Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 7 Ethics & Purusarthas Question answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapter Assam Board Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 7 Ethics & Purusarthas and select needs one.
Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 7 Ethics & Purusarthas
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Ethics & Purusarthas
A) Very short type answers :- 1 marks each.
1) The word ‘Ethics’ is derived from which word ?
Ans:- Greek word ‘Ethica’.
2) The word ‘Moral’ is derived from which word ?
Ans:- Latin word ‘Mores’.
3) What is the meaning of the word ‘Mores’ ?
Ans:- ‘Mores’ means customs or habits.
4) What is the meaning of the word ‘Ethos’ ?
Ans:- Ethos means character, customs usages or habits.
5) Give a brief definition of Ethics . Ethics is the science of customs or habits of men.
6) Is ethics a positive science ?
Ans:- No, ethics is a normative science.
7) Is it true that ‘character is the inner counter part of conduct’ ?
Ans:- Yes, it is true.
8) Are non – moral actions object of moral judgement ?
Ans:- Non – moral actions are object of moral judgement.
9) Do you agree that ‘endjustifies’ the means ?
Ans:- No, end never justifies the means.
10) What is the object of moral judgement ?
Ans:- Only voluntary and habitual actions are object of moral judgement.
11) How many Purusarthas are there ?
Ans:- There are four Purusarthas.
12) What type of science ethics is ?
Ans:- Ethics is normative science.
13) Is ethics a practical science ?
Ans:- No, it is not a practical science.
14) Give an example of Positive Science.
Ans:- Physics is a positive science.
15) Give an example of Normative Science.
Ans:- Logic is a Normative Science.
16) Give an example of non – moral action.
Ans:- Action of floods is a non – moral action.
17) Is voluntary action regarded as object of moral judgement ?
Ans:- Yes, voluntary action is regarded as object of moral judgement.
18) Is habitual action regarded as object of moral judgement ?
Ans:- Yes, habitual action is regarded as object of moral judgement.
19) Does the end justify the means ?
Ans:- No, the end never justifies the means.
20) “Ethics is the science of the highest ideal involved in human conduct” – Who says this.
21) “Ethics may be defined as the study of what is right or good in conduct” – Write the name of the philosopher associated with the statement.
22) “We may define ethics as the normative science of the conduct of human beings living in societies” – Write the name of the philosopher associated with the statement.
Ans:- William Lille.
B) Short type answers:- 2 marks each.
1) Define Ethics.
Ans:- Ethics means the science of customs or habits of men. It evaluates the voluntary actions and habitual actions of persons and considers their rightness and wrongness. Ethics is also called ‘Moral Philosophy.
2) What is normative science ?
Ans:- A normative science sets before itself a norm or ideal and deals with things as they should be.
3) What are the different stages of voluntary action ?
Ans:- A voluntary action has three stages, viz, the mental stage, the bodily stage and the external stage of consequences.
4) Is habitual action the object of moral judgement ?
Ans:- Yes, habitual action is the object of moral judgement. Habits are the result of repeated voluntary actions. Again, voluntary action is performed by a rational agent with desire, pre – vision and choice of ends and means. So, these actions are objects of moral judgement.
5) What do you mean by conflict of desires.
Ans:- Desire is a craving of an agent for the attainment of an object to relieve some wants. It is a state of tension between the actual state of the self and the idea of a future state not yet realized. It is a complex mental state consisting of congnitive, affective and conative elements. In a complex action many wants demand satisfaction. If one satisfied, the other has to be rejected although. Thus, there arises in the mind a competion, rivalry or conflict between the different motive and desires.
6) What is the meaning of Purusartha ?
Ans:- Purusartha means the four supreme ends recognised by the ancient Hindus. Every man ought to pursue them in order to attain to his complete well – being.
7) What do you mean by Varnasrama Dharma ?
Ans:- Varnasram Dharma is a system which functions as an institution and enables individual to attain the four Purusarthas.
8) Why ethics is called a normative science ?
Ans:- Ethics tries to ascertain the moral ideal, but does not lay down rules or means for the attainment of it. It does not teach us how to live a moral life. As Mackenzie states, Ethics gives us a knowledge of the guiding principles of life, but does not tell us how to apply them. Thus Ethics is a normative science and not a practical science.
9) Define Moksa.
Ans:- Moksa is the desire and will of every Hindu that he or she should attain Moksa i.e., Salvation. Moksa is possible when the soul rises above all activities of worldly life. It then rests in eternal peace and does not suffer the tortures of life and death.
10) What do you mean by Trivarge ?
Ans:- Dharma, Artha and Kama are the trivargas. With these trivarga, one can attain his goal of life i.e. Moksa.
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