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Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 2 Grounds of Induction
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Grounds of Induction
A) Very short type answers :- 1 marks each.
1) There are how many kinds of ground of induction ?
2) ‘The uniformity of nature does not negate variety’ – do you agree ?
3) ‘The law of causation is a material ground of induction’ – do you agree ?
4) Nature behaves in the same way under …………………………….. circumstances.
5) ‘A cause is the sum total of positive and negative condition taken together’ who says ?
Ans:- John Stuart Mill.
6) According to whom ’cause is the invariable antecedent of the effect’ ?
Ans:- According to David Hume ’cause is the invariable antecedent of the effect’.
7) If any and every antecedent of an event is regarded as the cause, then arises the –
Ans:- Fallacy of Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc.
8) According to whom ‘observation is finding a fact and experiment is making one’.
Ans:- According to Bain ‘observation is finding a fact and experiment is making one’.
9) Who says ‘observation and experiment do not differ in kind but only in degree’ ?
Ans:- Jevons says, ‘observation and experiment do not differ in kind but only in degree’.
10) What are the different fallacies of observation ?
Ans:- Fallacies of observation are of two kinds, viz., Non – observation and Mal – observation.
11) Is the cause of any event quantitatively equal to the effect ?
Ans:- Yes, the cause of any event is quantitatively equal to the effect.
12) The Law of Causation and the law of uniformity of Nature are what ground of induction ?
Ans:- Formal ground of induction.
13) “The Paradox of Induction is connected with the principle of the uniformity of Nature” – Is it true ?
Ans:- It is true.
14) “The ground of Induction is itself a result of induction” – Name the logician who said ?
Ans:- J. S. Mill.
15) The cause of any event is quantitatively, “The immediate, unconditional, invariable antecedent of the effect” and quantitatively “cause is equal to the effect” – Name the logician associated with the statement.
Ans:- Carveth Read.
16) Name the logician associated with the statement – “Cause is the sum total of conditions, positive and negative taken together”.
Ans:- J. S. Mill.
17) “Observation is passive while experiment is active” – Who says this statement ?
Ans:- Logician Stock.
18) “The Law of causation is a material ground of induction” – Is it true ?
Ans:- No, it is false.
B) Short types answer :- 2 marks each.
1) What do you mean by the grounds of induction ?
Ans:- The laws and processes depending on which induction establishes a general real proposition is known as the ground of induction.
2) What do you mean by the principle of the uniformity of nature ?
Ans:- The law of Uniformity of Nature states that nature behaves uniformity under similar circumstances. There is a unity among the diversities of nature. Among the changeable relations between the different parts of the world process, there is a general character. The law of Uniformity of Nature expresses this general character.
3) What is cause ?
Ans:- According to Carveth Read, the cause of any event is quantitatively, “the immediate, unconditional, invariable, antecedent of the effect” and qualitatively is “equal to the effect”.
4) Define material cause.
Ans:- The material or substance from which a thing is made is called the material cause.
5) What do you mean by the doctrine of plurality of causes ?
Ans:- The doctrine of plurality of causes means that the same effect may be produced by different causes is different cases.
6) How many kinds of cause are there according to Aristotle ? What are they ?
Ans:- According to Aristotle, there are four different types of causes. These are material cause, formal cause, efficient cause and final cause.
7) Define condition. What are the different kinds of condition ?
Ans:- Condition means any necessary factor of a cause. There are two different kinds of condition. They are Positive and Negative condition.
8) What do you mean by conjunction of causes ?
Ans:- The acting together of several causes, producing a joint effect is called conjunction of causes.
9) Define efficient cause with an example.
And:- The labour, skill or energy spent in making a thing is called the efficient cause. For example, skill which the weaver applies to the material in making cloth is the efficient cause of the effect.
10) Mention two advantages of simple observation.
Ans:- Two advantages of simple observation are :-
a) The scope of simple observation is wider than in experiment as it can be applied universally.
b) In observation, we can proceed from a cause to the effect as well as from an effect to its cause.
11) How many kinds of different forms of uniformity of nature are there and what are they ?
Ans:- There are two different forms of uniformity of nature.
They are :-
i) Uniformity of succession.
ii) Uniformity of coexistence.
12) How many kinds of Intermixture of effects and what are these ?
Ans:- Two kinds of Intermixture of effects are there.
They are :-
i) Homogeneous Intermixture of effects.
ii) Heterogeneous Intermixture of effects.
13) Write two differences between plurality of causes and conjunction of causes.
Ans:- Two differences between plurality of causes and conjunction of causes :-
i) According to plurality of causes, several causes acting independently produce the same effect at different times.
But, according conjunction of causes, several causes acting independently can not produce the effect. They can produce the effect jointly.
ii) Regarding causal relation, doctrine of plurality of causes is a misconception. But the conjunction of causes is not a misconception. In fact, acting together several causes can produce an effect. So, it is a correct conception.
14) What do you mean by Paradox of Induction ?
Ans:- Mill’s contradictory statement regarding the principle of the Uniformity of Nature is known as the paradox of induction. It simple means that the ground of induction is itself the result of induction. Mill’s calls it a fundamental principle or general axiom of induction and an assumption implied in every case of induction. It is the ground of all kinds of induction.
15) Distinguish between agent and patient.
Ans:- The thing acting is said to be the agent. Agents are those which acts. For example, if a glowing match stick is thrown to a heap of straw, there is fire. Here ‘glowing match stick’ is Agent.
On the other hand, the thing acted upon is said to be the patient. So, patients are those which are acted upon. In the above example “the heap of straw” is patient.
C) Short types answers:- 3 marks each.
1) What are the general conditions of observation ?
Ans:- The three general conditions of observation are :-
a) Intellectual condition.
b) Physical condition.
c) Moral condition.
2) Plurality of causes is a misconception regarding the nature of cause – why ?
Ans:- Plurality of causes is a misconception because the doctrine of plurality of causes is inconsistent with the definition of cause as the invariable antecedent. According to this definition, the same effect can be produced by same cause. For example, the effect ‘death’ is produced by disease in one case and by suicide in another case. It means that death is sometimes produced by disease, sometimes by suicide, sometimes by old age etc. So, neither disease nor suicide can be said to be the invariable antecedent. So, plurality of causes is only the misconception about cause antecedent. So, plurality of causes is only the misconception about cause effect relation.
3) Define moving power and collocation with examples.
Ans:- The cause of event from the conservation of energy stand point is divided into two elements viz.,
a) Moving power,
Moving power is the force which moves or incites to action. Collocation means the arrangement of circumstances which is needed in order that the moving power can produce the changes. For example, if a glowing match stick is thrown into a heap of straw, there is a fire. Here, the ‘glowing match stick’ is moving power and ‘heap of straw’ is collocation. The effect ‘fire’ is produced by action of the moving power on the collocation.
4) What do you mean by conjunction of causes ? Explain with example.
Ans:- The acting together of several causes, producing a joint effect is called conjunction of causes.
For example :-
Hydrogen and oxygen are mixed together in certain proportion and electric current passed, the joint effect is water. So, several causes acting together, produce a joint effect is called conjunction of causes.
5) Mention three advantages of observation over experiment.
Ans:- The three advantages of observation over experiment are :-
i) Firstly , observation can be applied universally and has a wider scope then experiment. There are certain phenomenon which can not be artificially reproduced . They are beyond our control. e.g. eclipse or earthquake. Again, there are certain phenomenon which are too dangerous to experiment with. In such cases, we have to fall back on observation and wait until the phenomenon makes its appearance in the ordinary course of nature. Thus the range of observation is wider than that of Experiment.
ii) Observation enables us to reason from the effect to the Cause as well as from the cause to the effect but Experiment only enables us to proceed from the cause to the effect and not backwards from the effect to the cuase. Suppose we want to find a dead rabit and want to find out the cause of its death. We can not, by experiment, get at the cause. Here, we must first conjecture a cause and then make an experiment. In this way we are proceeding from the supposed cause to its effect.
iii) Observation preceeds Experiment. Experiment is possible only when some knowledge already has been acquired by observation. But by previous observation unless we know what we are to expect, adequate preparation are not possible.
6) Mention three advantages of experiment over observation.
The three advantages of experiment over observation are :-
i) Experiment enables us to multiply our instances indefinitely.
If one Experiment does not enable us to observe the phenomenon under investigation satisfactorily, we may try again and again. But in observation we wait for opportunties.
ii) Experiment often enables us to isolate the phenomenon we are studying.
In experiment, it is possible to remove the phenomenon under investigation from the influence of all agents except that the influence of which we desire to observe. But in observation, nature presents a phenomenon in complex surroundings
iii) Experiment enables us to vary the surrounding circumstances indefinitely.
In Experiment we examine different sets of circumstances under which the phenomenon under investigation occurs. But in observation, we have to depend on the bounty of nature for the supply of a suitable variety of instances.
7) Find out two points of difference between the fallacy of non – observation and mal – observation ?
Ans:- Both non – observation and mal – observation are two kinds of the fallacies of observation, yet they have some differences.
Two main points of difference are :-
a) In non – observation we overlook something which ought to have bean observed. While in mal – observation by mistake we perceive a thing not as it is but as it appears.
b) In non – observation, the essential instances and circumstances of an event are neglected by us and thus we commit the error. In non – observation, thing is overlooked altogether. In mal – observation we have wrong interpretation of sense perception. Nothing is neglected by us. Only we see the thing wrongly.
8) Is simple observation completely passive experience ? Explain.
Ans:- It is wrong to suppose that event in observation is absolutely passive. Observation is not a mere passive reception of facts as they occur but is guided by a definite plan or purpose. Observation is selective. We observe those facts which are relevant to our enquiry and reject other facts which are unconnected with the phenomenon under investigation. This selection and rejection require mental activity. Hence even observation there is an element of activity. So, it is not passive experience.
9) Why are the observation and experiment called the material grounds of induction ?
Ans:- Induction establishes general propositions on the examination of particular instances and these particular instances which constitute the materials of induction are supplied by observation and Experiment. Thus, we conclude that “All men are mortal”. The instances of death of particular persons from which the general proposition is established are supplied by observation. Again, in certain cases, Experiment supplies the materials. For example, we take a certain quantity of Hydrogen and Oxygen and by using electric current, we get water. From this the general proposition “in all cases, water is composed of Hydrogen and Oxygen” – is established by induction. So, both observation and Experiment supply the materials of induction generalisation. Thus it is said that, Observation and Experiment is a material grounds of induction.
10) What are the different kinds of fallacies of observation ? Define each of them with example.
Ans:- There are two different kinds of fallacies of observation.
They are :-
a) Non – observation and
b) Mal – observation.
Non observation is the fallacy of overlooking something which ought to have been observed. For example – in certain instances where dreams dreamt during the small hours of the morning were fulfilled and conclude that they always come true. Non observation is of two kinds.
i) Non observation of instances.
ii) Non observation of essential circumstances.
Mal observation is the fallacy arising out of the wrong interpretation of sense perception. For example – in the dark night we mistake a rope for a snake.
|Chapter 1||Nature of Inductive Enquiry Various Kinds of Induction|
|Chapter 2||Grounds of Induction|
|Chapter 4||Mill’s Method of Experimental Enquiry|
|Chapter 5||Realism – Naive Realism & Scientific Realism|
|Chapter 7||Ethics & Purusarthas|
11) What do you mean by fallacy of post hoc ergo Propter hoc ? Give an example.
Ans:- Only invariable antecedent can be the cause of the effect. If we regard any antecedent of an effect as its cause, then we commit the fallacy of post hoc ergo Propter hoc.
For example, a doctor enters in the hospital and the patient dies. So, if the entrance of doctor is regarded as the cause of the death of the patient, then it would involve the fallacy of post hoc ergo Propter hoc.
12) Distinguish between the formal ground and material ground of induction.
Ans:- The laws which guarantee the formal truth of induction are called formal grounds of induction. The law of Uniformity of Nature and the causation are formal grounds of induction.
The process which guarantee the material truth of induction are called material grounds of induction. Observation and experiment are material grounds of induction.
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