# Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 4 Mill’s Method of Experimental Enquiry

Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 4 Mill’s Method of Experimental Enquiry The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapter Assam Board Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 4 Mill’s Method of Experimental Enquiry and select needs one.

#### Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 4 Mill’s Method of Experimental Enquiry

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E) Long type answers :- 5 marks each.

1) Explain with illustration the Method of Agreement.

Ans:- According to the Method of Agreement, “If two or more instances of the phenomenon under investigation have only one circumstance in common, the circumstance in which alone all the instances agree is the cause (or the effect) of the given phenomenon.” From this principle, it follows that if some circumstance be always present, when the given phenomenon is present, there is causal connection between them. Suppose we want to find out the cause of Malarial fever. We collect several instances where it occurs and find on observation, that every one of these cases is preceded by the bite of anopheles mosquitoes, while other circumstances are different. Hence the common antecedent viz. the bite of anopheles, is the cause of malarial fever.

This method has been called by Mill, ” the Method of Agreement”, because “this method proceed by comparing different instances to ascertain in which they agree.” The Method of Agreement is pre – eminently a method of observation, as distinguished from Experiment. This description dose not mean that the Method of Agreement is limited to simple observation and can not be applied to cases where Experiments are possible. Experiment does not exclude observation is certainly possible. So, that Method of Agreement does not require instances of any special and definite character. Any instance in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs may be examined for the purpose of this method. So, observation can supply its instances.

2) Explain and illustrate the Method of Difference.

Ans:- According to Mill, “if an instance in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and an instance in which it dose not occur, have every circumstance in common save one, that one occuring only in the former, the circumstance in which alone the two instances differ is the effect, or the cause, or an indispensable part of the cause, of the phenomenon.” The Method of Difference is based on the principle that whatever can not be eliminated without interfering with the phenomenon under investigation must be causally connected with the later. If a circumstance be left out and the phenomenon under investigation disappears, everything else being the same, there must be causal connection between the two. For example – If a bell is rung in a jar filled with air, the sound of the bell is heard , but if the same bell is rung in a jar from which the air has been pumped out, no sound is heard. Other circumstances remain the same. So, the presence of air is an indispensable part of the cause of sound.

3) Write three advantages and two disadvantages of the Method of Difference.

Ans:- As the scope of observation is wider than that of Experiment, so the Method of Agreement can be applied to all the various fields of investigation. Again, as by observation we can find the cause of any effect as well as can find the effect of any given cause. So, the Method of Agreement is applicable to the discovery and proof of the causal connection in both directions, from the cause to the effect as well as from the effect to the cause. Hence the Method of Agreement is superior to other methods.

Demerits of the Method of Difference :-

i) The Method of Difference can not be directly applied to reasoning from effect to cause. In experiment, we can proceed from cause to effect, but can not go backward from effect to cause. The effects are not within our control. As the Method of Difference is essentially a Method of Experiment so also the Method can not be directly applied to reasoning from effect to cause.

ii) The Method of Difference does not enable us to deal completely with the plurality of causes. The Method of Difference can only prove that a particular antecedent is the cause in a given case but can not prove that it is the only cause.

iii) The Method of Difference does not enable us to distinguish a cause from a condition. The introduction of a new element is not necessarily the sole cause of any change which may happen.

4) Explain and illustrate the Method of Residues. Is this method a special modification of the Method of Difference ?

Ans:- According to Mill, “Subduct from any given phenomenon such part as is known by previous induction to be the effect of certain antecedents, and the residues of the phenomenon is the effect of the remaining antecedents.” For example – we weigh a loaded cart and note the weight. We already know the weight of the cart alone. By subtracting the weight of the cart from the total weight of the loaded cart, we conclude that the difference is the weight of the load. This method is based on the principle that what is the cause of one thing can not be the cause of a different thing. When we are dealing with a complex set of phenomenon, and we already know the cause of some of them, we conclude that the cause of the remainder or residual phenomenon is to be  found among the remaining antecedents.

The Method of Residues is a special modification of the Method of Difference. Because, the principle underlying both these methods is the same viz., if there are two instances which differ only in one circumstance which is present in one instance, and absent in the other, then the circumstance in which alone the two groups of antecedents differ, is the cause of the other circumstance in which alone the two groups of consequenes differ. The difference between the two methods is that, in the Method of Difference, the instance in which the circumstance does not occur is supplied by Experiment, whereas in the Method of Residues, that instance is supplied by deduction from previous inductions.

5) State two advantages and two disadvantages of the Method of Agreement. How are the disadvantages remedied ?

Ans:- The two advantage of Method of Agreement are :-

i) The range of observation is wider than that of Experiment.

ii) The Method of Agreement is applicable to the discovery and proof of the causal connection in both directions.

The two disadvantage of the Method of Agreement are :-

i) Characteristic Imperfection :- The method of agreement is liable to the frustrated by the plurality of causes.

ii) Practical Imperfection :- In the Method of Agreement, it is impossible to assure ourselves that we know all the antecedents.

The disadvantages can be remedied in the below mentioned ways :-

i) One remedy of the failure of the Method of Agreement due to the plurality of causes is the Multiplication of instances. If we take a large number of instance and find that one circumstance is present in all of them, our conclusion becomes highly probable. Again, the application of the joint Method helps us in overcoming the difficulties of Plurality of causes.

ii) The problem of Practical Imperfection can be overcome only to some extent by the multiplication of instances. If we take large number of instances into account, the chances of overcoming the difficulty will be high. But this difficulty can not be wholly overcome.

6) What do you mean by the Method of Experimental Enquiry ? State three canons of Elimination involved in these methods.

Ans:- The Method of Experimental Enquiry solves the problem of determining causal connection. It is not easy task to establish cause – effect relation as the natural phenomenon are intermixed in a very complex manner. So, to migrate this problem, Mill formulated the Experimental Methods.

The three canons of Elimination are :-

i) “Whatever antecedent can be left out, without prejudice to the effect, can be no part of the cause”.

ii) “When an antecedent can not be left out, without the consequent disappearing, such antecedent must be the cause or a part of the cause”.

iii) “An Antecedent and a consequent rising and falling together in numerical concomitance are to be held as cause and effect”.

7) Give a concrete example of the Joint Method of Agreement and Difference. Why this method is called the Method of Double Agreement ?

Ans:- A concrete example of the Joint Method of Agreement and Difference :-

Malaria is present in the places where there are anopheles mosquitoes. Again, in the places where there are no anopheles mosquitoes, malaria is absent. Therefore, on the basis of this observation we can conclude that anopheles mosquito is the cause of malaria.

In the Joint Method of Agreement and Difference we find “agreement of presence” of the positive instances and “agreement of absence” of the negative instances. By this double method of agreement of absence and presence, cause – effect relation is established. Therefore, this method is called “The Method of Double Agreement”.

8) What do you mean by the method of residue ? Is the Method of Residues Deductive ?

Ans:- Subduct from any given phenomenon such part as is, known by previous induction to be the effect of certain antecedents and the residue of the phenomenon is the effect of the remaining antecedents. This is called the method of residue.

In all that observation does, is to show that certain antecedents are followed by certain consequents . Then begins the process of calculation or deduction. We calculate the effects of known causes and subtract this calculated effect from the total effect. In this way the residual consequent is found to be the effect of the residual antecedent. Direct experience plays a comparatively unimportant part while calculation or deduction figures largely. So, the Method of Residues has been regarded as essentially a Method of Deduction.

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