Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 4 Mill’s Method of Experimental Enquiry

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Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 4 Mill’s Method of Experimental Enquiry

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C) Short type answers :- 3 marks each.

1) State three advantages of the Method of Agreement.

Ans:- The three advantages of the Method of Agreement are :-

a) The Method of Agreement is pre – eminently a method of observation. So, it has a wide range of application than the method of experiment. As Whatever can be Experimented can also be observed, but whatever can be observed may not be experimented. Therefore, the Method of Agreement has a wider scope.

b) The Method of Agreement enables us to proceed from the cause to the effect and from the effect to the cause. As this method is a method of observation. So, we can move from cause to its effect and from effect to its cause to find out the causal connection.

c) In any scientific enquiry the method of Agreement helps to frame hypothesis relating to causal connection.

2) State three advantages of the Method of Difference.

Ans:- The three advantages of the Method of Difference are :-

a) The application of the Method of Difference is very simple. Because, the two instances require to determine the cause effect relation are sufficient.

b) The Method of Difference can prove causal connection. So, it is considered as the best method of experimental enquiry.

c) In the other methods of experimental enquiry also, if experiment can be applied then the Method of Difference can function effectively.

3) “The method of Difference can prove a cause but not the cause” – Explain.

Ans:- The Method of Difference is not totally free from the difficulties arising out of the plurality of causes. Here we can prove that particular event is the cause of a particular effect. But from it we cannot prove that the said cause is the only cause of the effect. In other cases, some other event may be proved as the cause. Therefore, we can say that the Method of Difference can prove a cause but not the only cause.

4) “The Method of Agreement cannot distinguish between the cause and co – effect” – Explain.

Ans:- According to the Method of Agreement if two events are invariably found to be present or they are invariably succeeding one another then they are causally connected. But from this we cannot say that the invariable antecedent is the cause of the invariable consequent. For example, ‘day’ is the invariable antecedent of the ‘night’ . But from this we cannot say that ‘day’ is the cause of ‘night’. In fact ‘day’ and ‘night’ are the co – effects of the same cause i.e. the rotation of the earth on its own axis. So, the Method of Agreement cannot distinguish between the cause and co – effect.

5) ‘The Joint Method is certainly an improvement upon the Method of Agreement’ – explain.

Ans:- It is said that the Joint Method is certainly as improvement upon the Method of Agreement. Because, the Method of Agreement suggests but cannot prove the cause effect relation. Only the Joint Method can confirm the cause effect relation very effectively because the negative set of instances plays a vital role in it. The Joint Method is more or less free from the difficulty arising out of the possibility of the plurality of causes as there are two sets of instances. The possibility of the causal connection between two events which is detected by the Method of Agreement is confirmed by the Joint Method. But as the Joint Method is basically a method of observation, so the conclusion remains uncertain. But still the Joint Method is more reliable and improved method than the Method of Agreement.

6) State three advantages of the Method of Concomitant Variation.

Ans:- The three advantages of the Method of concomitant variation are :-

a) In order to find the causal connection related to permanent causes, only the Method of Concomitant Variation can effectively be applied.

b) The Method of Concomitant Variation is the only quantitative method among all other methods. So, to find out the quantitative relation of cause and effect this method is of great use.

c) method can be used as supplementary to other methods.

7) Mention the advantages of the Method of Residues.

Ans:- The advantages of the Method of Residues are :-

a) The Method of Residues helps extensively in any discovery.

b) This method determined the causal relation between a complex cause and complex effect.

c) By the Method of Residues we can pass from the cause to the effect and from the effect to the cause.

d) All inductive methods are in one or other way, dependent on the Method of Residues.

8) Mention three disadvantages of the Method of Agreement.

Ans:- The three disadvantages of the Method of Agreement are :-

a) Practical Imperfection.

b) Characteristic Imperfection.

c) Problem in distinguishing causation from co – effects and co – existence.

9) “The Method of Difference can not distinguish between the cause and a condition” – Explain with examples.

Ans:- In the application of the Method of Difference it is seen that a particular element takes a leading role in functioning the effect. But that particular element can not be considered as the whole cause of the effect. For example, a cup of tea cannot be tasty without the adequate quantity of sugar. But the adequate quantity of sugar is just one of the conditions of a tasty cup of tea. Other conditions like requisite quantity and quality of tea leaves, milk, the appetite of the drinker etc. are also indispensable components of the cause. So, it is said that the Method of Difference cannot distinguish between the cause and a condition.

10) How can the disadvantages of the Method of Agreement be removed to some extent ?

Ans:- The disadvantages of the Method of Agreement can be removed to some extent in the below mentioned way :-

a) The failure of the Method of Agreement due to the plurality of causes can be removed by the multiplication of instances. If we take a large number of instance and find that one circumstance is present in all of them, our conclusion becomes highly probable. We can also apply the Joint Method to overcome the difficulties of Plurality of causes.

b) Again, the problem of Practical Imperfection can be overcome only to some extent by the multiplication of instances. If we take large number of instances into account the chances of overcoming the difficulty will be high.

D) Long type answers :- 4 marks each.

1) Write short note on the fallacy of post hoc ergo propter hoc.

Ans:- A careless use of the Method of Difference sometimes leads to the fallacy of post hoc ergo propter hoc. The appearance of a comet in the sky may be followed by the death of king, but we certainly can not argue that the appearance of the comet is the cause of the death. In practical life we depend on simple observation for the supply of instances, but in such cases the Method of Difference does not yield conclusive results. In order to agree with the special requirements of this Method the instances must be supplied by Experiment.

2) What is meant by experimental methods ? How many Experimental methods are recognised by Mill ? Write the name of these methods.

Ans:- Scientific Induction aims at the discovery and proof of a causal connection among phenomenon with a view to establishing a general proposition. Logicians have formulated certain “methods” or devices by which causal connections among phenomenon are investigated i.e. by means of which causes and effects of given phenomenon are discovered and proved. These methods of causal investigation have been called Experimental Methods. Mill formulated five Experimental Methods. They are – the Method of Agreement, the Method of Difference, the Joint Method of Agreement and Difference, the Method of Concomitant variations, and the Method of Residues.

3) ‘The Method of Agreement is a method of observation’ – Amplify.

Ans:- To say that, “The Method of Agreement is pre eminently a Method of observation”, does mean that the Method of Agreement is limited to Simple observation only and can not be applicable to Experimental cases. Experiment does not exclude observation. So, the Method of Agreement can certainly be applied in cases of Experiment also. To say that the Method of Argument is pre – eminently a method of observation means that, it is applied to those cases where our control over the phenomenon under investigation is so limited that Experiments are not possible. Any instance in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs may be examined for the purpose of this method.

4) Why is the method of difference called a method of experiment ?

Ans:- The Method of Difference is essentially a Method of Experiment. Because, in experiment we may be sure having complied with strict requirements of this method. Here two required instances must be exactly alike, except one, in which the phenomenon under investigation is present and in the other it is absent. Now we can never be sure that the instances furnished by observation are instances of this special kind. In experiment, we have control of the conditions and are able to vary them at our will. Thus this Method can be successfully applied only in the case of Experiment.

5) Write the canon of the Method of Difference. What are the materials needed to apply this method ?

Ans:- The canon of Elimination which is used in the Method of Difference is – “When an antecedent can not be left out without the consequent disappearing, such antecedent must be the cause or a part of the cause”.

In this method two instances are collected these two instances one is positive instance, while the other is negative. The materials that is needed to apply the Method of Difference are a jar filled with air, a vacuum jar and a bell. In the presence of air the sound will be heard. This is called positive instance. In the negative Instance, the air is absent from the jar and the sound will not be heard.

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