the type of motion exhibited by the bullet fired from the gun.

Ans: Rectilinear motion.

Q. 2. A girl is sitting on a merry-go- round. What type of motion is she having?

Ans: Circular motion.

Q. 3. What type of motion do the vehicles on a straight perform?

Ans: Rectilinear motion.

Q. 4. What type of motion is performed by a wheel of a bicycle?

Ans: Rotational motion.

Q. 5. What type of motion is represented by the march-past of soldiers in a parade?

Ans: Rectilinear motion.

Q. 6. State the type of motion exhibited by a falling stone.

Ans: Rectilinear motion.

Q. 7. What type of motion is the motion of an electric fan?

Ans: The motion of an electric fan is a circular motion.

Q. 8. Name the type of motion executed by the tyres of a moving car.

Ans: Rolling motion.

Q.9. State one example where an object has two types of motion at the same time?

Ans: A sewing machine exhibits two Types of motion at the same time: rotational as well as periodic motion.

Q. 10. What type of motion is exhibited by sprinters in a 100-metre race?

Ans: Rectilinear motion.

Q. 11. What is cubit?

Ans: It is the distance between the tip of the out-stretched middle and the elbow.

Q. 12. What is hand span?

Ans: The hand span is the measure of the distance between the tip of the thumb and the tip of the little finger of a fully stretched hand.

Q. 13. What is foot-step (pace)?

Ans: A foot step is the measure of the distance between the end point of the heel and the big toe.

Q. 14. Name two which are commonly used for ineasuring length.

Ans: (i) Ruler or metre scale.

(i) Measuring tape.

Q. 15. What type of scale (device) would you use to measure your chest?

Ans: Measuring tape.

Q. 16. What type of measuring device you use to measure the girth of a tree?

Ans: Measuring tape.

Q. 17. What do you mean by rest?

Ans: A body is said to be at rest when it does not change its position with respect to its surrounding objects.

Q. 18. A 30 cm scale has a broken end. The mark at the broken end is 1.6 cm. Which mark of the scale will you use for measuring the length of an object?

Ans: 2.0 cm mark.

Q. 19. Name two things which can be used to measure the length of a curved line.

(ii) A divider in geometry box.

Q. 20. How many centimetres are there in a metre?

Ans: 100.

Q. 21. Convert 1425 m in km.

Ans: 1.425 km.

Q. 22. Name the device used for measuring the size of your wrist.

Ans: Measuring tape.

Q. 23. Name the device that measure circumference of a round table.

Ans: A long thread or measuring tape.

Q. 24. Give the unit for measuring thickness of a coin.

Ans: Millimetre.

Q. 25. Arrange the following lengths in their increasing magnitude (keeping the smallest length first).

1 metre, 1 centimetre, 1 millimeter. 1 millimetre.

Ans: 1 millimetre, 1 centimetre, 1 metre, 1 kilometre.

Q. 1. State two precautions which you should take while using a to measure the length of an object.

Ans: (i) The scale should be placed along the length to measure. It should be very close to the objects to be measured.

(ii) Eye must be kept vertical above the end point of the object or point where the measurement is taken.

Q. 2. Define rest and motion.

Ans: Rest: The objects which do not change their position with time (with respect to their surroundings) are said to be at rest.

Motion: The objects which change their positions with time (with respect to their surroundings) are said to be in motion.

Q. 3. How can a measured length be expressed?

Ans: Each measurement has:

(i) A number describing the numerical value.

(ii) The unit in which that quantity is measured.

Q. 4. Define circular motion. Give one example also.

Ans: The motion of a body along a circular path is called circular motion.

Example: Whirling of a stone tied to a string is an example of circular motion.

Q. 5. Name the types of motions shown by Earth.

Ans: Earth rotates about its own axis and also revolves around the sun at the same time. It has rotatory as well as circular motion.

Q. 6. Write two advantages of using a measuring scale.

Ans: Advantages of using a measuring scale:

(i) The scale can be easily taken from measuring.

(ii) The scale does not change during measurements.

Q. 7. Explain why, hand span cannot be used as a standard unit of length.

Ans: Hand-span cannot be used as a standard unit of length because its length not the same for all the persons. The length of hand span of different persons is different It varies from person to person.

Q. 8. What is cubit? Explain why cubit cannot be used as a standard unit of length?

Ans: The cubit is the measure of the distance between the elbow and the tip of the middle finger of a fully stretched hand

Cubit cannot be used as standard unit of length because its length is not the same for all the persons.

Q.9. What is foot step? Why a foot step (pace) cannot be used as a standard unit of length?

Ans: A foot step is the measure of the distance between the end point of the heel and the big toe.

Foot-step can not be used as a standard unit of length because its length is not the same for all the persons.

Q. 10. Whether the walls of your classroom are at rest or in motion? Explain.

Ans: With the passage of time, the position of the walls does not change with respect to the floor, ceiling or other objects of the class room. So, the walls are at rest.

Q. 11. Have you ever the train in which you are to move experienced that sitting appears while it is at rest? Explain.

Ans: Yes. When the neighbouring train begins to move, it appears as if our train is moving. But when we look towards the platform side, we find that our train is at rest.

Q. 12. How do you measure the circumference of a one-rupee coin?

Ans: To measure the circumference of a coin, wrap the thread around the coin. The length of the thread can be measured with the help of a metre scale.

Q. 13. A 30 cm scale has one end broken. The mark at the bottom end is 2.6 cm. How would you use it to measure the length of your pencil?

Ans: To measure the length of pencil by scale, the length is obtained by subtracting the first mark observation from the second end observation.

Q. 14. Give a method you would use to measure the thickness of a thin wire with the help of a metre scale.

Ans: Wrap, say 25 turns of thin wire around a pencil and see that wrap should be very close to one another. The wire would form a coil. With the help of metre-scale, measure the length of wire and divide it by total number of turns. It will be the thickness of the thin wire.

Q. 15. What is non-periodic motion? Give an example.

Ans: When a body does not repeat the same motion at regular intervals of time, birds flying in the sky and the motion it is said to be in non periodic motion.

For example of finger flying on a keyboard.

Q. 1. What is periodic motion? State two  examples of periodic motion.

Ans: Periodic motion: The motion which repeats itself after regular intervals of time, is called periodic motion.

Example: (i) The revolution of moon round the earth is a periodic motion because the moon always takes the same time (about one month) to complete one round around the earth.

(ii) The revolution of earth around the sun is a periodic motion because the earth always takes the same amount of time (one year) to complete one round around the sun.

Q. 2. Give a method to measure the thickness of a one rupee coin.

Ans: Collect ten one rupee coins and stack them as shown in Fig. 10.25. Measure the height of the staked coins in millimetres.

Tick the thickness by 10. You will get the average thickness of one coin.

Q.3. What is meant by rectilinear motion? Give two examples of rectilinear motion.

Ans: Rectilinear motion: Motion in a straight line is called rectilinear motion.

Examples: (i) The movement of a bullet fired from a gun is an example of rectilinear motion.

(ii) The motion of a cyclist running on a straight road is rectilinear motion.

Q. 4. Classify the following into different types of motion:

(i) The motion of a plucked string of a guitar.

Ans: Oscillatory motion.

(ii) The motion of a wheel of a bullock cart.

Ans: Circular motion.

(iii) The motion of a falling stone.

Ans: Rectilinear motion.

Q. 5. Give an example of objects for each of the following:

(i) Object which moves in a line.

Ans: Light comes from the sun.

(ii) Object which moves in a circle.

Ans: Movement of merry-go-round.

(iii) Object which has a period motion.

Ans: Motion of earth around the sun in one year.

Q. 6. Give an example of the following types of motions: Rectilinear

(a) Rectilinear.

Ans: The march-past of soldiers in a parade.

(b) Circular.

Ans: The movement of all the planets around the sun.

(c) Rotatory.

Ans: The spinning of earth on its axis.

Q. 7. Name the three types of motion exhibited by the earth.

Ans: (i) The earth moves around the sun, so it has circular motion.

(ii) The earth repeats motion around the sun after regular intervals of time (of one year), So it has periodic motion.

(iii) The earth rotates on its axis, so it has also rotational motion. Thus, the earth has three types of motion at the same time: circular motion, periodic motion and rotational motion.

Q. 8. Name the two modes of transport used

(a) on land.

(b) in water. and

(c) by air.

Ans: (a) Cars, scooters.

(b) Motorboats, ships.

(c) Aeroplanes, helicopters.

Q. 9. What is rotational motion? State two examples of rotational motion.

Ans: Rotational motion: When an object turns or spins around a fixed axis, it is called rotational motion.

Examples: (i) The spinning of earth on its axis.

(ii) Rotation of a wind mill or phirki.

Q. 10. Why is S.I system recommended?

Ans: S.I. system recommended for the following reasons:

(i) It is a standardised unit, and hence, it is accepted universally.

(ii) Every minute measurements are possible in the system.

(iii) Inter conversion within the system is simple and hence, calculations are easy. The units do not change with time.

Q. 11. What is linear or translatory motion? Name the types of translatory motion.

Ans: Linear or Translatory motion: A body moving along a line when all points of the body move along the same path is said to be in linear or translatory motion. Some examples of translatory motion are a car moving along a straight road, a train moving on the tracks and a ball moving on the ground.

Translatory motion can be of two types-rectilinear motion and curvilinear motion.

Q. 12. What is Random motion? Give three examples.

Ans: Random motion: When a body moves in different directions and does not have a fixed path, it is called random motion.

Examples: (i) The flight-path of an insect.

(ii) The flow of water in rivers.

(iii) The movement of atoms and molecules in liquids and gases.

Q. 13. Name three factors on which the choice of the measuring device depends.

Ans: The choice of the measuring device depends on:

(i) The size of the object to be measured.

(ii) The shape of the object to be measured.

(iii) The degree of accuracy needed.

Q. 14. Write any three precautions while taking a measurement.

Ans: (i) The scale should be placed along the length to be measured.

(ii) Your eye must be in front of and in line where the measurement is to be taken.

(iii) Ensure that ends of the scale are not worn-out.

NUMERICAL QUESTIONS

Q. 1. Ram’s house is 4250 metre from his school. Express this distance in kilometre.

Ans:

Q. 2. While measuring the length of a knitting needle the readings on the scale are 5.0 cm and 55.1 cm. What is the length of the needle?

Ans. First reading on the scale = 5.0 cm

Second reading on the scale = 55.1 cm

So, length of the knitting needle = 55.1 cm -5.0 cm

= (55.1-5.0) cm.

Q. 3. The height of a person is 1.65 m. Express it in cm and mm.

Ans.

(i) 1m = 100cm

1.65 m = 100 x 1.65 cm

= 165 cm

(ii) 1 m 1000 mm

∴    1.65m = 1000 × 1.65 mm

= 1650 mm:

Q. 4. The distance between Salma’s home to her school is 3275 m. Express the distance in km.

Q.5. A jogger jogs along one length and breadth of a rectangular park. If the dimensions of park are 150m * 120m find the distance by the jogger.

Ans. Distance travelled = 150m + 120m

= 270 m

Q.6. The odometer of a car reads 1800 km at the start of a trip and 2400 km at the end of the trip. Find the distance covered by the car.

Sol: Distance covered by the car = 2400 km – 1800 km

= (2400-1800) km

= 600 km.

Q.7. The distance between two stations of Delhi Metro is 2.360 km. Express the distance in (a) m and (b) cm.

Ans: (a) 11 km = 1000 m

So,      2.36km = 2.36 × 1000

= 2360m

(b)  1 km = 100000 cm

So, 2.36km = 2.360 × 10000

= 236000 cm.

Q.8. The length of a table is measured to be 1765 mm. How much is this length in metres?

Q.9. The length of a book rack is 2.15 m. Express this length in (a) cm (b) mm.

Ans: (a) 1 m = 100 cm

So,  2.15m = 2.15 × 100 cm

= 215 cm

(b) 1 m = 1000 mm

So, 2.15 m = 2.15 × 1000 mm

= 2150 mm

Q. 10. A student lives at a distance of 2280 m from his school. Express this distance in km.

Ans. 1 m = 0.001 km

So,  2280 m = 2280 × 0.001 km

= 2.280 km.

Q. 1. What is meant by a ‘standard unit of measurement? Why is it necessary to standard units of measurement ? Name the S.I unit of length. Write its symbol.

Ans: Standard measurement: A unit of measurement has a fixed value which does not change from person to person or place to place, is called a standard unit of measurement.

It is necessary to have standard units of measurement for the sake of uniformity in measurement.

S.I. units of length is metre. Symbol of metre is (m).

Q. 2. Classify the following:

(i) Motion of a string of a guitar.

Ans: Periodic motion.

(ii) Motion of heart beat.

Ans: Periodic motion.

(iii) Abullet shot from a gun.

Ans: Rectilinear motion.

(iv) Motion of pulley while drawing w from a well.

Ans: Circular motion.

(v) Motion of a spinning top.

Ans: Rotational motion.

Q.3. How can we measure the length of a curved line using a thread? Explain with the help of illustration.

Ans: For common pins on the sharp turnings of the curved line. In fig. 10.26:  A,B,————F, etc are the pins fixed on the curved line. Now tie a knot with cotton thread at the common pin A. Using fingers of both hands move the thread along the curved line such that it goes around pins B, C,————- m F, etc.

Care should be taken that the thread is neither too tight nor too loose, when moved along the curved line. When the thread reaches the extreme end of the curved line, cut it from that point.

Remove the thread from A and then place it straight along the length of half metre scale. The length of the thread is equal to the length of curved line.

Q. 4. What is meant by:

(a) circular motion.

Ans: When an object moves along a circular path, it is called circular motion.

Examples: (i)The movement of moon around the earth.

(ii) The movement of earth around the sun.

(b) rotational motion? Give two examples of circular motion and two examples of rotational motion.

Ans: When an object turns (or spins) about a fixed axis, it is called rotational motion.

Examples: (i) The motion of a spinning top.

(ii) The spinning of earth on its axis.

Q. 5. Give a method to measure, the length of a pencil.

Ans: To measure the length of a pencil we choose a metre scale which should be placed along its length. In Fig. 10.27, zero mark on the scale coincides with the one end of the pencil and the reading coinciding with the other end of the pencil is taken. Since the ruler has some Thickness, we may make an error if the eye is not correctly placed. The eye is to be placed exactly above the point where the measurement is to be taken as shown in Fig. 10.27 from the position A. The other end of the pencil coincides with 8.5 cm mark The length of the pencil is 8.5 cm.

HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL QUESTIONS

Q. 1. What is the importance of reference point in stating motion?

Ans: Reference point is important to state the position of object correctly as motion is relative in  nature.

Q. 2. Give an example of indirectly perceivable motion.

Ans: We cannot see the air moving but at the same time we can perceive the motion of air directly by observing the movement of dust, deaves and branches of trees, or simply by feeling the blowing air on our face, hands, etc.

Q. 3. Write the full names of the following units of measurement.

(a) Cm

Ans: Centimetre.

(b) Km

Ans: Kilometre.

(c) mm

Ans: Millimetre.

(d) M

Ans: Metre.

Q. 4. (a) How many centimetres are there in a metre?

Ans: 100.

(b) How many millimetres are there in a centimetre ?

Ans: 10.

(c) How many millimetres make one metre?

Ans: 1000

(d) How many metres make one km?

Ans: 1000.

Q. 5. Given below are some of the modes of transport: Steam engine train, Bullock-cart, Car, Horse, Space-craft, Aeroplane.

Place them in the correct order starting from the earliest modes of transport to the most recent.

Ans: Horse, Bullock Cart, Steam engine train, Car, Aeroplane, Space craft.

SKILL BASED QUESTIONS

Observe the diagrams given below. Write the type of motion these objects exhibited while in action/ or begin played:

Ans: (a) Periodic motion, vibratory.

(b) Circular motion.

(c) Oscillatory (periodic) motion

(d) Periodic motion, oscillatory.

(e) Circular motion

(f) Spinning (circular) motion.

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

Q. 1. Fill in the following blanks with suitable words:

(i) The length of the forearm from elbow to finger tips is called __________.

Ans: Cubit.

(ii) Every measurement consists of a number and a ___________.

Ans: Unit.

(iii) The change in position of an object with time is called __________.

Ans: Motion.

(iv) A falling stone exhibits ____________motion.

Ans: Rectilinear.

(v) A ___________ is used for measuring the lengths of table.

Ans: Measuring tape.

(vi) Motion in blade of air electric fan is an example of ___________ mention.

Ans: Circular.

(vii) The most convenient unit for measuring the thickness of a coin is _____________.

Ans: Millimetre.

(viii) A metre scale can measure lengths accurately upto_________.

Ans: 1 mm.

(ix) Rectilinear motion takes place in ___________ direction.

Ans: Fixed.

(x) The moon moves around the earth in a ___________ path.

Ans: Circular.

Q. 2. State whether the following statements are true or false:

(i) The S.I unit of distance is cm.

Ans: False.

(ii) The motion of a spinning top is rectilinear motion.

Ans: False.

(iii) The motion of a body falling freely under gravity is rectilinear motion.

Ans: True.

(iv) Rectilinear motion takes place in a fixed direction.

Ans: True.

(v) The movement of moon around the earth is an example of rotational motion.

Ans: False.

(vi) The movement of all the planets around the sun is rectilinear motion.

Ans: False.

(vii) The rotation of earth on its axis is a periodic motion.

Ans: True.

(viii) Some objects may have more than one type of motion at the same type.

Ans: True.

(ix) Cubit is a standard unit for measuring length.

Ans: False.

(x) A flying bird in the sky is at rest.

Ans: False.

Q. 3. Match the items in column A with those in column B:

Ans:

Q. 4. Write one word for the following:

(i) Comparing an unknown quantity with some known fixed quantity of the same kind.

Ans: Measurement.

(ii) The basic unit of measurement.

Ans: Standard unit.

(iii) The motion of a body along a straight line.

Ans: Rectilinear motion.

(iv) The motion which repeats itself at a regular interval.

Ans: Periodic motion.

(v) Small and rapid to and fro movement of a body.

Ans: Periodic motion (Vibratory motion).

(vi) The distance between the tip of the middle finger (outstretched) and the elbow.

Ans: Cubit.

(vii) Continuous change in the position of a body with respect to another.

Ans: Motion.

(viii) Motion in which a body moves about a fixed axis without changing its position.

Ans: Rotatory motios.

(ix) Length in between the thumb and index finger of an outstretched palm, which is about 19 cm.

Ans: Hand span.

(x) A motion which does not repeat itself after regular intervals of time.

Ans: Non-periodic motion.

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

(i) Metre is the S.I. unit of

(a) Mass.

(b) Volume.

(c) Length.

(d) Weight.

Ans: (c) Length.

(ii) Which of the following types of motion is not exhibited by the earth moving around the sun?

(a) Circular.

(b) Rotational.

(c) Rectilinear.

(d) Periodic.

Ans: (c) Rectilinear.

(iii) The distance between the tip of the out-stretched middle finger and the elbow is called:

(a) Cubit.

(b) Hard spand.

(c) Fathom.

(d) Pabe.

Ans: (a) Cubit.

(iv) Which of the following modes of transport is not based on the invention of wheel?

(a) Bullock cart.

(b) Boat.

(c) Bicycle.

(d) Bus.

Ans: (b) Boat.

(v) Which of the following types of motion are possessed by a merry-go-round at same time?

(A) Rotational motion.

(B) Rectilinear motion.

(C) Periodic motion.

(D) Circular motion, led sit.

(a) A and B.

(b) B and C.

(c) A and C.

(d) A and D.

Ans: (d) A and D.

(vi) Which of the following types of motion are possessed by a football rolling on the ground?

(A) Rotational motion.

(B) Rectilinear motion.

(C) Circular motion at.

(D) Periodic motion.

(a) A and B.

(b) B and C.

(c) A and C.

(d) B and D.

Ans: (a) A and B.

(vii) A communication satellite is stationed in an orbit high above the earth. Which of the following will not be exhibited by this communications satellite?

(A) Rotational motion.

(B) Periodic motion.

(C) Circular motion.

(D) Rectilinear motion.

(a) A and B.

(b) B and C.

(e) A and D.

(d) B and D.

Ans: (d) A and D.

(viii) A bicycle is moving on a straight road. Which of the following types of motion are exhibited by it?

(A) Periodic motion.

(B) Rotational motion.

(C) Rectilinear motion.

(D) Circular motion.

(a) A and B.

(b) B and C.

(c) C and D.

(d) A and D.

Ans: (d) B and C.

(ix) One of the following types of motion will not be exhibited by the moon moving around the earth.

This is:

(a) Rotational.

(b) Rectilinear motion.

(c) Circular motion.

(d) Periodic motion.

Ans: (b) Rectilinear motion,

(x) The tip of the second’s hand of a clock is coloured red. Which of the following types of motion will be exhibited by the red coloured tip of the second’s hand of this clock?

(A) Rotational motion.

(B) Periodic motion.

(C) Circular motion.

(D) Rectilinear motion.

(a) A and B.

(b) A and C.

(c) B and C.

(d) C and B.

Ans: (c) B and C.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

Q. 1. Sohan was traveling from Delhi to Jaipur by his car for a meeting. He had to reach the destination in the given times. So he kept a track of the odometer and his watch all through the journey to decide upon his speed. This helps him to reach on time for the meeting.

(i) What measuring devices were used by Sohan?

Ans: Odometer (to measure distance) and his wrist watch (to measure time).

(ii) What qualities of Sohan are worth appreciating?

Ans:  Distance is the length of the actual path travelled by a body between its initial and final positions.

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