# Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 4 Mill’s Method of Experimental Enquiry

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## Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 4 Mill’s Method of Experimental Enquiry

Also, you can read SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 4 Mill’s Method of Experimental Enquiry Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

### Mill’s Method of Experimental Enquiry

Unit-4

A) Very short type answers :- 1 marks each.

1) How many experimental methods are recognised by Mill ?

Ans:- Five.

2) What according to Mill are the fundamental methods of induction ?

Ans:- The Method of Agreement and the Method of Difference.

3) What is the aim of Mill’s Inductive Methods ?

Ans:- The aim of Mill’s Inductive Method is to establish a general real proposition.

4) What is meant by the canon of elimination ?

Ans:- The aim of science is to discover and find out a causal connection between two facts. Qualitatively, a cause is the immediate, unconditional, invariable, antecedent of the effect and quantitatively a cause is equal to the effect. The canons of elimination are based on this relationship between cause and effect.

5) How many instances are required to apply the Method of Agreement ?

Ans:- Many instances.

6) How many instances are required to apply the method of Difference ?

Ans:- Two instances are required for the method of Difference.

7) What is the meaning of the fallacy of ‘post hoc ergo propter hoc’ ?

Ans:- The cause is an antecedent. But any and every antecedent is not the cause. To mistake any and every antecedent as the cause of an even is to commit the fallacy of post hoc ergo Propter hoc.

8) ‘The conclusion of the Method of Agreement is certain’ – It is true ?

Ans:- No, it is not certain.

9) ‘The conclusion of the Method of Difference is certain’ – Do you agree ?

Ans:- Yes.

10) The Method of concomitant variation is specially applicable in permanent cause or temporary case ?

Ans:- Permanent cause.

11) The Joint Method of Agreement and Difference requires of instances.

Ans:- Two sets.

12) Careless use of the Method of – leads to the fallacy of post hoc ergo Propter hoc.

Ans:- Difference.

13) The Method of Agreement is liable to be vitiated by the possibility of –

Ans:- Plurality of causes.

14) Name the fallacy which sometimes vitiated the Method of Difference when employed as a method of observation.

And:- The fallacy of ‘post hoc ergo Propter hoc’.

15) “The Method of Agreement is pre – eminently a Method of Observation” – Is it true ?

Ans:- Yes, it is true .

16) “The Method of Difference is pre – eminently a method of ……………………………….

Ans:- Experiment.

17) The Method of Agreement is able/is not able to distinguish causation from co – existence.

Ans:- The Method of Agreement is not able to distinguish causation from co – existence.

18) “As heat increases, the mercury in the thermometer expands in volume. Therefore, heat is the cause of expansion of mercury” – Name the experimental Method by which the above conclusion has been made.

Ans:- The Method of Concomitant Variation.

B) Short types answer :- 2 marks each.

1) What are the different kinds of induction method according to Mill ? Write the names of these methods ?

Ans:- There are five experimental methods of induction, as recognised by J. S. Mill. They are as follows :-

i) The Method of Agreement.

ii) The Method of Difference.

iii) The Method of Agreement and Difference.

iv) The Method of Concomitant Variation.

v) The Method of Residues.

2) Write the canon of the Method of Agreement.

Ans:- The Method of Agreement is based on the following canon of Elimination :-

“Whatever antecedent can be left out without prejudice to the effect can be no part of the cause.”

3) On the basis of what fundamental principle of Elimination the method of Difference is formulated ?

Ans:- “When an antecedent can not be left out without the consequent disappearing, such antecedent must be the cause or a part of the cause.”

4) What are the materials needed to apply the method of Difference ?

Ans:- Ajar filled with air, a vacuum jar and a bell are the materials needed to apply the method of Difference.

5) What is the special feature of the method of Concomitant Variation ?

Ans:- The method of Concomitant variation is applicable to those cases where complete elimination is not possible.

Again, in order to determine, the casual connection by quantitative variation, only this method is of great use.

6) Why the conclusion of the method of Agreement is not certain ?

Ans:- The conclusion of the method of Agreement is not certain because this method is essentially a method of observation. The sort of instances which it requires can be supplied by observation. So, this method suggest a causal connection but cannot prove it. Thus the conclusion of the method of Agreement gives us probable conclusion.

7) On which canon of Elimination the Method of Resides is based ?

Ans:- The Method of Resides is based on the following canon of Elimination :-

“Nothing is the cause of a phenomenon which is known to be the cause of a different phenomenon.”

8) ‘The method of Agreement is essentially a method of observation’ – why ?

Ans:- The method of Agreement is essentially a method of observation because it is applied to those cases where our control over the phenomenon under investigation is so limited that Experiments are not possible. Any instance in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs may be examined for the purpose of this method.

9) Give an example of the method of Concomitant variation.

Ans:- As Heat increases, the murcury in the thermometer expands in volume. So, we conclude that Heat is the cause of expansion of Mercury.

10) “The conclusion of the Joint Method is highly probable” – why ?

Ans:- The possibility of the causal connection between two events which is detected by the Method of Agreement is confirmed by the Joint Method of Agreement and Difference. But the conclusion found in this method always remain uncertain. Because it is basically a method of observation. Still it is more reliable method than the Method of Agreement and certainly an improvement upon the Method of Agreement. Thus, we can say that the conclusion of the Joint Method of Agreement and Difference is highly probable.

11) Mention the principle of elimination which forms the basis of the Method of Agreement.

Ans:- The principle of elimination which forms the basis of the Method of Agreement is – “Whatever antecedent can be left out without prejudice to the effect can be no part of the cause.”

12) Define Method of Elimination.

Ans:- Method of Elimination is the exclusion of irrelevant factors in order that a causal connection may be discovered and proved.

13) Why are the Inductive Methods called Method of Elimination ?

Ans:- Elimination means the exclusion of accidental circumstances. The function of Inductive Methods is purely negative. They are concerned merely with the exclusion of accidental and irrelevant circumstances. To prove a causal connection, accidental circumstances are eliminated in order that accidental circumstances may be brought out and determined. So, the Inductive Methods are called Method of Elimination.

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