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NCERT Class 6 Science Chapter 3 Fibre to Fabric
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Fibre to Fabric
NCERT TEXT BOOK EXERCISES
Q. 1. Classify the following fibres as natural or synthetic:
nylon, wool, cotton, silk, polyester, jute.
Ans: (i) Natural fibres: Wool, cotton, silk, jute.
(ii) Synthetic fibres: Nylon, polyester.
Q. 2. State whether the following statements are true or false:
(a) Yarn is made from fibres.
(b) Spinning is a process of making fibres.
(c) Jute is the outer covering of coconut.
(d) The process of removing seed from cotton is called ginning.
(e) Weaving of yarn makes a piece of fabric.
(f) Silk fibre is obtained from the stem of plant.
(g) Polyester is a natural fibre.
Q. 3. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Plant fibres are obtained from _________ and _________.
Ans: Cotton, jute.
(b) Animal fibres are _________ and _________.
Ans: Wool, silk.
Q. 4. From which part of plant cotton and jute are obtained?
Ans: Cotton fibres are obtained from cotton seeds. They are hairs of cotton seeds. Jute fibres are obtained from the stems of jute plants by retting process.
Q. 5. Name two items that are made from coconut fibres.
Ans: (i) Ropes.
(ii) Coir in mattress.
Q. 6. Explain the process of making yarn from fibres. (2014 Delhi)
Ans: The process of making yarn from fibres is called spinning. In this process fibres from a mass of cotton wool are drawn out and twisted. This brings the fibres together to form a yarn.
A simple device used for spinning is a hand spindle also called takli and charkha. Spinning of yarn on a large scale is done with the help of spinning machine. After spinning yarns are used for making fabrics.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Name the animal from which wool is most commonly obtained.
Ans: Wool is most commonly obtained from sheep.
Q. 2. Name one fibre obtained from the stem of plants.
Q. 3. (a) From which part the plant cotton fibre is obtained?
Ans: Fruits of cotton plants (cotton bolls).
(b) From which part of the plant jute fibre is obtained?
Ans: Stem of jute plants.
Q. 4. Why cotton and wool are rough to touch?
Ans: Cotton and woollen fibres are rough to touch because they have many folds and uneven surface on them.
Q. 5. Name two factors which influence our choice of clothing.
Ans: Climate, culture and tradition.
Q. 6. Why is coir not suitable for making cloth?
Ans: Coir is not suitable for making clothes because coir is a very strong and rough fibre.
Q. 7. What are fruits of cotton plants called?
Ans: Cotton bolls.
Q. 8. What are yarns made of?
Ans: Yarns are made up of thin strands called fibres.
Q. 9. What type of soil is used to grow cotton plants?
Ans: Black soil.
Q. 10. Name two hand-operate devices used for spinning.
Ans: (i) Takil.
Q. 11. X and Y are two natural fibre Both these fibres are obtained from th stem of their respective plants. The fib X is a rough but strong fibre which is used for making ropes and gunny bags. On the other hand, fibre Y is comparatively much smooth fibre which is used to make line cloth. Name the fibres X and Y.
Ans: Fibre X is jute and Fibre Y is flax,
Q. 12. There are two pieces of fabric labelled P and Q. Both these fabrics an subjected to burning test, one by one Fabric P burns by giving the smell of charred meat whereas fabric Q burns by giving the smell of burning plastic. Fabric Q also melts and forms small beads on burning.
(a) Which fabric is made of nylon?
(b) Which fabric is made of silk?
Q. 13. What are bobbins?
Ans: The big reels of yarn are called bobbins. These bobbins are used for weaving the cloth.
Q. 14. What is shearing?
Ans: Removing the wool from sheep is called shearing.
Q. 15. How are natural fibres better than synthetic fibres?
Ans: The natural fibre absorbs sweat. gives cooling effect and comfort in any season.
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q. 1. State the two steps involved in making fabrics from fibres.
Ans: The fabrics are made from fibres in the following two steps:
(i) Fibres are first converted to yarn by the process of spinning.
(ii) Fabric is made from yarn by the process of weaving or knitting.
Q. 2. What is retting? How is it done?
Ans: The process used for obtaining plant fibres from the stems of the plant by keeping them in stagnant water for a few days is called retting.
Jute plant is harvested when it is in flowering stage. The stalks of the plant are tied into bundles and then made to sink in stagnant pond water for about 20 days. The process softens the tissues and permits the fibres be separated. In this way, retting is done.
Q. 3. What are the two types of fibres? Give two examples of each type of fibres.
Ans: Fibres are of two types:
(i) Natural fibres: Examples: Cotton, Wool.
(ii) Synthetic fibres: Examples: Nylon, Polyester.
Q. 4. What is ginning? How is it done?
Ans: Ginning: The process of separating cotton fibres from the seeds is called ginning.
It is done by passing harvested cotton through roller gins. Separating fibres from cotton seeds was traditionally done by combing manually. The fibrous material left after separating cotton seed is called lint. The lint is then tied and pressed into bales.
Q. 5. What happens when a yarn from a torn sock is pulled?
Ans: When we pull a yarn from a torn sock then a single yarn gets pulled out continuously as the fabric gets unravelled. Socks are made up of knitted fabrics from a single yarn.
Q. 6. Write two properties of jute fibre.
Ans: Properties of Jute Fibre:
(i) Jute fibres are pale yellow in colour and 2-3 metres long
(ii) Jute fibres have silky texture and are very strong.
Q. 7. Write two uses of Jute.
Ans: Uses of Jute:
(i) It is used mainly for making gunny bags, shopping bags, ropes, carpets, curtains, etc.
(ii) Fine quality of jute is used for making jute fabrics as fashion wear.
Q. 8. Name four factors which influence our choice of clothing.
Ans: Our choice of clothing is influenced by the following factors:
(iii) Culture and tradition.
(iv) Daily needs.
Q. 9. The material P obtained from an animal’s skin is converted into Q by a process R. Q is then made into a sweater by the S. What P, Q, R and S?
Ans: P: Wool.
Q: Woollen yarn.
R: Spinning. and
Q. 10. What are natural fibres? Explain with examples.
Ans: The fibres obtained from plants and animals are called natural fibres. For example, cotton from cotton bolls, jute from jute plant, silk from cocoon of silk worm and wool from hair of animals-like sheep and goat.
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Write three uses of cotton.
Ans: (i) Cotton is mainly used for making cloth of various kinds, towels, curtains, etc.
(ii) Cleaned and sterilized cotton is used as absorbent in hospitals. Bandage is also made of cotton thread.
(iii) The dispersed cotton is used as filler in mattresses, pillows and quilts.
Q. 2. Name three plants and their parts used for making clothes.
Ans: The following plants and their parts are used for making clothes:
(i) Cotton plants: Fibres are obtained from their seeds. Their seeds have white fluffy objects attached to them, where from threads are made and then cloth is prepared.
(ii) Mango trees: The seeds of mango have fibres which can be used to manufacture clothes.
(iii) Coconut: The fruits of coconut bear fibres which are being used for preparing yarn.
Q. 3. Why clothing has become a necessity?
Ans: Clothing has become a necessity due to the reasons:
(i) Clothes protect us from wind and sun.
(ii) Clothes maintain body heat and absorb moisture to sweating
(iii) Clothes give us a body cover.
Q. 4. Which kind of fibres were used for making clothes in the three stages of development?
Ans: Stage 1: During this stage, plant fibres such as cotton, flax, nettles and inner bark of trees were used to obtain cloth.
Stage 2: During this stage, fibres from animals such as wool, silk were used to obtain cloth.
Stage 3: During this stage, man-made (or synthetic) fibrous materials such as nylon, rayon, polyester etc., were used to make dress materials.
Q. 5. Describe the following terms:
Ans: (a) Bobbins: The big reels of yarn are called bobbins. The bobbins are used for weaving the cloth.
(b) Warp: In the looms, the yarn is placed lengthwise on the frames. These frames are called warp.
(c) Weft: In the looms, one yarn is placed lengthwise on the frames and another yarn is attached to the shuttle of the machine. The shuttle carries the yarn back and forth across the yarn placed lengthwise (in the warp). The shuttle yarn is called weft.
Q. 6. Write three varieties of cotton on the length, strength and structure of fibre.
Ans: (i) Long Staple Cotton: It has largest fibre length which varies between 24 mm to 27 mm. It is commonly called Egyptian cotton and is the finest variety.
(ii) Medium Staple Cotton: Its fibre length is between 20 mm to 24 mm.
(iii) Its fibre length is less than 19 cm.
Q. 7. What type of climate is preferable for growing cotton?
Ans: Cotton plant needs plenty of sunshine and preferably mild, cool and dry climate with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C. Warm days and cool nights are good for the development and fruition of cotton crop. It needs moderate rainfall of 60 cm to 80 cm, well distributed in the year. Stagnant water and excessive rain are harmful to it.
Q. 8. What is a loom? For what purpose is it used? What is the difference between hand loom and power loom?
Ans: A device for making fabrics by weaving yarn or threads is called a loom. The weaving of yarn to make fabrics is done by using looms.
Hand loom: It is a cloth weaving machine which is manually operated. In many parts of our country, hand loom cloth is produced in large quantities.
Power loom: It is a medium sized weaving machine run on power. It is used to produce cloth on large scale in both producing industry.
Q. 9. What type of the cloth is used at your home for mopping or cleaning the floor and why?
Ans: We should use thick thread clothes of cotton for cleaning the floor of our house. Thick thread cotton clothes are used for cleaning due to the following reasons:
(i) They absorb water. Their water absorbing capacity is very high.
(ii) Cotton clothes clean the dust very safely and absorbs dust particles quickly.
(iii) Dust particles are removed from cotton thread clothes by jerking easily. So they are used as mops or cleaning the floors.
Q. 10. Why are the cotton and woollen clothes rough as compared to silk, rayon or polyester?
Ans: Clothes are woven from the threads and the threads are spun from the natural or synthetic fibres. The fibres of cotton and wool have many folds and uneven surface. It is the presence of these folds and uneven surface on the fibres which make them rough.
In the case of silk, the folds are very very small and the surface of fibre is not very uneven. Thus, the silk is soft to touch. In case of rayon or polyester there are no folds and surface of the fibre is smooth. Thus, they are soft to touch.
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Describe the process of the formation of yarn from cotton wool.
Ans: The cotton wool is obtained from cotton plants. The cotton plants are grown in fields. They are usually grown at the
places having black soil and warm climate. The fruits of the cotton plants called cotton bolls are about the size of lemons. After maturing, the bolls burst open and seeds covered with cotton fibres can be seen. From the cotton bolls cotton is picked by hands. Fibres are then separated from the seeds by combing. This process is called ginning of cotton. It is done by hand or by machine. These fibres are then converted into yarn.
Q. 2. What is meant by
(a) Fibre. and
Describe the process of making fabrics from fibres.
Ans: (a) Fibre: A very thin, thread-like strand from which cloth is made is called fibre.
(b) Fabric: Fabric means a woven material, a textile or other materials resembling woven cloth. Fabric is made up of yarns.
Making Fabric: The two main processes used for making fabric are knitting and weaving.
Knitting: The process of making fabric by forming a series of connected loops of yarn is called knitting. Clothes such as sweaters, woollen caps, woollen socks and woollen gloves are usually made by knitting. Knitting is done by hand using knitting needles or using machines.
Weaving: The process of making fabric by crossing two sets of yarn over and under each other is called weaving. Clothes such as shirts, t-shirts and trousers are usually made by weaving. Weaving is done on machines called looms, which can be hand operated (hand loom) or power operated (power loom).
Q. 3. Give a brief account of the journey of jute from its cultivation to making the fibre.
Ans: (i) Jute is grown in alluvial soil in the delta region of the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.
(ii) Jute is cultivated during the rainy season. It bears yellow flowers in 3-4 months.
(iii) Jute plants are usually cut at the flowering state. A good quality fibre is obtained from plants cut at the flowering state. Jute obtained from a matured plant is harder.
(iv) After the dry leaves haven fallen, the bundles of dry plants are kept in a pond for a few days. During this period, the gummy skin rots out to separate the fibres. This process is called retting.
(v) The jute fibre is obtained from the retted jute by hand.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILL QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Why synthetic fibres have become so popular? Give two reasons.
Ans: (i) Synthetic fibres absorb very little water. So, the clothes made of synthetic fibres dry quickly after washing.
(ii) Synthetic fibres have excellent wrinkle resistance. So, the clothes made of synthetic fibres dry quickly after washing.
Q. 2. What type of clothes should we wear in summer?
Ans: We should wear light colour and cotton clothes in summer.
Light colour because it reflects heat. Cotton clothes because it has pores in it, absorbs sweat and allows the sweat to evaporate faster thereby giving cooling effect.
Q. 3. A and B are the two natural fibres. Fibre A is very soft and smooth which is separated from the seeds by the process C. Fibre A is used for making the wicks of oil lamps. Fibre B is very rough which is present in an outer covering on the ripened fruit D which occurs mainly in coastal areas. Fibre B is also known by another name E. The fibre is used or making ropes and mats.
(a) Name the fibre A.
Ans: (a) Cotton.
(b) What is the process C known as?
(c) Name of fibre B.
Ans: Coconut fibre.
(d) What is the name of fruit D?
(e) Write the name of E.
Q. 4. You are given two pieces of different types of fabrics which are labelled X and Y. Both the pieces of fabrics are burned, one by one. The fabric X burns vigorously giving a smell of burning paper whereas fabric Y burns producing a smell of burning hair.
(a) Which fabric could be made of wool?
Ans: Y is made of wool.
(b) Which fabric do you think is made of cotton ?
Ans: X is made of cotton.
Q. 5. When we burn nylon, why we do not get the smell of burning paper or burning hair?
Ans: Nylon is a synthetic fibre made from chemicals. On burning nylon, these chemicals do not produce the smell of burning paper or hair which are natural substances.
SKILL BASED QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Identify the following figure 3.19 and name who popularized the use of this device.
Ans: The figure 3.19 shows a charkha. The use of charkha was popularized by Mahatma Gandhi.
Q. 2. (i) Observe the given figure 3.20 and tell what the woman is doing in figure.
Ans: The woman is weaving fabrics on the loom by hand.
(ii) Name the device by which this process can be done.
Ans: The process can be done using hand operated or power operated looms.
Q. 3. Identify the figure 3.21 and name the process.
Ans: The process is knitting. It is used to convert single yarn into fabrics.
Q. 1. Fill in the following blanks with suitable words:
(i) For cultivation of cotton crop ___________ soil is excellent plant.
(ii) Linen is made from the fibres of ___________ plant.
(iii) Terylene is a _____________ fibre but flax is ___________ fibre.
Ans: Synthetic, natural.
(iv) The common name of coconut fibre is _____________.
(v) Fibres are made first by spinning the ___________ to make and then weaving or knitting the ___________.
Ans: Fibre, yarn, yarn.
(vi) Silk is obtained from ___________ of silk worm.
(vii) Separation of cotton fibre from its seeds is known as _________.
(viii) Tightly compressed bundles of cotton are called ___________.
(ix) The loose strand of cotton is called ____________.
(x) The ____________ carries the yarn back and forth across the yarn placed lengthwise.
Q. 2. State whether the following statements are true or false:
(i) All natural fibres can be used for making cloth.
(ii) Yarn is made from fibres.
(iii) Cotton fibre grown on its stem.
(iv) Spinning is a process of making crops.
(v) Cotton crop is grown in low temperature region.
(vi) Jute fibre is obtained from the roots of jute plant.
(vii) Nylon is a natural fibre.
(viii) The process of making yarn from fibres is called ginning.
(ix) The process of arranging two sets of yarns together is called weaving.
(x) To make fabrics, weaving is used.
3. Match the items given in column ‘A’ with those in column ‘B’:
|Column A||Column B|
|(i) Rayons||(a) Sewing needle|
|(ii) A key tool for making clothes||(b) China|
|(iii) Wool, cotton, silk||(c) Bobbins|
|(iv) Birth place of silk fabres||(d) Natural fibres|
|(v) Big reels on which yarn is wound||(e) Man- made fibres|
|Column A||Column B|
|(i) Rayons||(e) Man- made fibres|
|(ii) A key tool for making clothes||(a) Sewing needle|
|(iii) Wool, cotton, silk||(d) Natural fibres|
|(iv) Birth place of silk fabres||(b) China|
|(v) Big reels on which yarn is wound||(c) Bobbins|
Q. 4. Write one word for the following:
(i) Fibres which are obtained from plants or animals.
Ans: Natural fibres.
(ii) The process of removing cotton seeds from cotton pods.
(iii) The process of arranging two sets of yarn together (at right angle to each other) to make a fabric.
(iv) Big reel of yarn.
(v) The process of making yarn from fibres.
(vi) The yarn placed lengthwise in the loom.
(vii) The yarn which moves cross-wise through warp.
(viii) A device which moves cross-wise through warp, so as to spread the weft.
(ix) The cotton fibres from which cotton seed is removed.
(x) A thread made by spinning (twisting) fibres.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
(i) Which one of the following is not a natural fibre?
Ans: (b) Nylon.
(ii) Which one of the following is not a synthetic fibre?
Ans: (c) Flax.
(iii) One of the following fibres is obtained from plans. This fibre is:
Ans: (d) Flax.
(iv) If a piece of fabric burns by giving the smell of charred meat, it is most likely to be made up of:
Ans: (c) Silk.
(v) The process of separating cotton fibres from the seeds is called:
Ans: (d) Ginning.
(vi) Which one of the following fibres is obtained from a kind of worms?
Ans: (d) Silk.
(vii) Looms are related to:
Ans: (c) Weaving.
(viii) The process which involves pulling and twisting of strands of a fibre is called:
Ans: (c) Spinning.
(ix) We make fabrics from
(c) Thin strands.
(d) None of the above.
Ans: (a) Yarn.
(x) Which of the following is obtained from hair of an animal?
Ans: (d) Wool.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
Reema and Venu are very good friends. One day it was very hot and both of them had to go to market in the afternoon. Reema was feeling very uncomfortable and sweating very much. explained to her that she should not have worn black coloured clothes on such a day. Venu understood her point.
(a) What kind of clothes should we wear in summers and why?
Ans: We should wear white or light coloured clothes in summer because these clothes do not absorb much heat.
(b) Which set of moral values are shown by both friends?
Ans: Both friends showed the value of concerned citizen, morally responsible and friendly in nature.